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  • saurabhjain

    Calling Mechanical Engineers to collaborate on Twitter

    By saurabhjain

    If you are a mechanical engineering professional and have a twitter account .. we invite you in our mechanical engineering  campaign to collaborate on twitter.. Retweet the following status on Look forward for your presence. Regards Mechanical Engineeirng forum
  • DrD

    #20 -- A Question of Stability (Revised)

    By DrD

    Mechanics Corner
        A Journal of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics by DrD, #20
        © Machinery Dynamics Research, 2015
    A Question of Stability Introduction     The word stability in its several forms is widely used in nontechnical communication. A person whose life it highly consistent from day to day is said to have a stable life. When the political situation in a particular area appears to be unlikely to change, it is said to be stable. A person who is well balanced and unlikely to be easily provoked to anger is said to be a stable person. When the medical condition of a sick or injured person ceases to get worse, the person is said to be stabilized. A company on the verge of bankruptcy is said to be an unstable company. But what does the word stability mean in a technical context? Each of the foregoing examples hints at the technical meaning without really being explicit about it.   A factor g = accel of gravity was missing in the potential energy expression. That is now corrected.
  • DrD

    A Question for Readers

    By DrD

    Many of you have asked me various questions, so now it is my turn. Let me lay a bit of background first, and then the questions.   I have had some conversations recently with JAG (one of the other writers here at ME Forums) regarding the choice of software for 3D modeling and analysis. JAG has made some excellent suggestions, specifically a cloud based program called Onshape. Unfortunately, for reasons that are unclear, my computer cannot run Onshape; I have worked with their help people for several hours, all to no avail. JAG recommends this in part because there is a "free version for the hobbyist" and a relatively inexpensive "full version for the professional." That is pretty attractive, but since I can't run it, I'm stuck.   I gather that virtually all engineering colleges these days are teaching some sort of 3D modeling and analysis software, but that raises a few questions in my mind. 1. If your college teaches brandX 3D software, what will you do when you go to work for a small company that cannot afford anything more than 2D drafting (simple CAD), with no analysis capability at all? How will you do your job then? You probably have your own pocket calculator, but will you have your own copy of ANSYS or Pro-E? 2. What software does your school teach (every students should have an answer to this question, so I expect lots of replies on this one!)? 3. If you have used software extensively for analysis of engineering problems (beam deflections, stress analysis, fluid flow, heat transfer, etc), are you confident  that you will be able to work all of those problems if there is no such software available to you on the job?   I might add, as sort of a postscript, most of you know that I am older than dirt (I just had another birthday, so the situation is even worse!), so I tend to look at things from an elderly perspective. One of my great fears as a working engineer was "What will happen when I'm ask to do something that I don't know how to do?" It happened more than once, and it usually resulted in a flurry of intense research to come up to speed on whatever topic was involved. I could usually do that because I have a pretty good library, and I knew how to use a university library as well. But in terms of software, I was always concerned that I had no FEA program, so how could I do problems that others were doing by FEA? I have come up with some interesting work-arounds, including writing my own FEA for some problems, but I never wanted to be dependent on software that I could not afford to own. So, back to my questions about: How are you going to buy your own copy of ANSYS? DrD

Our community blogs

  1. good morning
    Someone could tell me what the name of this mechanism or how can I find a way to design it.
    It is a shaft that moves in a straight line vertically and along the way makes a 180 ° worst shaft never leaves his line of action .
    these links you can see the operation of the mechanism 



    Thank you

    Imagenes del giro.docx





    Mechanics Corner
        A Journal of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics by DrD, # 31
          Machinery Dynamics Research, 2016

    ODE Solution --- Fail!!



        Digital computation has become a major tool for engineers, and it is a great benefit. It can also lead to many pitfalls for the unwary. This note is about the latter, a potential pitfall that many engineers risk on a daily basis, most of them with little awareness of the danger.
        Early in the development of digital computation, every problem required that the user write a program specific to the problem at hand. If speed was a very important issue, the programs were written in machine language, so that they would execute as fast as possible. If speed was a little less critical, programs were written in so-called "high level languages." This included FORTRAN, BASIC, ALGOL, C, C++, and a host of other such names. But even with a high level language, there was the problem of generating a program for the solution of the specific problem at hand.
        As things have continued to evolve, it was soon evident that a lot of the work in writing each program was the same from one problem to the next. The major mathematical operations, such things as numerical integration, matrix operations and the solution of systems of linear equations, plotting, and many other steps were re-usable from one problem to the next. It was natural that this would eventually lead to the development of general purpose programs, able to solve broad classes of problems. This group includes programs like Mathematica, Maple, MatLab, SciLab, Maxima, TKSolver, and numerous others. Most of those just mentioned have built-in capability to solve ordinary differential equations, in some cases by analytical means, and in practically all cases, by numerical means. This has taken the sting out of working with differential equations
    from many engineering problems, and we must all be grateful for that.
        At the same time, we must also be somewhat skeptical about any general purpose solver when applied to a particular problem. How do we know that the solution generated is correct? How do we even know if it is reasonable? Most of the time, when engineers resort to numerical solutions, it is because there is no readily available analytical solution. Thus, when faced with a problem that cannot be solved in closed form, how can we know when to trust the numerical solution? This is a very serious question, one that all must consider. It you blindly trust a numerical solution, the old excuse, "The computer said it was OK" will not get you very far. The computer cannot be fined, fired, or (in extreme cases) possibly sent to prison, but all of these things can happen to an engineer!
        So, what can the engineer do when the differential equation has no known solution? Well, there are several options.
        (1) He can resort to any physical principles that apply to the situation. For example, if the system is such that energy should be conserved, then he can add code to calculate the total system energy at every instant. Just verifying that energy is conserved does not "prove" that the solution is correct, but if energy is not conserved when it should be, you can be sure there is an error in the solution.
        (2) He can try various approximations that may apply to see if they are in reasonable agreement with the computed solution.
        (3) He can verify the solution code by applying it to a similar problem for which there is a known solution. It is this last approach that I want to talk about in this post.


  3. I did not write the linked article. I should have since you will not learn this in school. When we finish 4 or more years of an ME education we are all wound up. We have been working at a pace which would kill us if tried it indefinitely. What shocked me when I entered industry was the trivia that engineers must be involved with. Perhaps like a soldier, you train to fight, but you don't do it 8-12/hr per day for 30 years. I don't know if the following article is accurate for small companies but it is for large corporations. I recall being bored and asked my supervisor for more work. He looked at me for a second or two then asked if I could make him a copy of some document. I said to him if this is what I get when I ask for more work I will eventually stop asking. My suggestion to young engineers is to keep in mind what one of my ME professors told us. “The best thing you can do is to get a job that keeps you as busy as I did.” I don't know if that is possible but I would keep that in mind. The article suggests too much complacency in my opinion. I think you need to know what is coming but don’t settle for making copies.


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    Hi guys, can someone here help me to understand this better, explain in a teoretical way to understand Chvorinov's Rule and Bernoulli`s equation?

    Not just in a simple way, but deeper, can someone here do that, or knows how?


    Thanks in advance!!!!

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    Robotics brings together several very different engineering areas and skills. There are various types of robot such as humanoid robot, mobile robots, remotely operated vehicles, modern autonomous robots etc. This survey paper advocates the operation of a robotic car (remotely operated vehicle) that is controlled by a mobile phone (communicate on a large scale over a large distance even from different cities). The person makes a call to the mobile phone placed in the car. In the case of a call, if any one of the button is pressed, a tone equivalent to the button pressed is heard at the other end of the call. This tone is known as DTMF (Dual Tone Multiple Frequency). The car recognizes this DTMF tone with the help of the phone stacked in the car. The received tone is processed by the Arduino microcontroller. The microcontroller is programmed to acquire a decision for any given input and outputs its decision to motor drivers in order to drive the motors in the forward direction or backward direction or left or right direction. The mobile phone that makes a call to cell phone stacked in the car act as a remote.

    27_Shahul Gasnikhal__Economical Robotic Vacuum cleaner.pdf


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    3D printing technology is attracting every science and technology enthusiast whether it is a mechanical, civil, architecture, electrical, manufacturing or medical application. Everybody is interested in creating models, prototype using 3D printing technology. It’s not a technology but a 3D printing evolution. The pace at which this industry is growing and the novelty that 3D printing has introduced, it is predicted that additive manufacturing will affect almost all the fields of daily life including trade and commerce in near future.




    Checkout these Affordable & High Performance 3d Kits From Stuffmaker

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    Dileep Duvvuri
    Latest Entry

    all mechanical engineers blog

  4. Mechanical Engineering Interview Questions and answers for freshers on design, safety and maintenance.

    1) What is an accident ?
    An accident is a unexpected and unforeseen event which may or may not injury to a person or a machine tool.

    2) What are the standard sizes of drawing board as per Indian Standards?

    As per Indian Standards :1250×900,900×650,650×500,500×350,350×250 sizes are available.

    3) What are the functions of a scale ?

    (a) To measure distance accurately.
    (b) For making drawing to scale either in full size, reduced size or enlarged size.

    4) What is a sketching ?

    This is freehand expression of the graphic language.

    5) What do you mean by First Aid ?

    First Aid is immediate and temporary care given to a person who affected accidental injury or a sudden illness before the arrival of doctor.

    6) What is a Drawing ?

    It is a graphical representation of a real thing to define and specify the shape and size of a particular object by means of lines.

    7) What is Engineering Drawing ?

    A drawing which is worked out an engineer for the engineering purpose is known as Engineering Drawing.

    8)  What are the methods of extinguishing fire ?

    1) Starvation. Separating or removing the burning material from the neighbour hood of the fire.
    2) Blanketing. Preventing the air flow to the fire.
    3) Cooling. Lowering the heat created by burning materials.

    9)  What are the precautions to be taken to avoid fire ?

    1) The buckets along with sand should be placed inside the workshop.
    2) Switches and other electrical parts must be made of fireproof material.
    3) Carbon dioxide gas should be place at required points in special containers.
    4) Fire extinguishers of suitable type should be placed at accessible places.\

    10) What safety precautions should be observed while working in the workshop ?

    1) Keep shop floor clean, free from oil and other slippery materials.
    2) Wear proper dress and avoid loose clothing and loose hair.
    3) Wear shoes and avoid chapels.
    4) Avoid playing, loose talk and funning inside the shop floor.
    5) Keep good housekeeping and put all unnecessary items and rejected items in scrap box.
    6) Learn everything about the machine before starting and clear all the doubts.
    7) Keep a safe distance from rotating and sliding parts.
    8) Never store inflammable materials inside or around the shop.
    9) Never play with electricity, fire, parts with sharp edge etc.
    10) Keep fire buckets and extinguishers ready for use.

  5. With so much scientific tools, why do designs fail?

    Why the unsinkable Titanic sank? Why did the thoroughly tested Columbia space shuttle burned out on return? Why Toyota had to call back thousands of cars designed by expert engineers?

    Design might fails because somebody made a stupid mistake in his calculations, like in the old joke about the bridge that fell down because the engineer forgot to multiply by two. It might happen, but it is extremely rare. Most design failures happen because one specific mode of failure was never checked against, because it was never identified as risky.

    The sad truth is that we cannot design anything to work. We can only try to find out if a certain design might fail in a certain specific way. This is one reason why we cannot send computers to design things. They are excellent in optimizations, when we tell them what parameter to optimize and for what mode of failure.

    The Tacoma narrows bridge collapsed in 1940 because nobody thought that wind might arouse resonant vibrations in the bridge. It was OK for what it was designed for: for static loads. No computer would have suggested another mode of failure.

    The Titanic sank because nobody asked what happens if the ship scratch its side on an iceberg. Had it been thought, maybe the designers would have ordered that it would be better to throw the engines to full back and bump into the iceberg head on! It would have been damaged badly, but it would not sink.

    If only the designers of the Columbia would have only thought of the possibility of losing their thermal shield bricks on launch, the Columbia would have still be in service today. For a fact, once they identified the problem, they had no big difficulty to fix it.

    The philosopher of science, Karl Popper, said that in order to be scientific a claim must be "falsifiable". Moreover, he suggested that a claim cannot be proved by repeating experiments with positive results. No matter how many times it passes a test, there is always a chance that one more test will prove it wrong. To prove a theory requires infinite number of successful tests. One failure is enough to disprove it.

    So it is in our world of design. The failures described, all have shown that these designs were not perfect. They had errors embedded in them. And these errors are all the result of not being able to foresee the single mode of failure that could go wrong. No scientific calculation can help against an unidentified mode of failure.

    What is the lesson to be learned? Be paranoid! Always look around searching for the mode of failure you might have missed.

    I like to call rules by names. The name I gave this rule is "the law of the wild west".

    It goes as follows:

    The guy who kills you will be the one hiding behind the bush, that you failed to notice

    titanic sinking.jpg

  6. Why is BHINGHAM PLASTIC not a fluid?

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    What  is the significance of RMS (root mean square speed) in mechanical engineering?(in application point of view)

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    these are logos of the most famous factories of cars in the world.



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    What will happen if we condense the exhaust gas of coal gasification after passing through the gas Generator and then feed it to water treatment plant and then drain that water to the ground or reuse it. Can this be possible? No exhaust gas or reduced exhaust gas issue to environment.

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    Hello friends,

    If any body have JIS standard please share.

    I need JIS standard for Forging, Machining,Casting,Sheetmetal, Plastic & rubber.

  7. What is the basic difference between Shaft and axle in automobile..?

    looking for some valid and good answer. Hope you can do this.

  8. Crystalline semiconductors such as silicon can catch photons and convert their energy into electron flows. New research shows that a little stretching could give one of silicon's lesser-known cousins its own place in the sun.

    Nature loves crystals. Salt, snowflakes and quartz are three examples of crystals – materials characterized by the lattice-like arrangement of their atoms and molecules.

    Industry loves crystals, too. Electronics are based on a special family of crystals known as semiconductors, most famously silicon.

    To make semiconductors useful, engineers must tweak their crystalline lattice in subtle ways to start and stop the flow of electrons.

    Semiconductor engineers must know precisely how much energy it takes to move electrons in a crystal lattice.

    This energy measure is the band gap. Semiconductor materials such as silicon, gallium arsenide and germanium each have a band gap unique to their crystalline lattice. This energy measure helps determine which material is best for which electronic task.

    Now an interdisciplinary team at Stanford has made a semiconductor crystal with a variable band gap. Among other potential uses, this variable semiconductor could lead to solar cells that absorb more energy from the sun by being sensitive to a broader spectrum of light.


    A colorized image, enlarged 100,000 times, shows an ultrathin layer of molybdenum disulfide stretched over the peaks and valleys of part of an electronic device. Just 3 atoms thick, this semiconductor material is stretched in ways to enhance its electronic potential to catch solar energy.

    The material itself is not new. Molybdenum disulfide, or MoS2, is a rocky crystal, like quartz, that is refined for use as a catalyst and a lubricant.

    But in Nature Communications, Stanford mechanical engineer Xiaolin Zheng and physicist Hari Manoharan proved that MoS2 has some useful and unique electronic properties that derive from how this crystal forms its lattice.

    Molybdenum disulfide is what scientists call a monolayer: A molybdenum atom links to two sulfurs in a triangular lattice that repeats sideways like a sheet of paper. The rock found in nature consists of many such monolayers stacked like a ream of paper. Each MoS2 monolayer has semiconductor potential.

    "From a mechanical engineering standpoint, monolayer MoS2 is fascinating because its lattice can be greatly stretched without breaking," said Zheng, an associate professor.

    By stretching the lattice, the Stanford researchers were able to shift the atoms in the monolayer. Those shifts changed the energy required to move electrons. Stretching the monolayer made MoS2 something new to science and potentially useful in electronics: an artificial crystal with a variable band gap.

    "With a single, atomically thin semiconductor material we can get a wide range of band gaps," Manoharan said. "We think this will have broad ramifications in sensing, solar power and other electronics."

    Scientists have been fascinated with monolayers since the Nobel Prize-winning discovery of graphene, a lattice made from a single layer of carbon atoms laid flat like a sheet of paper.

    In 2012, nuclear and materials scientists at Massachusetts Institute of Technology devised a theory that involved the semiconductor potential of monolayer MoS2. With any semiconductor, engineers must tweak its lattice in some way to switch electron flows on and off. With silicon, the tweak involves introducing slight chemical impurities into the lattice.

    In their simulation, the MIT researchers tweaked MoS2 by stretching its lattice. Using virtual pins, they poked a monolayer to create nanoscopic funnels, stretching the lattice and, theoretically, altering MoS2's band gap.

    Band gap measures how much energy it takes to move an electron. The simulation suggested the funnel would strain the lattice the most at the point of the pin, creating a variety of band gaps from the bottom to the top of the monolayer.

    The MIT researchers theorized that the funnel would be a great solar energy collector, capturing more sunlight across a wide swath of energy frequencies.

    When Stanford postdoctoral scholar Hong Li joined the Department of Mechanical Engineering in 2013, he brought this idea to Zheng. She led the Stanford team that ended up proving all of this by literally standing the MIT theory on its head.

    Instead of poking down with imaginary pins, the Stanford team stretched the MoS2 lattice by thrusting up from below. They did this – for real rather than in simulation – by creating an artificial landscape of hills and valleys underneath the monolayer.

    They created this artificial landscape on a silicon chip, a material they chose not for its electronic properties, but because engineers know how to sculpt it in exquisite detail. They etched hills and valleys onto the silicon. Then they bathed their nanoscape with an industrial fluid and laid a monolayer of MoS2 on top.

    Evaporation did the rest, pulling the semiconductor lattice down into the valleys and stretching it over the hills.

    Alex Contryman, a PhD student in applied physics in Manoharan's lab, used scanning tunneling microscopy to determine the positions of the atoms in this artificial crystal. He also measured the variable band gap that resulted from straining the lattice this way.

    The MIT theorists and specialists from Rice University and Texas A&M University contributed to the Nature Communications paper.

    Team members believe this experiment sets the stage for further innovation on artificial crystals.

    "One of the most exciting things about our process is that is scalable," Zheng said. "From an industrial standpoint, MoS2 is cheap to make."

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    Atomic Number : 13

    Density (20oC) : 2.70 g/cm3

    Atomic Weight : 26.98

    Melting point : 660o C

    Boiling point : 2467o C


    Aluminum finds use as a deoxidizer, grain refiner, nitride former and alloying agent in steels. Its ability to scavenge nitrogen led to its widespread use in drawing quality steels, especially for automotive applications. Since aluminum is so often added to high quality steels.

    Metallic aluminum is the most common addition agent. It is sold in the form of notch bars, or stick, and as shot, cones, small ingots, chopped wire, “hockey pucks”, briquettes and other convenient forms such as coiled machine fed wire. These standard products are supplied in bulk or packaged in bags or drums. Purity for deoxidation grades is usually over 95%, the major tramp elements being zinc, tin, copper, magnesium, lead and manganese. Coiled aluminum wire is normally made to 99% minimum specification.
    Ferroaluminum, a dense and highly efficient aluminum addition, contains 30-40% Al. It is supplied in lump form, 8 in. x 4 in., 5 in. x 2 in., 5 in. x D, and 2 in. x D, and nominal 12 lb. and 25 lb. pigs, packed in drums and pallet boxes.

    Aluminum has a weak effect on hardenability (it is never added for this purpose) and, because of its grain refining properties, actually detracts from deep hardening. Heat treatable steels made to fine grain practice require slightly extra alloying to counteract this phenomenon. Aluminum is, however, a ferrite former and promotes graphitization during long-term holding at elevated temperatures. It also enhances creep, probably because of its grain refining property. Aluminum, therefore, should not be used in Cr-Mo or Cr-Mo-V steels specified for boiler or high temperature pressure vessel applications. Perversely, aluminum is otherwise beneficial to such materials since it reduces scaling through the formation of a more tightly adhering oxide film, particularly if chromium is present as well.


    Beyond its important functions in deoxidation and grain size control, aluminum has several applications as an alloying agent. Nitriding steels, such as the Nitralloy family, contain up to 1.5% Al to produce a case with hardness as high as 1100 VHN (70 RC). The outer layer of this case must, however, be removed by grinding to prevent spalling in service. The oxidation (scaling) resistance imparted by aluminum is exploited in some stainless steels and various high temperature alloys. Precipitation hardening stainless steels (17/7 PH, 15/7 PH, etc.) make use of aluminum’s ability to form strength-inducing particles of intermetallic compounds. Aluminum is found in many superalloys for the same reason.

    Aluminum combines very readily with nitrogen, and this effect has important commercial uses. Aluminum killed deep drawing steels will be nonaging since AlN is extremely stable. Such steels will not exhibit stretcher strains (Lüder’s lines) or a yield point, even after prolonged holding after cold rolling. Aluminum is also added to nitriding steels for its ability to form an extremely hard case.

    Aluminum is an important addition to some HSLA steels, and AlN was the first nitride used to control grain size in normalised and heat treated steels. Again, Al removes nitrogen from solution and provides grain refinement. Both of these effects promote high toughness, especially at low temperatures.

    Mention should be made of the effect of aluminum on nonmetallic inclusions, since these will always be present in AK steel. Because aluminum is among the strongest deoxidizers known, it can combine with, and partially or totally reduce, any other oxides present in steel. The subject is quite complex and depends not only on aluminum, but also on oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, manganese, silicon, and calcium contents. For ordinary steels, however, the pattern is generally as follows: unkilled steels will contain oxides of iron, manganese and silicon, to the extent they are present. Steels deoxidized with silicon and aluminum will contain complex inclusions containing silica, alumina and manganese and iron oxides. As aluminum is increased, it gradually replaces silicon in the inclusions, and the principal inclusions in aluminum killed steels will be alumina and iron-manganese aluminates. Calcium-aluminum deoxidized steels will contain calcium aluminates, the composition and properties of which will depend on oxygen content (see Calcium). The residual Al
    2O3 in a ladle aluminum deoxidized steel will usually be in the range of 0.015-0.020%. This alumina range will be present regardless of the amount of aluminum used for deoxidation. It is assumed that the remaining alumina of iron aluminate is slagged off.

    Aluminum also has a profound effect on the structure of sulfide inclusions. The three basic types of sulfides present in steels have been designated as Type I (fine, randomly distributed spheroids, usually oxysulfides), Type II (intergranular chains which are most harmful to mechanical properties) and Type III (large, globular particles with complex, multiphase structures). Incomplete deoxidation with aluminum results in Type I inclusions; complete, but not excessive deoxidation produces Type II inclusions, while excessive aluminum addition leads to the formation of the Type III particles.

    High aluminum contents also promote the generation of interdendritic alumina galaxies, which can impair machinability. Aluminum is added in some stainless grades to improve machinability.

    Aluminum as alumina in calcium aluminate slags has found extensive use as slag conditioners at LMF stations. These are used to remove sulfur and inclusions, to lower costs of dolomitic lime, fluorspar, aluminum and calcium carbide additions, to protect the refractory lining, and to improve castability. Applications include both aluminum- and silicon-killed steels.

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  9. MRP and MRP2 are predecessors of ERP. An effective organization works with a unified database system. This post is intended to explain the need and benefits of such systems.


    I. Definition:

    " MRP II is an integrated information system that synchronize all aspects of the business."

    MRP II system co-ordinates:

    • Sales

    • Purchasing

    • Manufacturing

    • Finance and;

    • Engineering

      by adopting a focal production plan and by using one unified database to plan and update activities in all the systems.


    1. Divisions:

      MRP can be divided into three parts which are composed of:

    • Product Planning functions which take place at the top management level

    • Operations planning handled by staff units

    • Operations control functions conducted by manufacturing line and staff supervisors


      Checkpoints among the three divisions provide feedback regarding

    • adequacy of overall resources

    • completeness of resource commitments

    • quality of performance in carrying out the plans


    1. Advantages of MRP II:

    • MRP information systems helped managers determine the quantity and timing of raw materials purchases. Information systems that would assist managers with other parts of the manufacturing process, MRP II, followed.

    • While MRP was primarily concerned with materials, MRP II was concerned with the integration of all aspects of the manufacturing process, including materials, finance and human relations.

    • MRP is concerned primarily with manufacturing materials while MRP II is concerned with the coordination of the entire manufacturing production, including materials, finance, and human relations.

    • While MRP allows for the coordination of raw materials purchasing, MRP II facilitates the development of a detailed production schedule that accounts for machine and labor capacity, scheduling the production runs according to the arrival of materials.

    • MRP2.thumb.jpg.ab077408ec39e5e85a7fd4e4e


    1. It involves developing a production plan from a business plan to specify monthly levels of production for each product line over the next five years. (Long term planning)

    2. Production department is then expected to produce at the committed levels, sales dept to sell at these levels and finance department to assure adequate financial resources to built this product.

    3. Production plan guides the master schedule and gives the weekly quantities of specific products to be built.

    4. If capacity is not adequate, then the schedule or capacity is changed.

    5. Once settled, this MPS is then used in MRP to create material requirement and priority schedules for production.

    6. Then the CRP assures that capacity is available at scheduled time periods.

    7. Execution and control activities ensures that master schedule is met.


      Important terms and concepts:

    1. The forecasting function seeks to predict demands in the future. Long-range fore­casting is important to determining the capacity, tooling, and personnel requirements. Short-term forecasting converts a long-range forecast of part families to short-term fore­casts of individual end items.

    2. Resource planning is the process of determining capacity requirements over the long term. Decisions such as whether to build a new plant or to expand an existing one are part of the capacity planning function.

    3. Aggregate planning is used to determine levels of production, staffing, inventory, overtime, and so on over the long term. For instance, the aggregate planning function will determine whether we build up inventories in anticipation of increased demand (from the forecasting function), "chase" the demand by varying capacity using overtime, or do some combination of both. Optimization techniques such as linear programming are often used to assist the aggregate planning process.

    4. Rough-cut capacity planning (RCCP) is used to provide a quick capacity check of a few critical resources to ensure the feasibility of the master production schedule. Although more detailed than aggregate planning, RCCP is less detailed than capacity requirements planning (CRP), which is another tool for performing capacity checks after the MRP processing.

    5. Capacity requirements planning (CRP) provides a more detailed capacity check.

    6. Long range planning involves three functions: resource planning, aggregate planning, and forecasting. Intermediate includes production planning functions. The plans generated in the long- and intermediate-term planning functions are imple­mented in the short-term control.

    7. You would want MRP 2 if you want the following:
      1) You want the right materials landing on the right dock with the right quantities at the right time.
      2) You want your receiving, storing, assembling and shipping of product to accurately flow.
      3) You want to efficiently handle the movement of materials between multiple warehouses and destinations.
      4) You want to be able manage high-volume vs low-volume materials differently.
      5) You want to accurately fulfill orders in increased volume

      Eg: Company is in the industrial goods wholesale distribution business.
      Company has larger warehouses in China and in the India.
      Company has 10 commercial outlets in the India and in Canada.
      Each Outlet stocks high-volume products
      Each warehouse aggregates product from around the world.
      Company takes customer orders over the web, via customer service and walk-in outlet traffic.
      Each warehouse fulfills orders from all sources.

       The MRP would help operations and accounting manage material coordination around the world to ensure (1) efficiency and (2) profitability. It accomplishes these goals by providing insight into predictive purchasing, insight into material availability, and accountability of order execution.

      Another important concept is material costing. MRP helps provide insight into accurate material costing (product costs, freight, duties, taxes, handling, etc...). Accurate material costing provides insight into product and customer profitability.


    9. Benefits of MRP II in engineering, finance and costing

    10. Better control of inventories

    11. Improved scheduling

    12. Productive relationship with suppliers

    13. Improved design control

    14. Better quality and quality control

    15. Reduced working capital for inventory

    16. Improved cash flow through quicker deliveries

    17. Accurate inventory records

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    Cr : Improves corrosion resistance and abrasion resistance

    Cu : Improves corrosion resistance

    Ni  : Improves fracture toughness and machinability

    Co& Mo : Melting point and servicing temperature

    W & V  : High temperature strength and hardness

    S : Machinability

    Mn : Hardenability

    Ti : Hardenability and wear resistance

    Al : Toughness,acts as deoxidant

    Si : Hardenability and formability

    Mg : Machinability

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    BMEP is the function of temperature of  gas and is related to the torque and hence HP of engine.

    To know more click on this

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    aditya kumar agrawal
    Latest Entry

    great achievement occuring when you added our team.

  10. Union Public Service Commission
    Recruitment of Associate Professor (Mechanical & Automotion Engineering) through UPSC

    Last date for application27th August 2015


    ESSENTIAL: (A) EDUCATIONAL: (i) B.E./B.Tech. and ME/M.Tech. in Mechanical Engineering/ Mechanical & Automation Engineering with First Class or equivalent either in BE/B.Tech. or ME/M.Tech. and Ph.D. or equivalent in Mechanical Engineering/ Mechanical & Automation Engineering with specialization in Design Engineering Stream. (ii) Post Ph.D. publications and guiding Ph.D. students is highly desirable. Note-1: For this post, the desired area/stream of specialization is Design Engineering which includes Engineering Graphics; Auto CAD; Machine Drawing; Engineering Mechanics; Mechanics of Solids; Kinematics of Machines; Dynamics of Machines; Machine Design I & II; Computer Aided Design: Mechanical Vibrations; Gear Technology 

    Note-2: If a Class/division is not awarded, minimum of 60% marks in aggregate shall be considered equivalent to first class/division. If a Grade Point system is adopted the CGPA will be converted into equivalent marks as below:- Grade Point Equivalent percentage 6.25 55% 6.75 60% 7.25 65% 7.75 70% 8.25 75% Note-3: Ph.D. shall be from a recognized University.Note-4: Equivalence for Ph.D. is based on publication of 5 International Journal papers, each journal having a cumulative Impact Index of not less than 2.0, with incumbent as the main author and all 5 publications being in the authors’ area of specialization. Note-5: Experience at Diploma Institution is also considered equivalent to experience at degree level institutions at appropriate level and as applicable. However qualifications as above shall be mandatory. 
    (B) EXPEREIENCE: Minimum of 05 years experience in teaching/research/industry of which 02 years post Ph D experience is desirable. DUTIES: To teach PG & UG students in Mechanical & Automation Engineering, lead guide and promote research, examination work, planning, governance and development of labs & curricula, promoting R & D work, any other duty assigned by the Head of Institution/higher authorities. HQ: New Delhi.  

    How to Apply:  Applications to this job are to be filled online. Please follow the link given below to apply (or visit original job details page), For More See Employment New 8-14 Page No.17

    For official notification, please visit:

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