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Many of you have asked me various questions, so now it is my turn. Let me lay a bit of background first, and then the questions.
I have had some conversations recently with JAG (one of the other writers here at ME Forums) regarding the choice of software for 3D modeling and analysis. JAG has made some excellent suggestions, specifically a cloud based program called Onshape. Unfortunately, for reasons that are unclear, my computer cannot run Onshape; I have worked with their help people for several hours, all to no avail. JAG recommends this in part because there is a "free version for the hobbyist" and a relatively inexpensive "full version for the professional." That is pretty attractive, but since I can't run it, I'm stuck.
I gather that virtually all engineering colleges these days are teaching some sort of 3D modeling and analysis software, but that raises a few questions in my mind.
1. If your college teaches brandX 3D software, what will you do when you go to work for a small company that cannot afford anything more than 2D drafting (simple CAD), with no analysis capability at all? How will you do your job then? You probably have your own pocket calculator, but will you have your own copy of ANSYS or Pro-E?
2. What software does your school teach (every students should have an answer to this question, so I expect lots of replies on this one!)?
3. If you have used software extensively for analysis of engineering problems (beam deflections, stress analysis, fluid flow, heat transfer, etc), are you confident that you will be able to work all of those problems if there is no such software available to you on the job?
I might add, as sort of a postscript, most of you know that I am older than dirt (I just had another birthday, so the situation is even worse!), so I tend to look at things from an elderly perspective. One of my great fears as a working engineer was "What will happen when I'm ask to do something that I don't know how to do?" It happened more than once, and it usually resulted in a flurry of intense research to come up to speed on whatever topic was involved. I could usually do that because I have a pretty good library, and I knew how to use a university library as well. But in terms of software, I was always concerned that I had no FEA program, so how could I do problems that others were doing by FEA? I have come up with some interesting work-arounds, including writing my own FEA for some problems, but I never wanted to be dependent on software that I could not afford to own. So, back to my questions about: How are you going to buy your own copy of ANSYS?
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I got my first 3D printed aluminium alloy parts. As the image shows it looks like it’s been manufactured using casting. The 3D printing technology used to print these parts is called Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS). It’s one of many 3D printing technologies available these days
More pictures here
Manufacturing processes have come a long way since the industrial revolution and with the introduction of new technologies such as additive manufacturing, it will only get better and more advance. But as Mechanical and manufacturing engineers ( and Product designers) how well do we know various manufacturing processes available. Are we slowly losing some of the oldest manufacturing techniques.
Test your manufacturing process knowledge here and see how well you understand the different processes....
Manufacturing process survey
Hoists Direct is a supplier and service provider of hoists, overhead cranes, below-the-hook devices and winches to heavy industry. The company distributes all leading hoist, winch and overhead crane brands and has in-house engineering resources to design custom overhead lifting devices for complex industrial hoisting applications throughout North America.
Hoists Direct kits workstation cells using jib cranes, electric hoists and radio remote controls to handle the 1 to 5 ton overhead lifting requirements in large manufacturing environments. All kits are engineered to end user specifications, including capacity, lift, suspension and mounting hardware. Workstation cell kits provide an economic and ergonomic way to lift heavy equipment up to 14 feet high in a 360 degree motion and are often found at the end of a light-to-medium duty conveyor system. Hoists Direct workstation crane kits can lift up to 5 ton capacity within a 30 foot span and can be installed at a height up to 14 feet. Special options are available, including wall mounted options for 180 degree coverage and stainless steel and explosion proof casing, to handle unique environments.
Not all workstation cell kits offered by Hoists Direct are suitable for all environments. For lifting environments above 14 feet, Hoists Direct also offers bridge crane kits that include a wire rope hoist, festooning, end trucks and radio remote controls providing contractors and industrial end users a simple option to install a high capacity overhead lifting solution. The most popular bridge crane kits are up to 10 ton (20,000 pound) capacity. Engineered bridge cranes up to 300 ton capacity and up to a 200 foot span are also available for heavy lift applications.
There is a side magnetic braking device in hoist motor,when the electric power is cut off,It will stop the motor immediately.
But in some case,there will be brake failing, and threaten worker's life.
So how to prevent the failing and repair the brake.
Monorail hoist brake failing
How to obtain the hoist's work rank?
The work rank is the comprehensive working characteristic parameter of the crane.
The high capacity doesn’t means the high work rank.
Even if the hoist has the same capacity, the safety factor of the components is different as long as the work level is different.
If the low work rank hoist be used in full load frequently, it will accelerate the vulnerable parts scrapped, and even cause the accident.
For detail: Monorail hoist work rank
Adapted from: Kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery by Robert L. Norton.
Download the much better formatted .PDF version from here: LINK
At times the designer would like to design a mechanism that would have to go through three positions. In this case the designer would start with the required three positions of the coupler and would work his way to decide on the location of the two pivot points for the ground link. The location of the two pivot points is not the result of the designer’s choice, but is decided by the geometry of the three positions required. This is not practical; often times the designer is constrained to work with specific pivot points to form the ground link while still achieving the required three positions by the coupler motion. This article discusses one of the simplest methods to go about doing that.
Let’s talk a look at this problem:
Figure1: Problem Statement
Design fourbar linkage to move the link CD shown between the positions C1D1 to C2D2 and then to C3D3. Use specified fixed pivots O2 and O4.
The first thing we need to do is to “invert” the problem. The way to do this is to think about the coupler (C1D1) as the ground instead and the ground (O2O4) as the coupler. For now we have one ground, (C1D1), and we have only one position for the coupler (O2O4). We are going to find two more positions for the now coupler (O2O4) that would correspond to the two other positions (C2D2). To do this we need to define the relation between The coupler and the ground.
Draw construction arcs from point C2 to O2 and from point D2 to O2 whose Radii define the sides of triangle C2O2D2. This defines the relationship of the fixed pivot O2 to the coupler line CD in the second coupler position. Draw construction arcs from C2 to O4 and from point D2 to O4 to define the triangle C2O4D2. This defines the relationship of the fixed pivot O4 to the coupler line CD in the second position.
After locking the relative location of O2O4 in relation to the second position C2D2, it is time to slide this ground, now coupler, to its new location as if it wasn’t the ground but the coupler. That’s to say, we are trying to answer the question: if C1D1 is the ground, where would the coupler, O2O4, be in the second position?
You can imagine this happening by sliding the triangle along the two lines C2C1 and D2D1. This results in a new position for O2’O4’. By doing this, we have pretended that the ground link moved from O2O4 to O2’O4’ instead of the coupler moving from C1D2 to C2D2. We have effectively inverted the problem.
Now we have two positions for the now coupler, O2O4; O2O4 and O2’O4’. We need another third position to correspond with the third position C3D3. To do this, we need to repeat the same process again by defining the relation of the link O2O4 in relation to C3D3 after that we need to shift it back to C1D1 as if the link O2O4 was the coupler not the ground.
Performing this will result in the third position O2’’O4’’. This is the relative location of the link O2O4 in its third position as a coupler in relation to the new ground link C1D1. Now we have three positions for the pretended coupler O2O4. O2O4, O2’O4’ and O2’’O4’’
Right now the problem is fully redefined; we have three positions for the newly decided coupler O2O4 and the link CD in the first location C1D1. We can now rename those three positions O2O4, O2’O4’ and O2’’O4’’ to E1F1, E2F2 and E3F3. We can now deal with the three positions as we would normally solve for three position coupler problem. First we need to draw the lines E1E2 and E2E3. Then we have to draw the perpendicular bisectors of these lines. The bisectors will intersect in point G. We repeat the same process for point F; draw lines F1F2 and F2F3 then draw the perpendicular bisector of these lines. These two bisectors will intersect in point H.
Now we have a fourbar linkage, GEFH, in which the coupler, EF, goes through three positions.
If you recall, EF is not actually our coupler. EF represents our ground O2O4. What we need to do now is to re-invert the problem again to its original form. By switching EF to be the ground link and GH to be the coupler link we reach at this linkage.
Now we have our coupler, link GH, that should be connected back to the first position that we wish to achieve; C1D1. By extending link 3, GH, to reach to C1D1 we form our final mechanism that guides the coupler, link 3 (HGCD) through the three required positions.
The final thing we need to do is to add a driver Dyad to drive the link O4H. This is simply done by treating O4H as rocker in a crank rocker design problem. The rocker, now O4H, has to pass through H2 and H3 to result in the required motion. Afterwards, the final mechanism is checked for toggle positions and that it can reach the required positions smoothly and in orderly fashion.
In conclusion, the designer is not limited to the resulting fixed pivots for the solution of three positions coupler problems. By using the illustrated method, the design can specify the required fixed pivots and the required coupler motion and work his way around to getting those two requirements achieved.
Adapted from: Kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery by Robert L. Norton.
LightSail Energy is one of the most eminent startups that hails from Silicon Valley founded by Danielle Fong, Steve Crane, and Ed Berlin in 2009. LightSail Energy has the concept of low-cost grid-scale energy storage solution in order to optimise power grids, democratizing access to energy and adhere on sustainable development. Investors such as Khosla Ventures, Innovacorp, Triple Point Capital, Peter Thiel, Bill Gates have invested in LightSail Energy.
LightSail Energy produces one of the world cleanest and economical storage systems.The website of the startup is http://www.lightsail.com/ They have designed an excellent method of capturing heat energy and regenerating useful energy from compressing air. The process involves injecting fine, a dense mist of water spray which rapidly absorbs heat energy of compression and provides it during expansion. The system is fully reversible. To store energy, the system draws electricity from the grid and converts it into compressed air and heat. To deliver energy, compressed air and heat are turned back into electricity using the same system.
The system has 300+ hours of operation, 10 degrees Celcius temperature difference, 1000 rpm reciprocating piston compressor/expander and 250 KW highest power achieved. For low-cost storage, air is packed in a convenient shipping container and for large storage, underground caverns are used. This way of storing energy could be helpful in transforming intermittent wind and solar power into baseload energy.
Voxel8 was founded in 2014 by scientists and engineers from Harvard University. This company was supported by Braemar Energy Ventures and ARCH Venture Partners. This company aims at developing digital footwear manufacturing systems which revolutionalize how footwear products are designed, manufactured and sold to the customers. In July, the company raised funding of $12 million to which Autodesk also contributed.It has also been named as one of the MIT Technology Reviews of 50 smartest companies in 2015.
Voxel8's engineering grade polyurethanes are printed using ActiveMix system which enables programmable control of composition, geometry, mechanical properties of printed features on upper and 3D shapes. Voxel8 printer can pause automatically during a print to allow for electronic components to be placed inside specially printed cavities. Then the same machine can print the conductive traces connecting those components before completing the project. The ability to smoothening the printing process is done through innovative silver ink. Also, AutoDesk developed a new piece of software Project Wire from the ground to top in order to print 3D electronic devices.
The digital manufacturing system of Voxel8 has short design and production cycle; utilizes zero tooling; is compact, flexible, scalable enabling localized production and distribution to minimize warehousing and shipping cost.
Triple-volute centrifugal pump can handle up to 20 percent entrained air, where a typical centrifugal pump can only deal with air entrainment levels of 5 to 8 percent.
Along with entrained air, cavitation is a top candidate for causing pump problems.
Cavitation occurs when the pump’s internal pressures are lower than the vapor pressure of the liquid which results in rapid vapor formation within the pump which collapse as the liquid is swept into the higher pressure regions of the pump. The cavitation effect may cause material damage to the impeller and possibly casing, which is resultant of the sudden formation and implosion of vapor bubbles.
The frequencies recorded of cavitation “hammering” are from 1,000 cycles per second up to 25,000 cycles per second and the resultant damage is generally termed pitting. The noise (sand, gravel, rumbling) heard outside the pump during cavitation, is caused by the collapse of the vapor bubbles.
The energy expended in accelerating the liquid to high velocity in filling the void left by the bubble is a loss, and causes the drop in head associated with cavitation. The loss in capacity is the result of pumping a mixture of vapor and liquid instead of liquid. Even a slight amount of cavitation will reduce the capacity significantly. Entrained air gets into a pump, the lower-pressure bubbles become larger. If an air bubble gets big enough to cover the impeller eye, the pump becomes airbound.
A generality to keep in mind when evaluating entrained air vs. cavitation is this:
1) If it’s entrained air, the liquid entering the pump already has liquid and air. In the pump it’s liquid and air. And it comes out liquid and air.
2) With most traditional cavitation, the liquid coming into the pump is fully liquid. As soon as it hits the inlet of the pump, it starts to vaporize and comes out as liquid.
Only about 75 percent of cavitation creates pump noise but the material damage is always there. In cavitation, the pitting damage on the impeller.
Three rules of thumb for determining whether cavitation is causing pump performance problems:
1) Throttle the discharge and check the noise – Throttle back the pump on the discharge (not the suction) to lower the flow rate. If the pump noise goes away, it’s about an 80 percent probability that cavitation is the problem.
2) Raise the liquid level and check for noise – If you raise the liquid level in the supply tank and the pump noise goes away, it’s about an 80 percent probability of cavitation.
3) Cool the liquid and check for noise – If the process liquid is normally at 200°F and you cool it to 180°F and the pump noise goes away, it’s probably cavitation.
A brake which uses air as a working fluid is known as pneumatic brake. The system actuated to apply this phenomenon is know as pneumatic brake system.
An pneumatic brake system or a compressed air brake system is a type of friction brake for vehicles in which compressed air pressing on a piston is used to apply the pressure to the brake pad needed to stop the vehicle.
Construction of pneumatic braking system
The simplest air brake system consists of
An air compressor
A brake valve
series of brake chambers at the wheels
A pressure gauge and a safety valve
and an air reservoir.
These are all connected by tubes.
Some air braking systems may have additional components such as
stop light switch
low pressure indicator
An air supply valve to supply air for tyre inflation
A quick release air quickly from the front brake chambers when the brake pedal is released
A limiting valve for limiting the maximum pressure in the front brake chambers and a relay valve to help in quick admission and release of air from the rear brake chambers.
Working of pneumatic braking system
The air compressor operated by the engine forces air at a pressure of 9-10 kscm (kilo standard cubic meters) through the water and oil separator to the air reservoir.
The air pressure in the reservoir is indicated by a pressure gauge.
The reservoir contains enough compressed air for several braking operations. From the reservoir the air is supplied to the brake valve.
As long as brake pedal is not depressed, brake valves stop the passage of air to brake chambers and there is no braking effect.
When the brake pedal is depressed, the brake valves varies its position and compressed air is admitted into the wheel brake chambers.
In the chambers the air acts upon flexible diaphragms, moves them the pushes out the rods connected with the levers of the brake gear cams.
The cams turn and separate the shoes thus braking the wheels.
When the brake pedal is released, the supply of compressed air is cut off from the brake chambers and they are connected to the atmosphere.
The pressure in the chambers drops, the brake shoes are returned to their initial position and the wheels run free.
The brake valve is equipped with a servo mechanism which ensures that the braking force on the shoes is proportional to the force applied to the pedal.
Besides the valve imparts a relative reaction to the movement of the pedal so that the driver can sense the degree of brake application.
IMAGE SOURCE :- google
A Journal of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics by DrD, # 44
Machinery Dynamics Research, 2017
Mouse Trap / Pendulum Dynamics Challenge - Part I
Mice are a problem all over the world, and as a result, I'm sure that there are mouse traps of various sorts found everywhere. It would be utterly amazing if this were not true! In the USA, there is a very common type of mouse trap that I have seen used all my life, the sort of system shown below in Figure 1. I want to spend a few minutes discussing this mouse trap, to be certain that all readers understand how it works, before moving on to the main part of the post.
A Journal of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics by DrD, #43
(c) Machinery Dynamics Research, 2017
Four-Bar / Toggle Linkage Mechanism
I believe that it would be correct to say that all of the single degree of freedom mechanisms that I have discussed on ME Forums have involved only a single loop. This might lead a reader to conclude that a single degree of freedom implies only a single loop, and vice versa, that a single loop implies only a single degree of freedom. Neither of these statements is true. In this note, I want to discuss a counter example, a mechanism called the four-bar / toggle linkage; it is shown in Figure 1.
A Journal of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics by DrD
July 31, 2017
Over at the Kinematics of Machines club, I recently ask if anyone could show me an example of a four-bar linkage that would be classed as a triple rocker. In the terminology of four-bar linkages, a link is classed as either a crank or a rocker:
Crank - can rotate in a complete circle
Rocker - cannot rotate in a complete circle]
Thus my question was for an example of a four-bar linkage where no link is able to rotate around a full circle. My request has not generated any answers, but fortunately, I stumbled onto one.
Since the definition of a rocker is a link that cannot rotate completely, it is evident that the linkage shown is in fact a Triple Rocker. None of the links is able to move through a complete revolution. If we try to rotate the input (left) link further down, it cannot happen without stretching the combination of the coupler and the output (right) links. When the input link (left side) gets to the top, again its motion is stopped by the need to stretch the coupler and output link. Thus, a figure I drew as an illustration for something else turns out to be a Triple Rocker, the item I was looking to find.
In connection with four-bar linkages, some readers will have heard of Grashof's theorem. Let
s = length of shortest link
L = length of the longest link
p, q = lengths of the two intermediate links
Grashof's theorem says that a necessary and sufficient condition for at least one link to be a crank (able to rotate entirely around), it is necessary that
s + L < p + q
This inequality is not satisfied for the four-bar that I drew by chance, so Grashof's theorem says that none of the links can be a crank. That is precisely the condition required for a Triple Rocker (a ground link plus three moving but not fully rotating links). So, there you have it. That is an example of a Triple Rocker, and we now have the criteria for identifying such as a four-bar linkage that does not satisfy Grashof's Theorem.
An engine or motor is a machine,designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy.Heat engine burn a fuel to create heat, which is then used to create a force. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion; pneumatic motors use compressed air and clockwise motors in wind up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and eventually motion.
TYPES OF ENGINE
(i). External combustion engine: In external combustion engine, the combustion of fuel takes place outside the engine. Example: steam engine.(ii). Internal combustion engine: In internal combustion engine, the combustion of fuel takes place inside the engine. Two stroke and four stroke petrol and diesel engine are the examples of internal combustion engine.
1.The I.C. engines are classified on the following basis:
(i). Reciprocating engine: In reciprocating engine, there is a piston and cylinder, the piston does reciprocating (to and Fro) motion within the cylinder. Due to the reciprocating motion of the piston, it is called reciprocating engine. 2 stroke and four stroke engines are the common examples of reciprocating engine.
(ii). Rotary engine: In rotary engine, the rotor does rotary motion to produce power. There is no reciprocating motion. A rotor is present in the chamber which does rotary motion inside a chamber. Wankel rotary engine , turbine engines are the rotary types of engine.
2. Types of Fuel Used
On the basis of types of fuel used, the engine is classified as petrol engine, diesel engine and gas engine.
(i). Petrol engine: The engine which uses petrol for its working is called petrol engine.
(ii). Diesel engine: The engine which uses diesel for its working is called diesel engine.
(iii). Gas engine: An engine using gas fuel for the working is called gas engine.
3.Cycle of Operation
On the basis of cycle of operation the engine types are:
(i). Otto cycle engine: These types of engine works on Otto cycle.
(ii). Diesel cycle engine: The engine working on diesel cycle is called diesel cycle engine.
(iii). Dual cycle engine or semi-diesel cycle engine: The engine that works on both diesel as well as Otto cycle is called dual cycle engine or semi diesel cycle engine.
4.Number of Strokes
On the basis of number of stroke, the types of engine are:
(i). Four Stroke Engine: It is an engine in which the piston moves four times i.e.2 upward (form BDC to TDC) and 2 downward (from TDC to BDC) movement in one cycle of power stroke is called four stroke engines.
(ii). Two Stroke Engine: The engine in which the piston does two times motion i.e. one from TDC to BDC and other from BDC to TDC to produce a power stroke is called two stroke engines.
(iii). Hot spot ignition engine: This type of engine is not in practical use.
5. Type of Ignition
On the basis of ignition, the engines are classified as:
(i). Spark ignition engine (S.I. engine): In spark ignition engine there is a spark plug which is fitted at the engine head. The spark plug produces spark after the compression of the fuel and ignites the air fuel mixture for the combustion. The petrol engines are spark ignition engine.
(ii). Compression ignition engine (C.I. engine): In Compression ignition engine there is no spark plug at the cylinder head. The fuel is ignited by the heat of the compressed air. The diesel engines are compression ignition engine.
6. Number of Cylinders
On the basis of number of cylinders present in the engine, the types of engine are:
(i). Single cylinder engine: An engine which consists of single cylinder is called single cylinder engine. Generally the single cylinder engines are used in motorcycles, scooter, etc.
(ii). Double cylinder engine: The engine which consists of two cylinders is called double cylinder engine.
(iii). Multi cylinder engine: An engine which consists of more than two cylinders is called multi cylinder engine. The multi cylinder engine may have three, four, six, eight, twelve and sixteen cylinder.
7. Arrangement of Cylinders
On the basis of arrangement of cylinders the engines classification is:
(i). Vertical engine: in vertical engines, the cylinders are arranged in vertical position as shown in the diagram.
(ii). Horizontal engine: In horizontal engines, the cylinders are placed horizontal position as shown in the diagram given below.
(iii). Radial engine: The radial engine is reciprocating type internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders radiate outward from a central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel. When it is viewed from the front, it resembles a stylized star and is called a ‘star’ engine. Before the gas turbine engine is not become predominant, it is commonly used for aircraft engines.
(iv). V-engine: In v types of engine, the cylinders are placed in two banks having some angle between them. The angle between the two banks is keep as small as possible to prevent vibration and balancing problem.
(v). W type engine: In w type engines, the cylinders are arranged in three rows such that it forms W type arrangement. W type engine is made when 12 cylinder and 16 cylinder engines are produced.
(vi). Opposed cylinder engine: In opposed cylinder engine, the cylinders are place opposite to each other. The piston and the connecting rod show identical movement. It is runs smoothly and has more balancing. The size of the opposed cylinder engine increase because of its arrangement.
8. Valve Arrangement
According to the valve arrangement of the inlet and exhaust valve in various positions in the cylinder head or block, the automobile engines are classified into four categories. These arrangements are named as ‘L’, ‘I’, ‘F’ and ‘T’. It is easy to remember the word ‘LIFT’ to recall the four valve arrangement.
(i). L-head engine: In these types of engine, the inlet and exhaust valves are arranged side by side and operated by a single camshaft. The cylinder and combustion chamber forms and inverted L.
(ii). I-head engine: In I-head engines, the inlet and exhaust valves are located in the cylinder head. These types of engine are mostly used in automobiles.
(iii). F-head engine: It is a combination of I-head and F-head engines. In this, one valve usually inlet valve is in the head and the exhaust valve lies in the cylinder block. Both the sets of valve are operated by the single camshaft.
(iv). T-head engine: In T-head engines, the inlet valve located at one side and the exhaust valve on other side of the cylinder. Here two camshafts are required to operate, one for the inlet valve and other one is for the exhaust valve.
9. Types of cooling
On the basis of types of cooling, the engines are classified as:
(i). Air cooled engines: In these engines, the air is used to cool the engines. In air cooled engines the cylinder barrels are separated and metal fins are used which provides radiating surface area that increase cooling. The air cooled engines are generally used in motorcycles and scooters.
(ii). Water cooled engines: In water cooled engines, the water is used for the cooling of engine. Water cooled engines are used in cars, buses, trucks and other four wheeled vehicles, heavy duty motor vehicles. An anti-freezing agent is added in the water to prevent it from freezing during cold weather. Every water cooled engines has radiator for the cooling of hot water from the engine.
Beside above types of engine, the internal combustion engine is also classified on the basis of the following.
On the basis of speed, the types of engines are:
(i). Low speed engine
(ii). Medium speed engine
(iii). High speed engine
2. Method of Fuel Injection
On the basis of method of fuel injection the engines are classified as:
(i). Carburetor engine
(ii). Air injection engine
(iii). Airless or solid injection engine
3. Method of Governing
(i). Hit and miss governed engine: It is an engine type in which the entry of the fuel is controlled by the governor. It controls the speed of the engine by cutting off the ignition and fuel supply of the engine at very high speed.
(ii).Quantitative governing: In this system of governing, the quality of charge (i.e. air-fuel ratio of the mixture) is kept constant. But the quantity of mixture supplied to the engine cylinder is varied by means of a throttle valve which is regulated by the centrifugal governor through rack and pinion arrangement.
the part load efficiency of SI engine is poor because air fuel ratio remains constant even if we need low power
(iii).Qualitative governing: In this system of governing, a control valve is fitted in the fuel delivery pipe, which controls the quantity of fuel to be mixed in the charge. The movement of control valve is regulated by the centrifugal governor through rack and pinion arrangement.
part load efficiency of I C engine is good because we can use lean mixture and rich mixtures easily according to our requirement
(i). Stationary engine: Stationary engine is an engine in which its framework does not move. It is used to drive immobile equipment like pump, generator, mill or factory machinery etc.
(ii). Automotive engine: These are the types of engines which are used in automobile industries. For example: petrol engine, diesel engine, gas engine are internal combustion engines falls in the category of automotive engine.
(iii). Locomotive engine: The engines which are used in trains are called locomotive engines.
(iv). Marine engine: The engines which are used in marines for boat or ship propulsion is called marine engine.
(v). Aircraft engine: Types of engine which are used in aircraft is called aircraft engine. Radial and gas turbine engines are used in aircraft propulsion.
So, we have a pinion and a gear. I give an input torque Tp in the clockwise direction. Therefore, the pinion will rotate with ωp angular velocity in clockwise and the gear ωg in counter-clockwise. There is a load TL against the gear motion. The bearing friction both in pinion and gear are considered by means of linearly-viscous damping coefficients cp and cg for pinion and gear, respectively. The friction between the gear mesh is neglected at this point. The moments of inertia of the pinion and the gear are Ip and Ig, respectively. Moreover, the radii of the pinion and the gear are rp and rg, respectively. My question is what the output torque To is because I want to find the efficiency of this gear pair.
I have tried four options for To and simulated them in MATLAB, but I have not found the correct results yet. Followings are the explanation of each option I tried for To.
The sketch in Figure 1 and the two paragraphs following are exactly as posted by the original questioner. There follows on PF a long sequence of responses and more questions, but he still seems no closer to understanding what is going on. Let us see what we can do to help him.
Before someone thinks badly of me for not helping him, let me say that I did give several hints, but the rules of PF forbid me to actually post an analysis. I have been severely scolded in the past for doing just that.
42 Gear Pair Problem.pdf
Agriculture is the backbone of the strong economy. Agriculture is demographically the broadest sector and plays an important role in the overall economic development in India since India ranks second worldwide in farm outputs. So, this is another Mechanical Startup Story from the Agriculture based start-up Sickle Innovations.
Sickle Innovations started in 2014 by the encouragement of Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing and Indian Institute of Science Bangalore. Since in Indian demographic scenario, not the availability of farm labors, low profits and labor drudgery problems are encountered frequently, the aim of the startup involves developing innovative mechanization solutions through Design Thinking.
The startup's website goes as follows http://www.sickle.in/ The mango stem and transport it safely to the ground with the product name Hectare. The Cotton Picking Machine; being the second largest producer of cotton, challenges such as manual labor, intensive labor health problems have to be tackled by cotton producers. This handheld machine was developed by the company with patented technology that can double labor efficiency and enhances farmer income by 50%. The design eliminates injuries from cotton bur pricks and is self-powered fully automatic harvesting machine.
Being the world's largest producer of milk and bovine population 3 times larger than USA, milk production per cow/buffalo is lower.Imported machines cannot suffice the need of country environments and cow breeds.Hence, the design of the company's machine keeps full potential with the local scenario.
Hence, startups are equally important when it comes to tackling small or huge problems in day to day scenario with innovative simple solutions. Keep Going Ahead and Keep Bringing Innovative Ideas!!!
Quand on pense du laser puissant, nous pensons peut-être un pointeur laser de 10W. Prix sur le pointeur laser sont important. Il n'est pas facile de réussir sur le marché mondial d'aujourd'hui. Nous sommes des années-lumière d'avance en vous aidant à atteindre cet objectif.
Le pointeur laser bleu est en fait un outil idéal pour brûler des étoffes, avec le réglage de la focalisation du faisceau laser, le laser 30000mw puissant peut allumer des allumettes, du papier ou d'autres objets imflammable comme un briquet peut faire mais avec le laser brûlant, vous serez Capable d'allumer les objets à une certaine distance sans se fermer.
En validant la conception l'intégrité et la vérification de fabricabilité tôt dans le développement du processus, des économies considérables de temps et le développement des coûts, amélioration de la productivité du pointeur laser, de fabrication et accélération du time-to-market est possible. Ces lasers peuvent être installés en permanence ou mis en place sur une base portable donc ils peuvent être déplacés d'un endroit à l'autre pour répondre au besoin d'éclairage intérieur ou sans le bâtiment.
Avec d'innombrables rapports critisés sur le danger du pointeur laser puissant bleu 10000mw de haute puissance pour les corps humains, j'insiste pour que tout ce qui peut brûler un incendie soit dangereux au même degré, un briquet ou un couteau normal nuisent également aux humains, mais cela ne veut pas dire que les gens Ne devrait pas utiliser ces outils, de grands outils électriques apportent plus de risques, le bon fonctionnement est la chose la plus importante avant d'utiliser un outil de gravure.
Parmi les méthodes de fabrication plus efficaces et plus rentables, la technologie laser est parfaite pour un moyen simple de créer toutes les formes et les tailles des composants dont vous avez besoin ! Le pointeur laser 10000mw adopte les techniques de stimulation et d'amplification pour convertir l'énergie électrique en un faisceau à haute densité de lumière ; C'est une technologie puissante entre les mains de professionnels qualifiés.
En fait, les pointeurs laser classe 3 ou 4 ne sont dangereux que lorsque les lumières laser brillantes tirent ou réfléchissent vers le corps humain, en particulier les yeux. La puissance supérieure, le temps d'exposition à causer des dégâts sera plus court. Évitez le faisceau laser tout comme pour éviter que le feu ne vous brûle, cela suffit à vous protéger, un lunette laser professionnelle sera un plus pour garder vos yeux en sécurité si vous devez regarder le laser brillant pendant une longue période.
Holla People!!!! Since it has been a long time I was waiting for starting the blog on Mechanical Startups, my first entry to the new blog starts with the few hardware startups in India. ATHER ENERGY is a privately owned founded by Swapnil Jain and Tarun Mehta in 2013 headquartered in Bangalore Karnataka.
This budding startup has received fundings from Hero Motocorp, Tiger Global & Flipkart. Profoundly being a part of Automotive industry and producing electric vehicles, in the in-house designed Lithium-ion battery pack design. The Ather S340 has a touchscreen dashboard connected to the cloud, host of smart features and offers a top speed of 72 kph. The scooter is designed in-house by Ather and will be manufactured in India.
Their website is known as
The Ather S340 features from remote diagnosis to onboard navigation and rider behavior. The S340 stands for S (Scooter), 3 for 3KWH, 4 for 40 Amp-Hour Battery Capacity. It has lightweight aluminum chassis and can reach speeds of 72 kph and a range of up to 60 km. The vehicle can charge up to 80% in 50 minutes in fast charging mode.
The Ather S340 has a Linux based dashboard with the 7-inch touch screen that integrates with cloud-based data through a 3G SIM card to enable constant data transfer and updates.The rider can create his user profile on the scooter, access onboard navigation and use the touch screen to switch between two modes - Sports and Economy. Different sensors installed in the scooter allow it to send all the information about rider behavior and riding pattern like braking, acceleration, mileage, efficiency to the cloud.Ather energy can also carry out upgrades on the scooter over the air due to 24X7 internet connectivity, without the need to bring the scooter to the manufacturer.
The vehicles produced by ATHER ENERGY are covered under FAME (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &)Electric Vehicles) scheme that offers incentives to the electric and hybrid vehicles ranging from Rs.1,800 to Rs.29,000 for scooters and motorcycles and Rs.1.38 Lac for cars. FAME is a part of National Electric Mobility Mission Plan by Government of India. As per the scheme, the customer can get the incentive in form of lower cost of the hybrid or electric vehicles at the time of purchase and the manufacturer can claim the incentive from the government at the end of each month.
A Journal of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics by DrD, #41
(c) Machinery Dynamics Research, July 2017
What do you know about hysteresis? Many Mechanical Engineers will associate this term with the magnetization curve of a piece of magnetic material, and quickly conclude, "I don't have to worry about that!" But that would be wrong. While hysteresis does occur in magnetic systems, it happens in many other situations as well, many of them situations of concern to mechanical engineers.
Figure 1 Typical Hysteresis Curve
Figure 1 shows a typical hysteresis curve, and it makes no difference as to what physical phenomena are involved. The red curve is the actual hysteresis curve. The blue curve is called the "spine."
Read more at
41 Modeling Hysteresis.pdf
A Journal of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics by DrD, #40
Two Short Math Problems
Do you ever read the ads that appear on ME Forum? I try to avoid them as much as possible, but an organization called BRILLIANT has put up some interesting math problems of late that have caught my eye. Two of them are the subject of today's post.
The first problem that I want to discuss is actually more recent than the other, but it gives us a good place to start. Following that, we'll go on to the second problem. Along the way, I want to talk about philosophy as well as simply how to solve tow specific problems. The main lessons to be learned here are in regard to how we use mathematics in the practice of Mechanical Engineering.
40 Two Short Math Problems.pdf
A Journal of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics by DrD, #39
(c) Machinery Dynamics Research, 2017
Comments on a Textbook Theory of Machines
R.S. Khurmi & J.K. Gupta
Recently, through the wonders of the Internet, I have come across a copy of the textbook Theory of Machines by R.S. Khurmi and J.K. Gupta (S.Chand & Co., Ltd., 2005). Since theory of machines has been my primary technical interest since the early 1980s, I was interested to see what would be in this book, particularly in view of the many favorable comments posted in regard to it. Many people seem to think that this is a most excellent book, and I’m always interested to see what brings forth comments of that sort.
As I looked through the Table of Contents, I saw that one of the last chapters was given to the topic of Torsional Vibrations (Ch. 24). Since the area of torsional vibrations has been a topic of intense personal interest for 40+ years, I was naturally drawn to this chapter. The comments that follow are based on what I found in that chapter; I have not reviewed the remainder of the book at all. In my comments below, I will refer to the authors, Khurmi and Gupta, simply as K&G to avoid writing their names out repeatedly.
One of the things I think is necessary in a textbook is that it should be directed toward teaching students to solve real problems, not simply textbook examples. Certainly, textbook examples should be simple so that they can be easily understood, but they should also be as general as possible. Where they involve special, limiting assumptions that may likely not be true in actual practice, this should be made clear. Failure to do that marks an author as one who has never actually done engineering in the real world. If the assumptions are not made clear, there is a tendency for students to later want to simply apply directly the results from the textbook problem, not realizing that they may not apply at all. So, what did I find?
Comments on Textbook - Khurmi.pdf