If you are a mechanical engineering professional and have a twitter account .. we invite you in our mechanical engineering campaign to collaborate on twitter..
Retweet the following status on https://twitter.com/mechportal/status/646544243649961985
Look forward for your presence.
Mechanical Engineeirng forum
Many of you have asked me various questions, so now it is my turn. Let me lay a bit of background first, and then the questions.
I have had some conversations recently with JAG (one of the other writers here at ME Forums) regarding the choice of software for 3D modeling and analysis. JAG has made some excellent suggestions, specifically a cloud based program called Onshape. Unfortunately, for reasons that are unclear, my computer cannot run Onshape; I have worked with their help people for several hours, all to no avail. JAG recommends this in part because there is a "free version for the hobbyist" and a relatively inexpensive "full version for the professional." That is pretty attractive, but since I can't run it, I'm stuck.
I gather that virtually all engineering colleges these days are teaching some sort of 3D modeling and analysis software, but that raises a few questions in my mind.
1. If your college teaches brandX 3D software, what will you do when you go to work for a small company that cannot afford anything more than 2D drafting (simple CAD), with no analysis capability at all? How will you do your job then? You probably have your own pocket calculator, but will you have your own copy of ANSYS or Pro-E?
2. What software does your school teach (every students should have an answer to this question, so I expect lots of replies on this one!)?
3. If you have used software extensively for analysis of engineering problems (beam deflections, stress analysis, fluid flow, heat transfer, etc), are you confident that you will be able to work all of those problems if there is no such software available to you on the job?
I might add, as sort of a postscript, most of you know that I am older than dirt (I just had another birthday, so the situation is even worse!), so I tend to look at things from an elderly perspective. One of my great fears as a working engineer was "What will happen when I'm ask to do something that I don't know how to do?" It happened more than once, and it usually resulted in a flurry of intense research to come up to speed on whatever topic was involved. I could usually do that because I have a pretty good library, and I knew how to use a university library as well. But in terms of software, I was always concerned that I had no FEA program, so how could I do problems that others were doing by FEA? I have come up with some interesting work-arounds, including writing my own FEA for some problems, but I never wanted to be dependent on software that I could not afford to own. So, back to my questions about: How are you going to buy your own copy of ANSYS?
What is Anti-lock braking system (ABS)?
Anti-lock braking system (ABS) is an automobile safety system that allows the wheels on a motor vehicle to maintain tractive contact with the road surface according to driver inputs while braking, preventing the wheels from locking up and avoiding uncontrolled skidding. It is an automated system that uses the principles of threshold braking and cadence braking which were practiced by skillful drivers with previous generation braking systems. It does this at a much faster rate and with better control than a driver could manage. ABS generally offers improved vehicle control and decreases stopping distances on dry and slippery surfaces for many drivers; however, on loose surfaces like gravel or snow-covered pavement, ABS can significantly increase braking distance, although still improving vehicle control.
How does ABS work?
The anti-lock brake controller is also known as the CAB (Controller Anti-lock Brake). Typically ABS includes a central electronic control unit (ECU), four wheel speed sensors, and at least two hydraulic valves within the brake hydraulics.
1. The ECU constantly monitors the rotational speed of each wheel; if it detects a wheel rotating significantly slower than the others, a condition indicative of impending wheel lock, it actuates the valves to reduce hydraulic pressure to the brake at the affected wheel, thus reducing the braking force on that wheel; the wheel then turns faster. Conversely, if the ECU detects a wheel turning significantly faster than the others, brake hydraulic pressure to the wheel is increased so the braking force is reapplied, slowing down the wheel. This process is repeated continuously and can be detected by the driver via brake pedal pulsation. Some anti-lock systems can apply or release braking pressure 15 times per second. Because of this, the wheels of cars equipped with ABS are practically impossible to lock even during panic braking in extreme conditions.
2. The ECU is programmed to disregard differences in wheel rotative speed below a critical threshold, because when the car is turning, the two wheels towards the center of the curve turn slower than the outer two. For this same reason, a differential is used in virtually all roadgoing vehicles.
3. If a fault develops in any part of the ABS, a warning light will usually be illuminated on the vehicle instrument panel.
What is Electronic brake-force distribution (EBFD)?
You’re driving at a safe speed on a moderately busy highway. It has not been snowing for long, but already the pavement is dusted with snow and becoming slippery. Suddenly, another motorist signals to enter your lane and makes a sharp veering motion. You are forced to slam on the brakes to avoid hitting the encroaching vehicle. The weight of your car is thrust forward from the heavy braking, putting added pressure on the front wheels to stop the car. Meanwhile, the sudden shift in weight has significantly reduced the amount of traction available for the back wheels. After a few seconds, the back wheels lock completely. You feel the back end of your car start to fishtail into the lanes on either side of you. Finally, the back-and-forth motion of the rear of the car overcomes the braking power of the front wheels and you spin around, face-to-face with oncoming traffic. Situations like this are potentially very dangerous. Electronic brake-force distribution is a vehicle safety feature that can prevent this kind of event.
How does EBFD work?
1. Electronic brake-force distribution is often installed with antilock braking systems (ABS). ABS installations that are supplemented with EBFD react more quickly and deliver more situation-specific braking commands than older ABS setups.
2. EBFD systems are usually made up of three subcomponents that are monitored and guided by an electronic control unit (ECU). These components include speed sensors for each wheel (sensors that monitor how fast the wheel is rotating), brake-force modulators (a mechanism that increases or decreases brake-force applied to a wheel), an acceleration / deceleration sensor that detects the vehicle’s forward and sideways acceleration/deceleration, and usually a yaw sensor (a sensor that monitors a vehicle’s movement along its vertical axis).
3. The electronic control unit interprets the information from the speed and yaw sensors, and then sends commands to the brake-force modulators. Similar to how ABS setups operate; the ECU in EBFD systems is attached to the hydraulic brake-force modulator. So, while the ECU and brake modulator serve different purposes, they are physically combined into one electro-hydraulic unit.
4. EBFD works by monitoring each wheel’s responsiveness to the brake, and then tailoring the amount of brake-force applied to each wheel. In vehicles without EBFD, when you apply the brakes the brake-force is evenly distributed across all four wheels. The danger here is that if, for example, one of your wheels is on ice and locks up, you lose 25% of your braking power. On a vehicle with EBFD, the system would sense that one of the wheels is not braking properly, and would redistribute the brake-force to the unaffected wheels to obtain optimal braking power. This way, you retain the maximum amount of braking power possible and reduce the risk of fishtailing or spinning around.
5. The yaw sensor installed with most EBFD systems also helps prevent oversteering and understeering. Oversteering occurs when a vehicle continues to turn beyond the steering input of the driver, while understeering refers to cases where the vehicle does not turn enough in response to driver commands. Both oversteering and understeering are the result of insufficient traction on the road. If you begin to oversteer or understeer, the yaw sensor will record unusual movement along the vehicle’s vertical axis, and your EBFD system will react by applying either the brakes on the inner wheel (to correct understeering) or the brakes on the outer wheel (to correct oversteering).
guys, I am doing analysis on a cantilever rod (containing point load). The point load varies with time.
ie, the load is applied for about 60 seconds. And then no load is applied for about 3 minutes. This cycle continues. I have to do the fatigue analysis and harmonic analysis in ANSYS. How do i do it?
What will be the frequency range to do harmonic analysis for the above data.
I have Planned to refresh your knowledge in selection of the commercial parts,
Like Bearings, Ball screws, Linear Guides, servo motor, ac Motors. Hydraulic and pneumatic_ All file I will be uploaded is my personal notes,
time to time I will upload files to avoide your confusion
Today I would like to add file for bearing selection which is simple things some parts is written in marathi.
you may add me in your linked to get recent updated files or may get my hepl directly into your mail box
please feel free to caoncat me for design calculation and selection process.
Top 10 New Year Resolutions for A Mechanical Engineer
It will soon be 2015 and everyone has geared up with their own set of new year resolutions. This time let us team up to make resolutions for our community upliftment. Here are some of the ideas that you can add to your new year resolutions list. Good Luck!
1. Keep a Record of New Engineering IDEAS:
All of us get a set of ideas in our field which we just keep as a memory and that slowly fades away. It is always a good practice to store our ideas to put them into practise. You can do this by either maintaining a journal or storing them in form of chits in a jar!
2. INVEST in Mechanical Engineering Community:
Knowledge shared is knowledge enlightened. Let people from your community know your experiences, your ideas and advice. This investment will help build a brighter future ahead! Whether we are a student or a fresher or a professional, it is always good to share the useful knowledge we have received and what can be better than doing this on site https://mechanical-engg.com
3. Learn a NEW skill:
Mechanical Engineering is undoubtedly the most advancing field. You can learn a latest sofware, coding or even relearn some essential skills like CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)! It will help you to be updated! You can learn about the latest skills need and updates on this site!
4. Mentor a budding talent to design their career path:
There are innumerous number of people looking for guidance or professionals looking for a change in their career path! Why not help them to carve their career and dreams. One of the best ways to meet such mentors is on our forum
5. Engineering for CHANGE:
Change is the law of nature. The world needs the knowledge of a mechanical engineer. Why not do something in our locality! There are areas that need electricity, some sanitation and some water supply. Till there is a need, no one is bound to be unemployed!
6. Start a BLOG!
Do you have an idea that you want people to know? Do you want to share your experiences being an engineer? Or do you want to improvise your community through your flair of writing?
Dont think! Just start. Moreover you will gain recognition for your work! You can share your experiences with like minded professionals on
7. Read and distribute VISION 2020 and Wings of Fire:
Every Mechanical Engineer ought to read Vision 2020 and Wings of Fire by Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam which will give you a greater insight in your field. If you have already read it, recommended it to someone. Because giving is receiving!!!
8.Volunteer with local schools and colleges:
As a mechanical engineering professional or student, you always posses skills that are different. Why not volunteer in a local school with career programs, or as a professional in your local college for a course or tips!! Volunteer for a social cause and share your experience on
9. Specialize in your interest:
Are you good at drafting? Why not learn all about it, and participate in conference and presentations! Or are you good at solving analytical problems? Make a list of them and share to people. Focus on your STRENGTHS, not weaknesses.
10. Be a BETTER Parent, a BETTER Mechanical Engineer and a BETTER Person:
Though this came as last one, what is inside of you is unconsciously projected outside of you.
Help a co worker, design a new plan. guide someone, volunteer and see for areas of betterment in your area. Always strive to be a better person, because in the end all that really matters is what we do for others!
Do share your RESOLUTIONS for this new year or your previous ones!
Feel free to comment, share and like this post.
Your feedbacks and suggestions are valuable and hence always welcome!
WISHING A GREAT YEAR AHEAD. GOOD LUCK! HAPPY READING!
10 Self Improvement Activities
These self improvement activities will help you become more productive, get into the positive state of mind and achieve better quality of life.
In this article you will also find out how to use your energy effectively, what is the quickest way to achieve personal growth and how to excel in every activity.
1st Self Improvement Activity: Use your energy on important things
If you want to succeed in life, you should not waste your energy on activities that do not bring any benefits.
Such useless activities include surfing the internet without any purpose, watching TV, worrying and wasting money.
When you are involved in such activities, you have no or little energy left for activities that can create a better future. It is worth prioritising and accomplishing important tasks first, and then if you still have enough energy, you may decide to do the unimportant.
2nd Self Improvement Activity: Focus on one task at a time
If you want to get perfect results, you should only concentrate on one activity. This way all your energy will go into it and you will accomplish it perfectly.
If you waste your energy on several things at the same time, you will get average results because you will divide your energy between the activities.
3rd Self Improvement Activity: Control your thinking
To avoid chaos in your mind resulting in chaos in the outside world, you should try to observe your thoughts. Once you start doing that, you will notice how many negative thoughts you get daily.
By observing negative thinking you will be able to emotionally disengage from it. As a result, negative thinking will affect you less and you will notice that your days are getting more peaceful and positive.
4th Self Improvement Activity: Get organised
When you live in an organised manner, you do not suffer from stress and your life is peaceful and balanced. To start living this way, you should start planning your day in advance. This will eliminate any stress caused by being late to a meeting or forgetting to complete some task.
You should also live in tidiness because by keeping your home clean you also keep your mental state clear and peaceful. Such mental state will benefit you in many ways, including improved memory and less negativity.
5th Self Improvement Activity: Live in the present
Although this self improvement activity may seem strange to you, it is a very important activity that many ignore. The majority of people do not live in the present. They either dwell on their past or daydream about the future. They seem to forget the most important time of all the present.
You should enjoy every present moment because your current state of mind always manifests in the outside world, creating your future accordingly. Therefore if your main mood is very positive, you will experience only happy days. However, if you dwell on negative thoughts, you are sure to encounter many obstacles and misfortunes in the present and days to come.
6th Self Improvement Activity: Complete each task in a perfect manner
Whenever you are working on some project, try to accomplish it in the best way possible. Always ask yourself 'Is this project turned out as perfect as it could possibly be?' If the answer is no, try to correct or add something to it until there is nothing that you can improve.
This way you will make sure that each single task you accomplish is done in an excellent manner. By doing this you will create successful future because you cannot possibly fail if you only get perfect results.
Also, when you entirely focus on one task excluding everything else, you will notice that you start enjoying the task. If you concentrate on the task but still do not enjoy it, that means that you probably see the task as a means to an end rather than the process. You should start focusing on the process itself to find enjoyment in the task. Such enjoyment will fuel motivation and you will accomplish everything quicker and better. If you enjoy your work, you will put only positive energy into it. As a result, your completed tasks will bring you success.
7th Self Improvement Activity: Challenge yourself
Nothing develops you more than challenges. Challenges force you to shift your comfort zone, experience new situations and make you grow. Without challenges life would be very boring and depressing.
Challenges are necessary for every human being who is seeking quality life. Only through trial and error you realise who you really are, which activities you like and what preferences you have. You can easily measure the success of a person by the amount of challenges s/he had.
8th Self Improvement Activity: Read personal development books
There is nothing more important than searching information about self improvement. Without reading any self improvement books or articles you cannot improve yourself.
9th Self Improvement Activity: Socialize only with positive people
Positive people can inspire, empower and make you happy. It is so much worth to be at least once in a while with positive people rather than constantly spend time with negative friends or relatives. If you spend your days with, for example, lazy people, you may notice that you are becoming lazy.
If all your friends' main qualities are negative, try to avoid all of them. This way you will not be affected in a negative way and after some time will start attracting positive people.
10th Self Improvement Activity: Exercise
Daily exercise develops determination, focus and patience. It improves your health and strengthens your body. It makes you more active, positive and invincible. People who exercise every day are always perceived as strong-willed and disciplined.
These personal improvement activities are sure to put you on the track to success. I hope that you will apply the steps in this article and, as a result, will greatly improve the quality of your life.
The Importance of Reading
Reading relaxes the body and calms the mind.
Reading is a great form of entertainment!
Reading helps kids develop empathy.
Reading develops a child’s imagination.
Reading exercises our brains.
Reading improves concentration.
Reading teaches us about the world around them.
Reading improves a child’s vocabulary
Reading leads to more highly-developed language skills.
Reading makes us happy.
Reading can change your life style.
Reading make create new Ideas.
Reading activate your hidden thinks.
FUTURE ADVANCEMENT IN PELTON WHEEL TURBINE
The most common problem in the Pelton wheel turbine of most of the laboratories functioning is the problem in corrosion and problem in its repair during its breakdown due to its bulky nature. Common solutions for the above mentioned problems are:
· Routine maintenance of Pelton wheel turbine
· Careful handling of the Pelton wheel test rig
· Keeping its parts lubricated regularly
· Replacement of ineffective parts
However there have been no permanent solutions given to such kinds of problem.
So keeping in mind the inefficiency such problems cause, we have proposed a model wherein a flange with bearing is attached for rotational motion of the suction pipe.
The suction pipe of Pelton wheel is constantly submerged in water which moreover increases the corrosion of the pipe. So the rotational motion of the pipe helps to lift the pipe and keep it away from water thus helping the pipe from getting corroded.
The detail of the proposed model is given further. This model eliminates the cost incurred due to routine maintenance work, replacement of entire pipe and repairs.
Thus this model will be helpful in the increased efficiency of Pelton wheel test rig in the laboratories.
We have also discussed about the alternative methods that can be used which are readily available in market for construction of the basic concept of the proposed model.
5.2 Design of flange:
A: Hub dimensions:
Internal diameter of hub (d) = 120mm
Outer diameter of hub (D) = 150mm
Length of hub (l) = 0.5 (d)
B: Flange dimensions:
Outer diameter of flange (D3) = 250mm
Thickness of flange (t) = 0.2*(d)
= 25 mm
C: Bolt dimensions:
Bolt circle diameter (D2) = 210 mm
Diameter of hole for bolts (d2) = 18 mm
5.3 Design of bearing:
A bush bearing is used between the two pipes in order to have motion of the inner pipe. The bush is made of Bronze.
The design of bearing is as follows:
Load (F) = 20 kN
Speed (N) = 60 rpm
Wear (w) = 0.03 mm
Life (t) = 500 h
From the table 5.1,
pmax = 25 MPa
vmax = 0.3 m/s
pvmax = 1.636 MPa ms-1
From the SKF manufacturers catalogue (table 5.2),
Inner diameter = 45 mm
Outer diameter = 55 mm
Length of bush = 80 mm
We know that,
p = F/dl = (20 x 103)/(45 x 80) = 5.55 MPa
since 5.55 < 25 MPa, hence it is safe.
v = π d N = (π x 45x 10 -3 x 60) / 60 = 0.282 m/s
since 0.282 < 0.3 m/s, hence it is safe.
pv = 5.55 x 0.28 = 1.554 MPa.ms-1
1.554 < 1.636 MPa.ms-1, hence the design is safe.
Checking for wear,
w = K x p x v x t = 30 x 10-6 x 5.55 x 0.282 x 500 =0.0234 mm.
Hence, the design of bearing is safe
5.6 Other alternatives:
Comparison of Flexible coupling and the stainless steel flexible pipe connector:
In the market for achieving the transverse motion of the pipe we have stainless steel flexible pipe connector as shown in the figure.
The cost of this stainless steel pipe connector is 157$ of 12 inch which is equal to rs.7850 which is very costly. So we have manufactured a localized flexible coupling whose cost is around rs.2040 which is very much cheap than what is available in the market. The approximate life of our coupling is around 3-4 years if kept in a good condition.
Is Mechanical Engineering Really Good for Girls???
As I just checked my Shoutbox, I came across the most widely asked question by @Corrine Lovato:
“Hello, I am 4th year High school student. And I'm going to take BS Mechanical Engineering. My problem is, I AM A FEMALE. :3 Did you think guys, it suits me? I DO REALLY REALLY LIKE AND LOVE TO BE A MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SOMEDAY.... Any Advice guys? It may help me ) Thank you!! Mechanical Engineers and to be Mechanical Engineers.”
This is the most talked about, discussed and opinionated question for every girl who wish to pursue mechanical engineering and also for every parent who is in two minds for a daughter who wishes to pursue mechanical engineering.
As soon as I finished my high school, I strongly wished to pursue “Mechanical Engineering” because I was always curious since my childhood to know how machines work and always in awe with the perfection they delivered the outcome.
I believe, every girl who wishes to pursue this field goes through the following stages:
What Is Mechanical Engineering?
Mechanical Engineering is a discipline in which you ought to learn something from every field of engineering. From the theory of machines to its designing, from electronics to how motors work, from programming to database information retrieval system. If I could sum it all up, I can be a branch which is a Jack of all fields.
Also Mechanical Engineering is a branch where you find the least amount of girls or sometimes none at all!!
Do girls really have to go through the hard labour work while pursuing this course??
During the first two years, you have to complete your workshop duties which include working on lathe machines for manufacturing a component. It always seems tough at first, but it never is. And you always bound to get help from you fellow mates.
But the finishing given to the component is always given the BEST by the girls!!!
How actually is a life as a female mechanical engineer??
Firstly, you will have very very few female friends. Most of the friends you get from other branches like computers or electronics, whom you get to meet either during lunch time or sometimes not at all!
Secondly, you have no option left than to be with your male classmates. Believe me, male friends are more honest, helpful, selfless and dependable. Especially, the males who wish to uplift women than suppress them. It is always better to be focused and carve your own niche.
Because in the end it’s all about you!!!
Is there any scope for girls in mechanical engineering??
As I said, in the end it’s all about you. The world is changing and so is mentality of people.
After completion of Diploma in Mechanical Engineering, even being a “female”, I had a host of opportunities to work in well known companies.
You can go for research work, designing, internships, teaching, shop work and anything that matches your interest. Or better you can pursue your higher studies and specialize in it.
Remember :Where there is a will, there is a way!!!
Feel free to comment or ask about any doubts and questions!!
Any suggestions or feedback are also welcome!
What are the general considerations to be considered in designing of a machine component?
Figure is of Machine design steps - not general considerations
You can answer this question.
You can like the best answer.
You can share the question
You can get updates of new questions on Facebook linkedin twitter & google plus
What a Hybrid Machining process? Where one can use it?
You can answer this question.
You can like the best answer.
You can share the question
You can get updates of new questions on Facebook linkedin twitter & google plus
Cheers & very special thanks to each and every mechanical engineering professional for visiting the website in 2014 and making it count to reaching a historic milestone of 1 million hits.
Sharing with you stats which can also be seem live from link at the bottom of the page
Thanks and Regards
“Your passion is defined by what you breathe every moment, everyday.”
Designing in mechanical engineering is a field which needs a perfect blend of an analytical mind, out of the box thinking, skills and apt knowledge coupled with interest. And the opportunities in this field are abundant for ones looking for it.
Being a student, I found the opportunity to participate in such a competition organized by the Barry Wehmiller International in the competition DesignAce.
The initial step being qualifying for the pre-finals round and submitting your design based on guidelines given, completely designed on SolidWorks.
The pre finals round was held in a wide campus of Maharashtra Institute of Technology, Pune with around 15 teams shortlisted from Mumbai.
Given a time of 4 hours, and ONLY use of Solidworks, the following problem was given:
1. Design a mechanism to load a marble into a bottle one at a time.
2. The design should have a bucket to carry minimum 1000 marbles and should raise from a level of 3 ft to a level of 7 ft.
3. The motion from 3 ft to 6 ft is continuous.
4. From 6 ft to 7 ft, the bucket should index 1” and stop.
5. The indexing should happen until the bucket reaches a final height of 7 ft.
6. Upon reaching 7 ft, the bucket should be able to return to the base height of 3 ft.
7. The design should not use electric motors.
8. Weight of bucket is 30 kg.
The pictorial representation of the problem statement is as follows:
Though it was a great experience and really gave us a new way of thinking into designing problem, the city was welcoming and encouraging.
Do share and like the post if it was helpful .
I would like to receive suggestions on this design problem, if any.
For any clarification, questions and suggestions in the comment box.
In my first post I had written about the Eight principles of quality managementon which the standard of ISO 9001:2008 was based. As we are all aware that ISO 9001 is being revised by Technical committee of ISO “ISO/TC 176/SC 2-Quality Management and Quality Assurance/ Quality Systems” also know as ISO/TC 176 in short. A draft of the ISO 9001 standard was released on September 2013. The proposed standard is to be printed by the end of year 2015 and the standard is expected to be implemented from the year 2016.ISO 9001 is currently at the Draft International Stage (DIS), the fourth stage of a six stage process. Organisations are granted a three-year transition period after the revision has been published to migrate their quality management system to the new edition of the standard.
The key changes in the standards are
There is no quality manual.
It emphasis on organization context and risk base management
There is no requirement of management representative
The standard does not include a specific clause for “Preventive Actions”.
The terms “document” and “records” have been replaced with the term “documented information”. Documented procedure in iso 9001:2008 have been replaced by maintained documented information and Documented record in iso 9001:2008 have been replaced by retained documented information.
In 2008 version of the standard the term “product” was used. This term also included services. In the Committee Draft issued in 2013, this term was proposed to be changed to Product and Services
The term “continual improvement” has been replaced with “improvement”
The term product have been replaced by goods and services.
Outsourcing is now an external provision.The term “purchased product” has been replaced with “externally provided products and services”.The term “supplier” has been replaced with “External provider”.Control of external provision of goods and services address all forms of external provisions.
The new standard does not make any reference to the exclusions
The term “work environment” used in ISO 9001:2008 has been replaced with “Environment for the operation of processes”.
The proposed ISO 9001:2015 standard is based on the following Seven principles of Quality management. 1 – Customer Focus
The primary focus of quality management is to meet customer requirements and to strive to exceed customer expectations. Rationale
Sustained success is achieved when an organization attracts and retains the confidence of customers and other interested parties on whom it depends. Every aspect of customer interaction provides an opportunity to create more value for the customer. Understanding current and future needs of customers and other interested parties contributes to sustained success of an organization
This is the first of the Seven principles of Quality management and there is no change in the heading of this principle. The Eight principle definition stated “Organizations depend on their customers and therefore should understand current and future customer needs, should meet customer requirements and strive to exceed customer expectations.” The Seven principle definition states “The primary focus of quality management is to meet customer requirements and to strive to exceed customer expectations.“. Customer focused means putting your energy into satisfying customers and understanding that profitability comes from satisfying customers.There should be researching ,establishing and understanding current and future customer needs and expectations. The organization should ensure that the objectives of the organization are linked to customer needs and expectations. The top Management should communicate customer needs and expectations throughout the organization. There should be measuring customer satisfaction and acting on the results. the organization should ensure a balanced approach between satisfying customers and other interested parties.
click here to read more
As per ISO DIS 9000:2014, the definition of Context of the Organization is “business environment " , ”combination of internal and external factors and conditions that can have an effect on an organization’s approach to its products, services and investments and interested Parties“. The note states that this concept of Context of Organization is equally applicable to Not for profit organization, public service organization and governmental organization.Also in normal language this concept is also know as business environment, organizational environment or ecosystem of an organization.
The implementation of QMS should be the strategic decision of the organization and is influenced by the context of the organisation and the changes in that context. The changes in the context can be with respect to its specific objectives, the risks associated with its context and objectives, the needs and expectations of its customers and other relevant interested parties, the products and services it provides, the complexity of processes it employs and their interactions, the competence of persons within or working on behalf of the organization and its size and organizational structure.The context of an organization will include internal factors such as organizational culture, and external factors such as the socio-economic conditions under which it operates.The scope of ISO DIS 9001:2015 states that organization needs to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide products and services that meet customer and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements and aims to enhance customer satisfaction.
Any interested party which is not relevant to the quality management system need not be considered and similarly any requirement of the interested party need not be considered.Determining what is relevant or not relevant is dependent on whether or not it has an impact on the organization’s ability to consistently provide products and services that meet customer and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements or the organization’s aim to enhance customer satisfaction. The organization can decide to determine additional needs and expectations that will meet its quality objectives. However, it is at the organization’s discretion whether or not to accept additional requirements to satisfy interested parties beyond what is required by this Standard. There are a new clause relating to the context of the organization,
Clause 4 Context of the organization
This clauses require the organization to determine the issues and requirements that can impact on the planning of the quality management system.Interested parties cannot go beyond the scope of ISO 9001.There is no requirement to go beyond interested parties that are relevant to the quality management system.Consider impact on the organization’s ability to consistently provide products and services that meet customer and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements or the organization’s aim to enhance customer satisfaction.Organizations can go beyond the minimum requirements to determine additional needs and expectations for interested parties that would not be “relevant” at the discretion of organization and should be clear in quality management system. Clause 4.1 Understanding the Organization and its context
The organization should determine external and internal issues for the organization relevant to its purpose, strategic planning and which affect the organization’s ability to achieve its objectives . The Organization should monitor and review the information about external and internal issues.Management Review required the monitoring of external and internal issues. The organization must consider issues related to values,
culture knowledge and performance of the organization for understanding of internal issues. The organization must consider issues related to arising from legal, technological, competitive, market, cultural, social, and economic environments, whether international, national, regional or local for understanding of external context.
Clause 4.2 Understanding the needs and expectations of interested parties
The organization shall determine relevant interested parties and requirements of relevant interested parties. Interested parties include Customers, Partners,Persons in the organization, External providers. Relevant interested parties to be considered are those that potentially could impact the organization’s ability to provide products and services that meet requirements. Monitor and review information related to interested parties and relevant requirements.Management Review requires the monitoring of relevant interested parties.
Clause 4.3 Determining the scope of the quality management system
The organization must establish scope of the quality management system by determining the the boundaries and applicability of the quality management system. While determining the scope the organization must consider the internal and external issues determined in 4.1.,the requirements of relevant interested parties in 4.2. and the products and services of the organization. Requirements that can be applied by the organization shall be applied. Requirements that cannot be applied cannot affect the organization’s ability to provide product and services that meet requirements. The organization must maintain scope as documented information. stating the Products and services covered by the QMS and any Justification where a requirement cannot be applied. Clause 4.4 Quality management system and its processes
The organization must establish,implement, maintain and continually improve its quality management system as per the requirement of this standards by determining the process needed and its application through out the organization . While determining the processes, the organization must determine the inputs required and the outputs expected from these processes, the sequence and interaction of these processes,The organization must control these processes to ensure its effective operation. The organization must establish the criteria and methods which may include measurements and other related performance indicators to control these processes. The organization must ensure the availability of the resources needed for effective operation of these processes.The personnel having authorities and responsibilities for these processes must be identified. The organization must analysis these organization for risk and analysis and must take appropriate action to address them.There must be methods for monitoring, measuring, as appropriate, and evaluation of these processes. The organization must make changes in its process if it fails to achieve result. The organization must look opportunities for improve for these process and for Quality management system as a whole.The organization shall maintain documented information to the extent necessary to support the operation of processes and retain documented information to the extent necessary to have confidence that the processes are being carried out as planned.
Click here to read more
Understanding ISO 9001:2015
This post is a review of the Draft International Standard (DIS) of ISO 9001 published on 14th May 2014 and should be read along with my post Seven principles of Quality management as per ISO 9001:2015 committee draft.The information presented in this post related to the revision of ISO 9001 is not final and should not be used for making changes to existing quality management systems. The contents of ISO 9001:2015 are subject to change and should not be used in any contractual or legally binding agreements 1. Structure and terminology
The most significant change we will see in ISO 9001:2015 is the new structure. The reason for the change is to adopt the common approach outlined in Annex SL, the new document that all ISO management system standards, including ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and the recently released ISO 27001, must follow. Currently, ISO 9001 contains 8 sections, of which four attempt to approximate “plan, do, check, act.” The new structure, based on Annex SL, has 10 sections four of which also approximate to “plan, do, check, act.” All new management system standards will have this common structure. Here is the new structure:
This section describes the scope of the management system standard and will be unique to the individual standard.
This section references other relevant standards, which are indispensable for the application of the document and will also be unique.
Terms and Definitions
Section three contains definitions, and while some of these are common terms related to Annex SL, other definitions will be unique to the management system standard.
Context of the Organization
This part is about understanding the organization’s purpose, the management system and who the stakeholders are. It describes how to set up the management system and is similar in some respects to the old section 4 except that it explicitly requires a broader understanding of the situation and needs of the business.
This section provides requirements for commitment, policy and responsibilities. This section is similar to the old section 5 on Management but the emphasis is perhaps more on leadership than just management. This is a “soft” requirement and it will be interesting to see how it develops.
Planning is now a section on its own. Planning was always covered by the current standard in sections 4.1, 6.1, 7.1 and 8.1 but the new structure includes risk (which is now a clear requirement) and opportunities, the setting of goals and objectives to achieve plans, and resources. Interestingly, risk was introduced in AS9100 (the aerospace version of ISO 9001) in a similarly limited manner. In the latest version of AS9100, however, risk was expanded and defines a number of specific requirements/activities for a risk process. It will be interesting to see whether ISO will leave the requirement for risk as a general requirement as defined in Annex SL or whether it will take AS’s lead and expand it. This planning section also requires a greater application of goals and objectives to integrate with the management system’s planning and operation to generally facilitate success of the organization.
The support section includes most of the expected support processes that exist in an organization and which are covered in the current ISO standard. Human resources is renamed as “competence”, and communication, which will require a new approach in most organizations, is given its own section rather than a mention as a management responsibility. Finally, document control has been renamed “documented information.” It now covers both procedure/document control and records control.
This is a relatively short section, which essentially says “Do a good job” at whatever your management system is trying for. In the case of ISO 9001, that is quality and in the early drafts we have seen of ISO 9001, significant familiar content is added here including design, customers, purchasing and production/service (although many of the sections have new titles).
The section on evaluation includes monitoring, measurement and analysis, internal audits and management review. All familiar topics with some subtle changes.
Improvement covers nonconformity and corrective action, as well as continual improvement, all of which are outlined in section 8 of the current standard. There is no preventive action section any more as effectively it is replaced by “risk” under planning – improvement is now defined as a proactive planning activity. Click here to learn more