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  • DrD

    #20 -- A Question of Stability (Revised)

    By DrD

        Mechanics Corner
        A Journal of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics by DrD, #20
        © Machinery Dynamics Research, 2015
    A Question of Stability Introduction     The word stability in its several forms is widely used in nontechnical communication. A person whose life it highly consistent from day to day is said to have a stable life. When the political situation in a particular area appears to be unlikely to change, it is said to be stable. A person who is well balanced and unlikely to be easily provoked to anger is said to be a stable person. When the medical condition of a sick or injured person ceases to get worse, the person is said to be stabilized. A company on the verge of bankruptcy is said to be an unstable company. But what does the word stability mean in a technical context? Each of the foregoing examples hints at the technical meaning without really being explicit about it.   A factor g = accel of gravity was missing in the potential energy expression. That is now corrected.
        
     
        Stability.pdf
    • 16 comments
    • 5,559 views
  • saurabhjain

    Calling Mechanical Engineers to collaborate on Twitter

    By saurabhjain

    If you are a mechanical engineering professional and have a twitter account .. we invite you in our mechanical engineering  campaign to collaborate on twitter.. Retweet the following status on https://twitter.com/mechportal/status/646544243649961985 Look forward for your presence. Regards Mechanical Engineeirng forum
    • 5 comments
    • 1,228 views
  • DrD

    A Question for Readers

    By DrD

    Many of you have asked me various questions, so now it is my turn. Let me lay a bit of background first, and then the questions.   I have had some conversations recently with JAG (one of the other writers here at ME Forums) regarding the choice of software for 3D modeling and analysis. JAG has made some excellent suggestions, specifically a cloud based program called Onshape. Unfortunately, for reasons that are unclear, my computer cannot run Onshape; I have worked with their help people for several hours, all to no avail. JAG recommends this in part because there is a "free version for the hobbyist" and a relatively inexpensive "full version for the professional." That is pretty attractive, but since I can't run it, I'm stuck.   I gather that virtually all engineering colleges these days are teaching some sort of 3D modeling and analysis software, but that raises a few questions in my mind. 1. If your college teaches brandX 3D software, what will you do when you go to work for a small company that cannot afford anything more than 2D drafting (simple CAD), with no analysis capability at all? How will you do your job then? You probably have your own pocket calculator, but will you have your own copy of ANSYS or Pro-E? 2. What software does your school teach (every students should have an answer to this question, so I expect lots of replies on this one!)? 3. If you have used software extensively for analysis of engineering problems (beam deflections, stress analysis, fluid flow, heat transfer, etc), are you confident  that you will be able to work all of those problems if there is no such software available to you on the job?   I might add, as sort of a postscript, most of you know that I am older than dirt (I just had another birthday, so the situation is even worse!), so I tend to look at things from an elderly perspective. One of my great fears as a working engineer was "What will happen when I'm ask to do something that I don't know how to do?" It happened more than once, and it usually resulted in a flurry of intense research to come up to speed on whatever topic was involved. I could usually do that because I have a pretty good library, and I knew how to use a university library as well. But in terms of software, I was always concerned that I had no FEA program, so how could I do problems that others were doing by FEA? I have come up with some interesting work-arounds, including writing my own FEA for some problems, but I never wanted to be dependent on software that I could not afford to own. So, back to my questions about: How are you going to buy your own copy of ANSYS? DrD
    • 28 comments
    • 2,583 views

Our community blogs

  1.  

    • A brake which uses air as a working fluid is known as pneumatic brake. The system actuated to apply this phenomenon is know as pneumatic brake system.
    • An pneumatic brake system or a compressed air brake system is a type of friction brake for vehicles in which compressed air pressing on a piston is used to apply the pressure to the brake pad needed to stop the vehicle.

    Construction of pneumatic braking system

    599d2014e781e_pneumticbrakingsystem.jpg.a10ea05792b96c8d40a15a4274420c6e.jpg

     

    • The simplest air brake system consists of
      • An air compressor
      • A brake valve
      • series of brake chambers at the wheels
      • unloader valve
      • A pressure gauge and a safety valve
      • and an air reservoir.
      • These are all connected by tubes.
    • Some air braking systems may have additional components such as
      • stop light switch
      • low pressure indicator
      • An air supply valve to supply air for tyre inflation
      • A quick release air quickly from the front brake chambers when the brake pedal is released
      • A limiting valve for limiting the maximum pressure in the front brake chambers and a relay valve to help in quick admission and release of air from the rear brake chambers.
    • 599d2254d0fa7_pneumaticbrakingsystem.jpg.8d78c61033c02891a256a25e7bc3a43b.jpg

    Working of pneumatic braking system

    • The air compressor operated by the engine forces air at a pressure of 9-10 kscm (kilo standard cubic meters) through the water and oil separator to the air reservoir.
    • The air pressure in the reservoir is indicated by a pressure gauge.
    • The reservoir contains enough compressed air for several braking operations. From the reservoir the air is supplied to the brake valve.
    • As long as brake pedal is not depressed, brake valves stop the passage of air to brake chambers and there is no braking effect.

     

    main-qimg-755a6f69b3bf0852d076a294b252cb60-c.jpg.9a00acb57ce1d8e13e76600693c6c046.jpg

    • When the brake pedal is depressed, the brake valves varies its position and compressed air is admitted into the wheel brake chambers.
    • In the chambers the air acts upon flexible diaphragms, moves them the pushes out the rods connected with the levers of the brake gear cams.
    • The cams turn and separate the shoes thus braking the wheels.
    • When the brake pedal is released, the supply of compressed air is cut off from the brake chambers and they are connected to the atmosphere.
    • The pressure in the chambers drops, the brake shoes are returned to their initial position and the wheels run free.
    • The brake valve is equipped with a servo mechanism which ensures that the braking force on the shoes is proportional to the force applied to the pedal.
    • Besides the valve imparts a relative reaction to the movement of the pedal so that the driver can sense the degree of brake application.

    IMAGE SOURCE :- google

     

  2.    Mechanics Corner
        A Journal of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics by DrD, # 44
          Machinery Dynamics Research, 2017
        

    Mouse Trap / Pendulum Dynamics Challenge - Part I


    Introduction

        Mice are a problem all over the world, and as a result, I'm sure that there are mouse traps of various sorts found everywhere. It would be utterly amazing if this were not true! In the USA, there is a very common type of mouse trap that I have seen used all my life, the sort of system shown below in Figure 1. I want to spend a few minutes discussing this mouse trap, to be certain that all readers understand how it works, before moving on to the main part of the post.

    VictorMouseTrap2.JPG.02d6d68ee848940a687b253e0bec2a5b.JPG

    MouseTrapPendulumDynamics-1.pdf

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    Recent Entries

    Sijo
    Latest Entry

    About engine;

                             An engine or motor is a machine,designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy.Heat engine burn a fuel to create heat, which is then used to create a force. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion; pneumatic motors use compressed air and clockwise motors in wind up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and eventually motion.

     TYPES OF ENGINE

    (i). External combustion engine: In external combustion engine, the combustion of fuel takes place outside the engine. Example: steam engine.(ii). Internal combustion engine: In internal combustion engine, the combustion of fuel takes place inside the engine. Two stroke and four stroke petrol and diesel engine are the examples of internal combustion engine.

    1.The I.C. engines are classified on the following basis:

    (i). Reciprocating engine: In reciprocating engine, there is a piston and cylinder, the piston does reciprocating (to and Fro) motion within the cylinder. Due to the reciprocating motion of the piston, it is called reciprocating engine. 2 stroke and four stroke engines are the common examples of reciprocating engine.

    (ii). Rotary engine: In rotary engine, the rotor does rotary motion to produce power. There is no reciprocating motion. A rotor is present in the chamber which does rotary motion inside a chamber. Wankel rotary engine , turbine engines are the rotary types of engine.

    2. Types of Fuel Used

    On the basis of types of fuel used, the engine is classified as petrol engine, diesel engine and gas engine.

    (i). Petrol engine: The engine which uses petrol for its working is called petrol engine.

    (ii). Diesel engine: The engine which uses diesel for its working is called diesel engine.

    (iii). Gas engine: An engine using gas fuel for the working is called gas engine.

    3.Cycle of Operation

    On the basis of cycle of operation the engine types are:

    (i). Otto cycle engine: These types of engine works on Otto cycle.

    (ii). Diesel cycle engine: The engine working on diesel cycle is called diesel cycle engine.

    (iii). Dual cycle engine or semi-diesel cycle engine: The engine that works on both diesel as well as Otto cycle is called dual cycle engine or semi diesel cycle engine.

    4.Number of Strokes

    On the basis of number of stroke, the types of engine are:

    (i). Four Stroke Engine: It is an engine in which the piston moves four times i.e.2 upward (form BDC to TDC) and 2 downward (from TDC to BDC) movement in one cycle of power stroke is called four stroke engines.

    (ii). Two Stroke Engine: The engine in which the piston does two times motion i.e. one from TDC to BDC and other from BDC to TDC to produce a power stroke is called two stroke engines.

    (iii). Hot spot ignition engine: This type of engine is not in practical use.

    5. Type of Ignition

    On the basis of ignition, the engines are classified as:

    (i). Spark ignition engine (S.I. engine): In spark ignition engine there is a spark plug which is fitted at the engine head. The spark plug produces spark after the compression of the fuel and ignites the air fuel mixture for the combustion. The petrol engines are spark ignition engine.

    (ii). Compression ignition engine (C.I. engine): In Compression ignition engine there is no spark plug at the cylinder head. The fuel is ignited by the heat of the compressed air. The diesel engines are compression ignition engine.

    6. Number of Cylinders

    On the basis of number of cylinders present in the engine, the types of engine are:

    (i). Single cylinder engine: An engine which consists of single cylinder is called single cylinder engine. Generally the single cylinder engines are used in motorcycles, scooter, etc.

    (ii). Double cylinder engine: The engine which consists of two cylinders is called double cylinder engine. 

    (iii). Multi cylinder engine: An engine which consists of more than two cylinders is called multi cylinder engine. The multi cylinder engine may have three, four, six, eight, twelve and sixteen cylinder.

    7. Arrangement of Cylinders

    On the basis of arrangement of cylinders the engines classification is:

    (i). Vertical engine: in vertical engines, the cylinders are arranged in vertical position as shown in the diagram.

    (ii). Horizontal engine: In horizontal engines, the cylinders are placed horizontal position as shown in the diagram given below.

    (iii). Radial engine:  The radial engine is reciprocating type internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders radiate outward from a central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel. When it is viewed from the front, it resembles a stylized star and is called a ‘star’ engine. Before the gas turbine engine is not become predominant, it is commonly used for aircraft engines.

    (iv). V-engine: In v types of engine, the cylinders are placed in two banks having some angle between them. The angle between the two banks is keep as small as possible to prevent vibration and balancing problem.

    (v). W type engine: In w type engines, the cylinders are arranged in three rows such that it forms W type arrangement. W type engine is made when 12 cylinder and 16 cylinder engines are produced.

    (vi). Opposed cylinder engine: In opposed cylinder engine, the cylinders are place opposite to each other. The piston and the connecting rod show identical movement. It is runs smoothly and has more balancing. The size of the opposed cylinder engine increase because of its arrangement.

    8. Valve Arrangement 

    According to the valve arrangement of the inlet and exhaust valve in various positions in the cylinder head or block, the automobile engines are classified into four categories. These arrangements are named as ‘L’, ‘I’, ‘F’ and ‘T’.  It is easy to remember the word ‘LIFT’ to recall the four valve arrangement.

    (i). L-head engine: In these types of engine, the inlet and exhaust valves are arranged side by side and operated by a single camshaft. The cylinder and combustion chamber forms and inverted L.

    (ii). I-head engine: In I-head engines, the inlet and exhaust valves are located in the cylinder head. These types of engine are mostly used in automobiles.

    (iii). F-head engine: It is a combination of I-head and F-head engines. In this, one valve usually inlet valve is in the head and the exhaust valve lies in the cylinder block. Both the sets of valve are operated by the single camshaft.

    (iv). T-head engine: In T-head engines, the inlet valve located at one side and the exhaust valve on other side of the cylinder. Here two camshafts are required to operate, one for the inlet valve and other one is for the exhaust valve.

    9. Types of cooling

    On the basis of types of cooling, the engines are classified as:

    (i). Air cooled engines: In these engines, the air is used to cool the engines. In air cooled engines the cylinder barrels are separated and metal fins are used which provides radiating surface area that increase cooling. The air cooled engines are generally used in motorcycles and scooters.

    (ii). Water cooled engines: In water cooled engines, the water is used for the cooling of engine. Water cooled engines are used in cars, buses, trucks and other four wheeled vehicles, heavy duty motor vehicles. An anti-freezing agent is added in the water to prevent it from freezing during cold weather. Every water cooled engines has radiator for the cooling of hot water from the engine.

    Beside above types of engine, the internal combustion engine is also classified on the basis of the following.

    1. Speed: 

    On the basis of speed, the types of engines are:

    (i). Low speed engine

    (ii). Medium speed engine

    (iii). High speed engine

    2. Method of Fuel Injection

    On the basis of method of fuel injection the engines are classified as:

    (i). Carburetor engine

    (ii). Air injection engine

    (iii). Airless or solid injection engine

    3. Method of Governing

    (i). Hit and miss governed engine: It is an engine type in which the entry of the fuel is controlled by the governor. It controls the speed of the engine by cutting off the ignition and fuel supply of the engine at very high speed.

    (ii).Quantitative governing: In this system of governing, the quality of charge (i.e. air-fuel ratio of the mixture) is kept constant. But the quantity of mixture supplied to the engine cylinder is varied by means of a throttle valve which is regulated by the centrifugal governor through rack and pinion arrangement.

    the part load efficiency of SI engine is poor because air fuel ratio remains constant even if we need low power

    (iii).Qualitative governing: In this system of governing, a control valve is fitted in the fuel delivery pipe, which controls the quantity of fuel to be mixed in the charge. The movement of control valve is regulated by the centrifugal governor through rack and pinion arrangement.

    part load efficiency of I C engine is good because we can use lean mixture and rich mixtures easily according to our requirement

    4. Application

    (i). Stationary engine: Stationary engine is an engine in which its framework does not move. It is used to drive immobile equipment like pump, generator, mill or factory machinery etc.

    (ii). Automotive engine: These are the types of engines which are used in automobile industries. For example: petrol engine, diesel engine, gas engine are internal combustion engines falls in the category of automotive engine.

    (iii). Locomotive engine: The engines which are used in trains are called locomotive engines.

    (iv). Marine engine: The engines which are used in marines for boat or ship propulsion is called marine engine.

    (v). Aircraft engine: Types of engine which are used in aircraft is called aircraft engine. Radial and gas turbine engines are used in aircraft propulsion.

  3. Agriculture is the backbone of the strong economy. Agriculture is demographically the broadest sector and plays an important role in the overall economic development in India since India ranks second worldwide in farm outputs. So, this is another Mechanical Startup Story from the Agriculture based start-up Sickle Innovations.

    Sickle Innovations started in 2014 by the encouragement of Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing and Indian Institute of Science Bangalore. Since in Indian demographic scenario, not the availability of farm labors, low profits and labor drudgery problems are encountered frequently, the aim of the startup involves developing innovative mechanization solutions through Design Thinking.

    The startup's website goes as follows http://www.sickle.in/ The mango stem and transport it safely to the ground with the product name Hectare. The Cotton Picking Machine; being the second largest producer of cotton, challenges such as manual labor, intensive labor health problems have to be tackled by cotton producers. This handheld machine was developed by the company with patented technology that can double labor efficiency and enhances farmer income by 50%. The design eliminates injuries from cotton bur pricks and is self-powered fully automatic harvesting machine.

    Being the world's largest producer of milk and bovine population 3 times larger than USA, milk production per cow/buffalo is lower.Imported machines cannot suffice the need of country environments and cow breeds.Hence, the design of the company's machine keeps full potential with the local scenario. 

    Hence, startups are equally important when it comes to tackling small or huge problems in day to day scenario with innovative simple solutions. Keep Going Ahead and Keep Bringing Innovative Ideas!!!

  4.  

    The link below is an article about the value of certification for manufacturers. It is a heavy sell for certification. In my opinion it misses the most basic benefit of certification, which is the path to getting certified.

    http://www.machinedesign.com/industrial-automation/why-do-manufacturing-certifications-matter?NL=MACD-001&Issue=MACD-001_20170523_MACD-001_398&sfvc4enews=42&cl=article_1_b&utm_rid=CPG05000005789847&utm_campaign=11223&utm_medium=email&elq2=ac7bbf3354354d12ba54569ff985ae31

    When people ask me about ISO 9000, the simple explanation I give, “the process of certification requires you to write down your process and demonstrate that you follow the process.” The certification system does not dictate your process.

    The mere action of writing down and maintaining the written procedure is the real value. In one of my blogs “Dumbest Guy in the Room", written in two parts, http://www.jagengrg.com/blog, I touch on the value of the written word and the perils of oral communication. 

    Writing it down allows everyone to see exactly what the author thinks is being done or should be done. Others can read the written word and identify ambiguous sections, missing information, or errors that can easily be overlooked using oral communication.

    When everyone is carrying the information in their head’s via oral direction I can guarantee there is more than one interpretation. I would venture to say you will have as many interpretations as you have people involved.

    When written procedures do exist but do not come under the scrutiny of a certification body, it is very common for procedures to become stale, be incomplete, rely on undocumented knowledge, and for steps in the process to be missed from time to time.

    The subject article closes with a realistic assessment of the value for certification. “Is having a certification the end-all-be-all of manufacturing? No. However….”

    You reach the "however" stage, not my hanging the certification on the wall, but the process for obtaining it. 

  5. what is the difference between refrigeration and air conditioning?

    • A major difference between refrigeration and air conditioning is the point of supply for the gases. Refrigeration systems have gas installed in a series of tubes. In old refrigerators, this gas was chloro-flouro-carbon, or CFC, but this has harmful effects on people, so refrigerators not contain HFC-134a. HFC-134a is the sole gas used as a coolant in refrigeration systems. Air conditioning systems use built-in chemicals, but also air from the room or rooms being heated. Gases built into air conditioning units cool air that circulates through the unit; the unit then redistributes the cooled air through the room.
    • Air conditioners have circulation systems designed to project cool air away from the units while refrigeration units have circulation systems designed to retain coolant in a confined space. Refrigeration systems circulate cool liquids and gases through a series of tubes and vents. Cool air from within a refrigerator is sucked into a compressor that recycles the gas through the tubes. Air conditioners, while also employing tubes in the coolant system, have fans for the dispersal of air. Unlike refrigeration systems, which keep gases contained to a pre-determined space, air conditioning systems disperse cool air throughout areas of unknown volume.
    • Refrigeration refers to processes that take thermal energy away from a place and gives off that energy to a place with a higher temperature. Naturally, thermal energy flows from a place with a higher temperature to a place with a lower temperature. Therefore, refrigeration runs against the natural heat flow and so it requires work to be done.Refrigerator is a name that we use for devices that are used to keep food at low temperatures. A refrigerator consists of a fluid called refrigerantwhich gets expanded and compressed in a cycle:
     
  6. Tema I

     

    La fabricación de piezas por maquinado

     

    1.1 Introducción

    Todo ingeniero debe tener una cultura general integral y, dentro de esta, como es lógico, una cultura de la profesión. Parte de la cultura del ingeniero mecánico consiste en conocer la historia de la ingeniería, y en el caso particular de este blog es importante comenzar por conocer muy brevemente la historia de las máquinas herramienta. Para ello se presentará  más adelante el anexo I, el cual trata sobre la Evolución de las máquinas herramienta [1].  

     

    La revolución industrial surgida con la máquina de vapor no hubiera sido posible si no se hubiera construido primero una máquina herramienta capaz de fabricar las piezas fundamentales del invento que sintetizó James Watt: la máquina de vapor. Por cierto, para que Watt llegara a su invento tuvo que haber otros que le precedieron e hicieron sus propios descubrimientos previos en el mismo campo de la energía del vapor de agua a presión, de modo que, como casi siempre ocurre, Watt recopiló esos conocimientos, los organizó, sistematizó, les añadió algo más y construyó, ayudado por Wilkinson y su mandrinadora, la primera máquina de vapor.

     

    Y antes de eso, y después de eso, siempre ha sido así. Sin máquinas herramienta no hay desarrollo posible. Las máquinas herramienta fabrican las piezas que se ven a diario sin que se les preste la debida atención: las del ómnibus que lleva a los pasajeros, las de la termoeléctrica o el grupo electrógeno que produce la electricidad, las del combinado lácteo que procesa la leche, las de los equipos que emplea el médico, las de los equipos que perforan para buscar o bombear petróleo desde las profundidades de la tierra, las del molino del central azucarero. Y como si todo esto fuera poco, las máquinas herramienta fabrican otras máquinas herramienta, se podría decir figuradamente que son las únicas máquinas que garantizan la continuidad de su especie.

     

    Nota:

    ¿Por qué “máquinas herramienta” y no “máquinas herramientas”? En la lengua castellana los sustantivos formados por dos sustantivos forman el plural solo con el primero de ellos. Así, otros ejemplos pueden ser: profesores guía; palabras clave; fresas madre. No obstante, en ocasiones se puede considerar que el segundo de los dos sustantivos hace función de adjetivo, y entonces sería “máquinas herramientas”. En este blog se prefiere la primera variante.

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    Recent Entries

    1. In a steam turbine, the ............ is allowed to rotate?

    2. Which valve controls the flow of steam into the turbine?        

    3. The blades in a ............... turbine are designed so that the pressure below the blade is always higher than the pressure above which causes them to move (or spin) as high velocity fluid flows through them.       

    4. Where in the steam path is the energy transferred from the steam to the turbine?       

     

    5. There is excessive corrosion on the turbine/driven unit train.  The carbon rings have been inspected and are clean, and do not need replacing.  What is the most probable cause of the corrosion?       

  7. Explain the term hot cracking & cold cracking in welding and how these can be taken care of ?

    crack.jpg

     

    1. You can answer this question.
    2. You can like the best answer.
    3. You can share the question
    4. You can get updates of new questions on Facebook linkedin twitter & google plus
  8. 1) How to make the spiral pipe

    20160317231239983998.jpg.9778d1356d79391fbc6b63a29f825461.jpg

    2) Accessory of the pipe (Use to connect the pipe and bring pipe up)

    image3.jpeg.d12b925fa9d23b3715ec5d2c9447403d.jpegScreenHunter_174.jpg.551777ac14159a0ce06b5875400cec78.jpg

    image5.jpeg.864b7bc57d8dd415526a8577d048f982.jpeg

    3) Application

    building1.thumb.gif.c7ff3fac9ceeac273998d71de45572c6.gif

    15c2.jpg.8c7f53292facec8378bf1a0267b70547.jpgHTB1t6zCHpXXXXcIXpXXq6xXFXXXQ.jpg.dbf1a989c7e5acf0620377c12ea8e321.jpg

    4) Drawing 

    Click Download drawing of Bridge foundation 3D ( reference drawing )

    Click Download catalogue of the product

     

    spsp-juctions-type.jpg

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    Recent Entries

    Mechanical Design and More

     

    Why Design?

    The new era is flooded with products - Virtual or Physical. And with no surprise, everything needs to be designed. We are doing it from long back, since we are bringing something new or may be inventing. Design is the medium which brings your thoughts into a physical (nowadays virtual) form.
     

    Virtual/Web design

    Remember the old days websites or software packages - They were largely comprised of text, and design layout did not exist much. While later versions had some design, they were still extremely basic, consisting mainly of tags for headers, paragraphs, and links. Visual considerations such as typography, imagery, and navigation were still things of the not-too distant future.
     
    vDoIT_Ui-ux.png
    pc: www.vdoit.in
     
    And now, we are into a new age where we look forward to User Interface and User Experience (UI/UX) designers to improve overall experience and usability of webisites and software packages.
     
    There is a whole world behind these two words!!
     
    Just take an example of one of the largest social networking website, Facebook - Who decides, where will be your cover pic and where should be the display pic be located in your wall. Not only this, there are whole lot of stuffs on each and every website. Simple placement and positions of the buttons will change the overall experience of the user. This is where UI/UX designer are working hard by understanding human nature and behavior of doing things when they are 'online'.
     
    uiuxusability.jpg
    pc: www.mockingbot.com

     

     
    Just to add, each and every thing which you look into a website, software package or mobile applications , be it a logo, buttons, stickers and the entire range of interface details which you see are being designed by someone - Designers. Imagine the vast amount of work involved in this!

     


    Physical/Mechanical design

    Being a Mechanical Design Engineer, this excites me more.
     
    When I say "Mechanical", does it restricts me to gears, bolts-nuts, cam-shaft, car/aerospace bodies and parts?
     
    Well not at all !
     
    Name a product around you which you think is not of 'mechanical' genre - Mobile phones, Television (its remote too), Refrigerators, Air conditioners and many more. Most of us would say these are electronics/electrical products. They are listed under 'Electronics' category in amazon and flipkart too.

     
     
     TV-fridge.jpg

    Now, understand this - All of these products are obviously being invented/reinvented by electrical or electronics engineers and their functionality depends on basic rules and principles of these engineering discipline, but their actual physical being is a work of physics and mathematics. When I say physics and mathematics, its basically mechanical design in broader sense.

    For instance, the electronic board inside a mobile phone or TV is work of electronics ( circuit design, voltage calculations, etc), but they never tell how the mobile phone should look or feel to the end user when they will hold it. Also, electrical engineer can not tell how a TV to be wall mounted, what should be the screen thickness, corners, etc. In more engineering sense, the entire design is actually work of a Mechanical Design engineer who designs the fits/forms and the look of the appliance. Obviously when I say 'look', it opens a whole new world which revolves around aesthetics.  Probably, I will talk about ergonomics and aesthetics some other time.

     

    The Design Sense

    Any design needs to fulfill certain requirements which comes from end users. But the real question is what inspires a designer to design something new or may be modify an existing product to something new and more usable. The designer must satisfy all what is required by the user and obviously the standards set upon it (and off course the laws of physics and mathematics). These all might drive the design and product structure but these can never drive how the product will look or feel to the user. At some instances the user might not be interested on how it looks, it should perform and that's all counts.
    Design.png
    pc: www.api-university.com

    The design sense of the designer plays an important role on how the product is being designed and what features are built to satisfy all the requirements. Be it a UI/UX designer or Mechanical designer, designing under requirements are achievable like solving a problem but developing a design sense is something which comes with time and experience. In a way its a work of art.
    design%2Bsense.png
    ps: www.designschool.canva.com

    How do we develop a design sense?

    When I say DESIGN is work of art, any art comes with time and needs passion. We may learn design tools but the design sense needs dedication. A musician can learn how to play a guitar but can only develop new tunes if he is passionate about it.
     
    Have you ever thought why a particular product is being made/designed the way it is? Let me take a few examples:
     
    1. Bulbs - The iconic shape that blazes in our minds as the quintessential light bulb served two purposes in the advent of lighting: it was easily manufactured using glass-blowing techniques, and its spherical shape was best for controlling heat and light emissions.
    bulb.jpg
     
     
    2. Golf balls - Are a golf ball's dimples just there for aesthetics?
    Try aerodynamics - They actually create turbulence in the layer of air surrounding a ball in flight, reducing the drag behind the ball.
     
    golfball.png
     
    Now we know why helmets for cyclists are designed with dimples. But why not aircraft or cars?

     
    helmet.jpg
    3. Manhole covers - Why they are always round?
    They are round almost all over the world, so that they cannot possibly fall through their own holes. Any shape other than a circle would be able to fit through in at least one way.
     
    manhole1.jpg
     
    Off course few designers took it as challenge, but I am sure they had to make some arrangement, may be a hatch.
     
    square_manhole.jpg
     
    So now you know why certain features are designed in these products and why it was a sensible approach.

    I will discuss a lot more about design - Design thinking, mechanical design approach and the process to build something new and off course the tools which are used. Log in to 

    Why Design?

    The new era is flooded with products - Virtual or Physical. And with no surprise, everything needs to be designed. We are doing it from long back, since we are bringing something new or may be inventing. Design is the medium which brings your thoughts into a physical (nowadays virtual) form.

    Virtual/Web design

    Remember the old days websites or software packages - They were largely comprised of text, and design layout did not exist much. While later versions had some design, they were still extremely basic, consisting mainly of tags for headers, paragraphs, and links. Visual considerations such as typography, imagery, and navigation were still things of the not-too distant future.
     
    vDoIT_Ui-ux.png
    pc: www.vdoit.in
     
    And now, we are into a new age where we look forward to User Interface and User Experience (UI/UX) designers to improve overall experience and usability of webisites and software packages.
     
    There is a whole world behind these two words!!
     
    Just take an example of one of the largest social networking website, Facebook - Who decides, where will be your cover pic and where should be the display pic be located in your wall. Not only this, there are whole lot of stuffs on each and every website. Simple placement and positions of the buttons will change the overall experience of the user. This is where UI/UX designer are working hard by understanding human nature and behavior of doing things when they are 'online'.
     
    uiuxusability.jpg
    pc: www.mockingbot.com
     
     
    Just to add, each and every thing which you look into a website, software package or mobile applications , be it a logo, buttons, stickers and the entire range of interface details which you see are being designed by someone - Designers. Imagine the vast amount of work involved in this!
     


    Physical/Mechanical design

    Being a Mechanical Design Engineer, this excites me more.
     
    When I say "Mechanical", does it restricts me to gears, bolts-nuts, cam-shaft, car/aerospace bodies and parts?
     
    Well not at all !
     
    Name a product around you which you think is not of 'mechanical' genre - Mobile phones, Television (its remote too), Refrigerators, Air conditioners and many more. Most of us would say these are electronics/electrical products. They are listed under 'Electronics' category in amazon and flipkart too.

     
     
     TV-fridge.jpg

    Now, understand this - All of these products are obviously being invented/reinvented by electrical or electronics engineers and their functionality depends on basic rules and principles of these engineering discipline, but their actual physical being is a work of physics and mathematics. When I say physics and mathematics, its basically mechanical design in broader sense.
    For instance, the electronic board inside a mobile phone or TV is work of electronics ( circuit design, voltage calculations, etc), but they never tell how the mobile phone should look or feel to the end user when they will hold it. Also, electrical engineer can not tell how a TV to be wall mounted, what should be the screen thickness, corners, etc. In more engineering sense, the entire design is actually work of a Mechanical Design engineer who designs the fits/forms and the look of the appliance. Obviously when I say 'look', it opens a whole new world which revolves around aesthetics.  Probably, I will talk about ergonomics and aesthetics some other time.

    The Design Sense

    Any design needs to fulfill certain requirements which comes from end users. But the real question is what inspires a designer to design something new or may be modify an existing product to something new and more usable. The designer must satisfy all what is required by the user and obviously the standards set upon it (and off course the laws of physics and mathematics). These all might drive the design and product structure but these can never drive how the product will look or feel to the user. At some instances the user might not be interested on how it looks, it should perform and that's all counts.
    Design.png
    pc: www.api-university.com

    The design sense of the designer plays an important role on how the product is being designed and what features are built to satisfy all the requirements. Be it a UI/UX designer or Mechanical designer, designing under requirements are achievable like solving a problem but developing a design sense is something which comes with time and experience. In a way its a work of art.
    design%2Bsense.png
    ps: www.designschool.canva.com

    How do we develop a design sense?

    When I say DESIGN is work of art, any art comes with time and needs passion. We may learn design tools but the design sense needs dedication. A musician can learn how to play a guitar but can only develop new tunes if he is passionate about it.
     
    Have you ever thought why a particular product is being made/designed the way it is? Let me take a few examples:
     
    1. Bulbs - The iconic shape that blazes in our minds as the quintessential light bulb served two purposes in the advent of lighting: it was easily manufactured using glass-blowing techniques, and its spherical shape was best for controlling heat and light emissions.
    bulb.jpg
     
     
    2. Golf balls - Are a golf ball's dimples just there for aesthetics?
    Try aerodynamics - They actually create turbulence in the layer of air surrounding a ball in flight, reducing the drag behind the ball.
     
    golfball.png
     
    Now we know why helmets for cyclists are designed with dimples. But why not aircraft or cars?

     
    helmet.jpg
    3. Manhole covers - Why they are always round?
    They are round almost all over the world, so that they cannot possibly fall through their own holes. Any shape other than a circle would be able to fit through in at least one way.
     
    manhole1.jpg
     
    Off course few designers took it as challenge, but I am sure they had to make some arrangement, may be a hatch.
     
    square_manhole.jpg
     

    So now you know why certain features are designed in these products and why it was a sensible approach.

    I will discuss a lot more about design - Design thinking, mechanical design approach and the process to build something new and off course the tools which are used.

     

    Mechanical Design and More

     

     

  9. 58c0e1facf9a1_EffectofthetypeofmeshonaPipeflowproblem.thumb.jpg.1fdd8a463decca9320342da21a339a2f.jpg
     
     
    The project explains how the type of mesh can influence the results obtained for the mixing of flow in a pipe. The simulation is done on a cloud-based CAE platform called SimScale. The link to the project is here. This project is a part of the SimScale Professional Training on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics).
     
    ab25ab48061159.588d8513e593a.jpg
    The pipe flow geometry, originally uploaded by the SimScale Staff, available in the public projects.
     
    For this internal flow problem, a Hex-dominant parametric mesh is used. Two types of meshes are created for the problem - a coarse mesh ( which accommodates all the features of the geometry) and a fine mesh ( by increasing the fineness).
     
    d54ec048061159.588d8513e5e65.jpg
    Coarse mesh ( Fineness: 1-Very coarse)
     
    55c7a048061159.588d8513e635a.jpg
    Fine mesh ( Fineness : 4-Fine)
     
    The same type of analysis is performed for both the meshes (Fluid dynamics: Incompressible). Same boundary conditions and simulation controls are defined for both the meshes.
     
    53db0b48061159.588d8513e6863.jpg
    Simulation run: Coarse mesh
     
    c66e3948061159.588d8513e74ed.jpg
    Simulation run: Fine mesh
     
    The simulation results are post-processed (clip filter is used) to get the contour plot of the velocity flow field.
     
    ae485f48061159.588d8513e7a41.jpg
    Post-processor screenshot for coarse mesh
     
    d8894448061159.588d8513e8008.jpg
    Post-processor screenshot for fine mesh
     
    As revealed by the results the fines mesh captures specific physics (like flow separation and vorticities) more accurately. Isn't that expected? Well, not always!
     
     
     
    This blog was previously posted on Behance.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

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    hello All,

     i am working as a design engineer and i am working on sheet metal structures. i am looking at the calculations to decide on the thickness of sheet metal to carry a particular load.

    i calculated the sectional modulus of the design based on the cross sectional area of sheet metal and it is well within the sectional modulus of material. I would like to know werher the approach is right or are there other calculations which i should do before deciding the thickness?.

    request to suggest on the above

    please find the image below for reference

    2017-03-03_08h02_02.png

    2017-03-03_08h04_02.png

  10. ADENIJI

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    What are the classifications of engine? 

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  11. Many research and development have been conducted  to meet society needs for safer vehicles. Particularly, occupant protection system such as air bags, developed and introduced in order to reduce occupant injuries in crashes, are currently installed in most vehicles making significant contribution to safety.

     

    Meanwhile, many studies have been made into the development of active safety technologies that help to avoid crash accidents. Unfortunately the current situation is that the active safety technologies are not sufficient spread. Adaptive cruise control has been commercialized since 1995, but its primary use has not been convincing.Some audible warning system  are also being offered, but have not yet reached widespread use.

     

    Toyota Motors corporation has explored the possibility of producing an active safety system employing Intelligent Transport System (ITS) technologies,through participation in the Advanced Safety Vehicle (ASV) projects started in 1991 and led by ministry of land , infrastructure and transport.

     

    Critical basis ITS technologies for application to ASV includes a surround monitoring sensor and an obstacle determination algorithm which combines information from the surround monitoring sensor with other information to identify obstacles with which the vehicle is likely to actually crash.

     

    The sensors and crash determination algorithm for an active safety system should be capable of reliably determining that  a crash will not occur in non-crash situation. Advanced technologies are required to make these predictions and judgments correctly while also taking into account the driver's operation and behavior and this has hampered widespread of active safety systems.

     

    Pre-crash safety system has been developed which operates only when it is judged that a crash cannot be avoided by most drivers under normal driving conditions. Determining unavoidable crashes is restricted to a short time period immediately before the crash so as to improve the reliability of the judgement. In addition the pre-crash system is made with a mechanism and system that will not place the driver and the running vehicle in an unsafe condition even if the system is operated unnecessarily. As a result the world's first commercial system has been achieved.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

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  12. Hydraulic cylinders haven’t really changed a lot over the years. The manufacturing processes are much more streamlined and the tolerances are much tighter, but for the most part cylinders are still the hard working push/pull tools they have always been. These things have literally shaped the world around us. Anything that gets lifted, pushed, hauled, dumped, dug, crushed, drilled or graded has gotten that way by some truck, crane, dozer or tractor using a hydraulic cylinder. But how do hydraulic cylinders work?
    The amazing amount of force a cylinder exerts is due to the simple mechanical principle of pressure exerted on the surface area of the
    piston . Simply put, the larger the diameter of the cylinder, the more it will lift. 

    Cylinder cutaway.png

    hydraulic.jpg

  13. .This is a lecture video I had given, for introduction and basics of this topic. I hope this will work out well with young undergrads and seniors can brush up too.

  14.  

    Seminars have always been an important aspect of education. It's an opportunity to either gain knowledge on an unknown topic or develop ideas regarding something you already know.It's a place where you meet highly skilled persons and get to know their recent researches.You should attend at least a couple of seminars annually to keep yourself updated about the advancements taking place in your field. I've seen many people who keep avoiding seminars, although interested, just because they have never attended a seminar before. If this is your case, then I've only one thing to say "There's always a first time." Until and unless you attend a seminar, how can you overcome the fright?

     

    Seminar.jpg

     

    Attending a seminar for the first time does not mean that you'll feel low or less confident than others. Here are a few tips that can make you seminar-ready. Here are a few tips that can help you get through a seminar and actually learn from it.

     

    1. Know the Topic

    Usually there are no prerequisites to attend a seminar but ideally you should know something about the seminar you're going to attend.First know the topic, yes the topic. I've seen a lot of people coming for a seminar and asking what the topic is! Know the meaning of each term related to the topic, like definitions, some dates, names of some important people in that field, etc. If you still have some time and energy left, know who the speaker is and his background. You can look for his area of study, some research works, etc. So now that you know what you need to know, I'll suggest you some ways by which you can know it.( I just hope I didn't confuse you. Oops, I did! )

    Now-a-days you can literally find everything on the web,sometimes even the details you need about the speaker from his research works. Now that you have the basic knowledge of the topic, you can consult the faculties if you feel like. You can find lot of details online but only after talking to the profs you get to know which information is relevant for the seminar you're going to attend.Knowing more never goes in vain, but off course you wouldn't like to clog your mind with so many points. If you feel it hard to remember all the points, you can make short notes and take it with you to the seminar. Just make sure your focus is on the speaker as soon as the seminar starts and not on these notes.

      

    ohrdXaUq7HZlu.gif
     
     
    2. A proper attire

    it's never mandatory to wear formals for attending a seminar but avoid fancy dresses. Remember you're in the professional world, dress up like that. If you like make-ups go for it, but keep it light and simple. Just make sure you're comfortable with your look. In most of the cases, dressing up properly makes people feel confident.

     

    6kcYyQEX5nVRe.gif
     
     
      3. Non-verbal communication

    People can communicate a lot of things even without uttering a single word, through their body gestures, eye movement, etc. ere lies the importance of non-verbal communication. You can put a smile on you face just to show that you're there to learn and not to oppose the idea the speaker is going to present. Nodding your head sometimes during the speech can also communicate a lot about you. It means you're listening and understanding the topic as well.

     

    lMxlHF5sJ63NS.gif
     
     
      4. Be attentive

    It's not important to understand each and every part of the speech but at least you should get the essence of the speech. Just remember that the seminars are designed to provide you with a usable content on a variety of relevant subjects and keep you updated with the latest advancements in your field. So, try to gain as much knowledge as possible.

     

    100YmlniUkSv84.gif
     
     
      5. Asking Questions

    It's the best way to get you ideas about the topic reviewed by an experienced person, you'll get to know if you're on the right track. Speakers also encourage questions and it's a way of learning on their part too. But whenever you ask a question, make sure you know exactly what you need to know clearly. Frame the question in your mind first, you certainly don't want to stumble while asking.
    At this moment, I certainly don't want to demotivate you, just remember that silence is better than asking "silly questions".

    26BRAk0i9RZkElSRW.gif

     

    So the next time you're going for a seminar, you already now what to do and how to do!

     

    gTNSX6N7vcKOY.gif
     
                       Happy "Seminar-ing" !

     

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    What is a BUE?

    BUEs are built-up edges formed due to the accumulation of work-piece material against the rake face of the tool.
    xm93ki.pngbue-mit.gif

    How are BUE formed?

    During machining, the upper layer of the work-piece metal experiences a large shear force as it comes in contact with the tool-tip and an amount of the metal gets welded to the tool-tip. This is due to work hardening of the metal layer. The metal adhered to the tool becomes so hard that it is difficult to remove.

     

      Why are BUE formed?

    BUE formation is common under a few conditions which are :
    1. Low cutting speed 
    2. Work hardeneability of work piece material
    3. High feed rate
    4. Low rake angle
    5. Lack of cutting fluid
    6. Large depth of cut

    In which materials is it observed easily?

     
    BUE formation is usually noticed in alloys such as Steel rather in pure metals.It is also observed in soft materials like soft pure Alumunium, hot rolled low carbon steel.

    What are the effects of BUE?

    There are a few basic effects caused by the BUE formation like :
    • Change in tool geometry
    • Change in rake steepness
    • Reduction in contact area between the chip and the cutting tool.

    What are the advantages of BUE?

    BUE formation can have a few advantages on the cutting tool and ease of machining like :
    • Slight increase in tool life
    • Reduction in power demand.

    What are the disadvantages of BUE?

    The count of disadvantages is actually more than the advantages it has on the machining process.
    • Poor surface finish 
    • Problems in dimensional control of the process
    • Leads to flank wear (damaging the flank face) 

      

     

    How can the BUE formation be prevented?

     BUE formation is a common machining problem but there's a soluion to every problem.Here are a few prevention steps to reduce BUE formation
    • Increasing cutting speed
    • Use of cemented carbide tool in place of HSS tool
    • Introduction of free machining materials ( loaded or resulphurized steel)
    • Application of an appropriate lubricant at low cutting speed

     

    P.S. - Suggestions are always welcomed.

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