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[This blog is a repost from my other blog site, thought would be useful to Mechanical Engineering readers]
Now every mechanical engineer uses CAD softwares. Weather software is SolidWorks, SolidEdge, Inventor or CATIA, Creo or UG-NX it has same theory of CAGD and Computational Geometry. Unforuntaly we in Mechanical Engineering does not have subjects to taught this in detailed. I hope this blog series helps you to understand What Lies Benith Your CAD Software !!!
Mechanical CAD solid models are consisting of geometry and topology. Geometry by virtue of its visualization capability is easy to understand and comprehend. Topology is on the other hand, more of pure virtual concept hence many find it difficult to understand. In this article brief introduction to manifold topology is illustrated. Intended audience is new CAD developers or students of computational geometry.
Geometry is a part of mathematics concerned with questions of size, shape, and relative position of figures and with properties of space. Many scientists have made contribution to its theory and lot has changed since Euler first laid foundation stone of Geometry. Following is brief review of the development.
Euclid 300 BC, also known as Euclid of Alexandria, was a Greek mathematician and is often referred to as the Father of Geometry. His work “Elements” is the most successful textbook in the history of mathematics. In “Elements”, the principles of what is now called Euclidean geometry were deduced from a small set of axioms. The geometrical system described in the “Elements” was long known simply as geometry, and was considered to be the only geometry possible. Today, however, that system is often referred to as Euclidean geometry to distinguish it from other so-called Non-Euclidean geometries that mathematicians discovered in the 19th century.
Euclid undertook a study of relationships among distances and angles, first in a plane (an idealized flat surface) and then in space. An example of such a relationship is that the sum of the angles in a triangle is always 180 degrees. Today these relationships are known as two- and three-dimensional Euclidean geometry. An essential property of a Euclidean space is its flatness. Important point to note is other spaces exist in geometry that are not Euclidean. For example, the surface of a sphere is not; a triangle on a sphere (suitably defined) will have angles that sum to something greater than 180 degrees.
Next major contribution in Geometry came after around 2000 year by Leonhard Paul Euler (15 April 1707 – 18 September 1783). In 1736, Euler solved the problem known as the Seven Bridges of Königsberg. The city of Königsberg, Prussia was set on the Pregel River, and included two large islands which were connected to each other and the mainland by seven bridges. The problem is to decide whether it is possible to follow a path that crosses each bridge exactly once and returns to the starting point. It is not: there is no Eulerian circuit. This solution is considered to be the first theorem of graph theory, specifically of planar graph theory.
In the processEuler also discovered the formula V − E + F = 2 relating the number of vertices, edges, and faces of a convex polyhedron, and hence of a planar graph. The constant in this formula is now known as the Euler characteristic for the graph (or other mathematical object), and is related to the genus of the object. The study and generalization of this formula, specifically by Cauchy and L'Huillier, is at the origin of topology.
Next path breaking contribution was from Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (September 17, 1826 – July 20, 1866) an extremely influential German mathematician who made important Non-Euclidean geometries. This discovery was a major paradigm shift in mathematics, as it freed mathematicians from the mistaken belief that Euclid's axioms were the only way to make geometry consistent and non-contradictory. Research on these geometries led to, among other things, Einstein's theory of general relativity, which describes the universe as non-Euclidean. The subject founded by his work is Riemannian geometry. Riemann found the correct way to extend into n dimensions the differential geometry of surfaces. The fundamental object is called the Riemann curvature tensor. For the surface case, this can be reduced to a number (scalar), positive, negative or zero; the non-zero and constant cases being models of the known non-Euclidean geometries. contributions to analysis and differential geometry. He was first one to discover
Riemannian geometry is the branch of differential geometry that studies Riemannian manifolds, smooth manifolds with a Riemannian metric, i.e. with an inner product on the tangent space at each point which varies smoothly from point to point. This gives in particular local notions of angle, length of curves, surface area, and volume. From those some other global quantities can be derived by integrating local contributions. Riemannian geometry deals with a broad range of geometries categorized into two standard types of Non-Euclidean geometry,spherical geometry and hyperbolic geometry, as well as Euclidean geometry itself.
Non-Euclidean geometry describes hyperbolic and elliptic geometry, which are contrasted with Euclidean geometry. The essential difference between Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry is the nature of parallel lines. Euclid's fifth postulate, the parallel postulate, is equivalent to Playfair's postulate, which states that, within a two-dimensional plane, for any given line l and a point A, which is not on l, there is exactly one line through A that does not intersect l. In hyperbolic geometry, by contrast, there are infinitely many lines through A not intersecting l, while in elliptic geometry, any line through A intersects l.
Another way to describe the differences between these geometries is as follows: Consider two straight lines indefinitely extended in a two-dimensional plane that are both perpendicular to a third line. In Euclidean geometry the lines remain at a constant distance from each other, and are known as parallels. In hyperbolic geometry they "curve away" from each other, increasing in distance as one moves further from the points of intersection with the common perpendicular; these lines are often called ultra parallels. In elliptic geometry the lines "curve toward" each other and eventually intersect.
We started discussing how we end up in geometry discussion? I felt it was necessary to create basic understanding of historical development of Euclidean Geometry and Non-Euclidian geometry to understand next topics.
As we saw earlier Euler was first one publish paper on topology in seven bridge problem demonstrating that it was impossible to find a route through the town of Königsberg that would cross each of its seven bridges exactly once. This result did not depend on the lengths of the bridges, nor on their distance from one another, but only on connectivity properties: which bridges are connected to which islands or riverbanks. In other words to solve many of geometric problems we do not need to know spatial information but what is requiring to be known is neighborhood or connectivity information termed as topology.
Problems like a Möbius strip, an object with only one surface and one edge; such shapes are alos an object of study in topology.
As a mathematician and physicist, he made many original fundamental contributions to pure and applied mathematics, mathematical physics, and celestial mechanics. He was responsible for formulating the Poincaré conjecture, one of the most famous problems in mathematics. In his research on the three-body problem, Poincaré became the first person to discover a chaotic deterministic system which laid the foundations of modern chaos theory.
He was a founder of topology, also known as “rubber-sheet geometry,” for its focus on the intrinsic properties of spaces.
From a topologist’s perspective, there is no difference between a bagel (shape like torus or from Indian menu medu wada J ) and a coffee cup with a handle. Each has a single hole and can be manipulated to resemble the other without being torn or cut. Poincaré used the term “manifold” to describe such an abstract topological space.
The simplest possible two-dimensional manifold is the surface of a soccer ball, which, to a topologist, is a sphere—even when it is stomped on, stretched, or crumpled. The proof that an object is a so-called two-sphere, since it can take on any number of shapes, is that it is “simply connected,” meaning that no holes puncture it. Unlike a soccer ball, a bagel is not a true sphere. If you tie a slipknot around a soccer ball, you can easily pull the slipknot closed by sliding it along the surface of the ball. But if you tie a slipknot around a bagel through the hole in its middle you cannot pull the slipknot closed without tearing the bagel.
Euler- Poincaré equation
Euler’s polyhedron formula was applicable to only simple polyhedron. This new equation from Poincaré provides relationship between topological elements for any single two-manifold body.
V -E + F - Li = 2(1 - G)
V : Number of vertices.
E: Number of edges.
F: Number of faces.
Li: Number of interior loops.
G: Genus, the number of closed paths on a surface which do not separate the surface into more than one region. Or, genus is the number of handles to be added to a sphere to make it homeomorphic to the object.
Classification of manifolds
· 0-manifold is just a discrete space. Eg Point in Cartesian space corresponds to vertex in topological space. Point or set of points are zero dimensional manifolds
· 1-manifold is curve in Cartesian space. Eg circle, line, parabole b-spline curve (non intersecting)
· 2-manfold is surface Cartesian space. Sphere (empty inside), torus, plane, cylinder, b-spline surface (if closed empty inside, orientable and non self-intersecting ) , circular disc
· 3-manfold is 3 dimensional manifold. Eg Solid Objects, Solid Sphere, Solid Cylinder, Our universe J
Two-dimensional manifolds were well understood by the mid-nineteenth century. But it remained unclear whether what was true for two dimensions was also true for three. Poincaré proposed that all closed, simply connected, three-dimensional manifolds—those which lack holes and are of finite extent—were spheres. The conjecture was potentially important for scientists studying the largest known three-dimensional manifold: the universe. Proving it mathematically, however, was far from easy. Most attempts were merely embarrassing, but some led to important mathematical discoveries, including proofs of Dehn’s Lemma, the Sphere Theorem, and the Loop Theorem, which are now fundamental concepts in topology.
By the nineteen-sixties, topology had become one of the most productive areas of mathematics, and young topologists were launching regular attacks on the Poincaré. To the astonishment of most mathematicians, it turned out that manifolds of the fourth, fifth, and higher dimensions were more tractable than those of the third dimension. By 1982, Poincaré’s conjecture had been proved in all dimensions except the third. In 2000, the Clay Mathematics Institute, a private foundation that promotes mathematical research, named the Poincaré one of the seven most important outstanding problems in mathematics and offered a million dollars to anyone who could prove it.
After nearly a century of effort by mathematicians, Grigori Perelman sketched a proof of the conjecture in a series of papers made available in 2002 and 2003. The proof followed the program of Richard Hamilton. Several high-profile teams of mathematicians have since verified the correctness of Perelman's proof.
The Poincaré conjecture was, before being proven, one of the most important open questions in topology. It is one of the seven Millennium Prize Problems, for which the Clay Mathematics Institute offered a $1,000,000 prize for the first correct solution. Perelman's work survived review and was confirmed in 2006, leading to him being offered a Fields Medal, which he declined. The Poincaré conjecture remains the only solved Millennium problem.
This article was written with the help of various sources of web sources, mainly Wikipedia. Intention is to explain interesting subject such as manifold which carries paramount importance in CAD development in less mathematical and elaborative manner. Research in Manifolds is as recent as 2006 and is one of the most studied area in mathematics.
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We are pleased to inform you that our team has created a website "techno-zeal" (forwarding url: www.pjbindass.com) with a purpose to share the knowledge among students & working professionals from Engineering background specially for Mechanical design. This website contains projects ideas, interview experience of many PSUs and other relevant content. We are also dedicated to provide free online assistance for learning and projects execution. Although we did our best to keep the content simple and easy to understand. We are also planning for the content of other branches of engineering as well as the content from medical domain. There are still pages like PSUs Guide and B.Tech project ideas, that is common to all engineering branches.
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In many ways people can expect to obtain an ideal machine viewed from the angle of vibration , which is a machine that produces no vibration at all. Such an ideal machine will greatly save energy because of all the energy given to the whole machine will be used to perform the work alone, whether pumping a fluid, compressing the air, crushing paper etc. Without generating by products in the form of vibration.
Atypical InFlow Thermodynamic
Technology Proposal Submission
Novel (Fueled) Motor Engine Type
-The Gearturbine comes from the contemporary ecological essential global needs of an efficient power plant fueled motor engine. -Power thrust by bar (tube); air, sea, land and power generation, work use application.
*Have the similar simple basic system of the "Aelopilie" Heron´s Steam Turbine device from Alexandria, [10-70 AD] one thousand nine hundred years ago. Because; the circular dynamic motion, with 2/Two Opposites power [polar position] lever, and is feeds from his axis center.
YouTube Video/10.30 min; * Atypical New · GEARTURBINE / Retrodynamic = DextroRPM=> VS <=LevoInFlow + Ying Yang Thrust Way Type - Non Waste Looses
-Desirable Contemporary Innovation, With the Possible [Efficient] Invention. -Mechanical [Thermodynamic] Universal Human History Evolution. [unlike] Epic Technology Revelation. -Next Step Power-plant New Design Form Function Device Change.
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1)1-Compression / bigger
2)2-Turbo 1 cold
3)2-Turbo 2 cold
4)2-Combustion - circular motion flames / opposites
5)2-Thrust - single turbo & planetary gears / ying yang
6)2-Turbo 2 hot
7)2-Turbo 1 hot
8)1-Turbine / bigger
*Innovation Technology Break Barrier / Paradigm [broken-Seal] Solution. State of the art. Innovative Turbo-Rotary concept Top system.
-With Retrodynamic Dextrogiro vs. Levogiro Phenomenon Effect. / Rotor-RPM VS InFlow / front=> to <=front; "Collision-Interaction Type" - inflow vs. blades-gear-move. Technical unique dynamic innovative motion mode. [Retrodynamic Reaction = When the inflow have more velocity the rotor have more RPM Acceleration, with high (XY Position) Momentum] Which the internal flow (and rotor) duplicate its speed, when activated being in a rotor (and inflow) with [inverse] opposite Turns. A very strong Novel concept of torque power thrust. At field explanatory example with a metaphor is like if a sailboat take the wind from his prow front to move; wind/inflow + knots/rpm + wind/inflow + knots/rpm + wind/inflow + knots/rpm + etc... = Acceleration x Acceleration = Exponential Acceleration. Whereas it has more movements forwards, it receives a frontal impulse still but to move more forwards. A present example of the implementation of the Retrodynamic effect is in the application in the accelerator (and collider) of particles that this in the border of Switzerland and France.
-Shape-Mass + Rotary-Motion = Inertia-Dynamic / Form-Function Wide [Flat] Cylindrical shape + positive dynamic rotary mass = continue Inertia kinetic positive tendency motion / all the complete Rotary motor mass weight is going with the power thrust move circular direction.
-Non-waste parasitic looses system for cooling, lubrication & combustion; -Lubrication & Combustion, inside a conduit radial position, out way direction, activated by Centrifugal Force-Fueled Injected. -Cooling; a) IN-Thermomix flow, & OUT-Air Thermo transference.
-Combustion 2Two [inside-Rotary-Dynamic] continue circular [Rockets] flames. Like two dragons trying to bite the tail of the [ying yang] opposite other.-Increase the first compression by going of flow reduction of one big circumference blades going pass to 2TWO reduced, very long distance (total captive compression) INFLOW [inside propulsion] CONDUITS [long flow interaction] [like a digestive system] Start were ends, in perfect shape balance in perfect equilibrium well balanced, like a snake bite his own tale. -4 TURBOS Rotary [inside-rotary-active] [in-Flow, Out-Flow] Total Thrust-Power Regeneration [Complete] Power System. -Mechanical direct 2two [small] "Planetary Gears" at polar position. Like the Ying Yang Symbol/Concept. Wide out the Rotor circumference were have much more lever [HIGH Torque] POWER THRUST. -Military benefits, No blade erosion by sand & very low heat target profile.-3 stages of inflow turbo compression before combustion; 1)1-Turbine, 2)2-Turbos 3)2-Turbos. -And 3 points of power thrust; 1-flow way, 2-gear, 3-turbine.
*The most innovative power plant motor engine project today. Higher efficient % percent. Next trend wave toward global technological coming change.
Patent; Dic. 1991 IMPI Mexico #197187 - Carlos Barrera. - Individual Designer - Inventor and project owner. / All Rights Reserved. - Monterrey NL Mexico.
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A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work.
The simplest turbines have one moving part, a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades, or the blades react to the flow, so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are windmills and water wheels.
Gas, steam, and water turbines usually have a casing around the blades that contains and controls the working fluid.
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Admission open for Diploma in fire and Safety course at Pune.
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and Admission open at Pune for 2011 batch
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This courses is specially designed for Safety officers and for Fire and Safety engineers and executives.
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Eligibility - 12th/ITI/Diploma and Degree Holders
Participants should be able to: Identify different types of fire
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General evacuation procedures upon completion of the programme participants who attainthe level required by the instructor will be awarded a certificate.
The course will lead to the following results namely in Fire and Safety Smoke Alarms, Make an Escape Plan, Fire Safety, Fire Sprinklers, Fire fighting,
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I Semester -
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CAD / CAM Software
Suite of CAM software for all your NC programming needs such as turning, milling, EDM, free form and advanced Surface machining. Voted Metalworking Product of the Year 1999 by industry
EZCAM CAD/CAM Systems
Introduced by Bridgeport Machines, EZ-CAM CAD/CAM software has over 10,000 users worldwide. Developed by a team of software and machining specialists, the software combines an easily learned interface with powerful machining capabilities.
Perform 3-D tube layout and design for forming and bending tube assemblies quickly and accurately with this simple software.
LICOM AlphaCAM is a comprehensive and fully-featured CAD/CAM system for the Microsoft Windows 95/98/NT/2000 platforms. Capable of 3-5 axis milling, 3D router, turning, engraving, punching, laser & waterjet profiling. Available in 14 languages.
Rapid prototyping software for rapid mould design, mould quoting and 3D file sharing.
AutoCAD by Autodesk is one of the best professional design & drafting programs on the market. This award winning program is used by engineering and manufacturing companies around the world.
World’s leading CAD/CAM/CAE software for mechanical design of solid, hybrid or sheet metal parts. Stress and vibration analysis capabilities. Catia is the premier design software for SME's, the electronics, automotive, aerospace and shipbuilding industries.
3D CAD software for foundries by Novacast. Works fully in 3D and changes in design can be made without going to 2D. The most suitable CAD system for a jobbing foundry. Easy import of most common CAD files. Comes with 20 different foundry catalogs.
Leader in PC based CAD/CAM software. Offers software for basic 2-axis machining, multi-axis milling and turning, wire EDM, 3D design, drafting, surface and solid modeling. There is a Mastercam product for every budget range and application.
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CAD design and drafting system designed specifically for mechanical contractors, engineering firms, and manufacturers that design, build, or fabricate piping systems.
Highly rated 3D mechanical design suite which assists designers & manufacturing engineers with product development across all industries. Create solid or sheet metal components, assemblies, weldments and more.
Design simulation software to evaluate how products will perform in real-world conditions. Alternative to expensive & time consuming process of physical prototyping. Users can improve designs early in the development cycle to reduce cost and leadtimes.
QuickPen - Sheet Metal CAD
CAD system for sheet metal contractors. Quickly draw complete systems, including architectural, structural, and HVAC. Create multiple isometric and plan views and download to your plasma cutter for efficient fabrication and waste elimination.
Radan Sheet Metal CAD/CAM
Suite of sheet metal CAD/CAM and process management software solutions. Includes Radbend, the 3D sheet metal design system that can automatically unfold parts for downstream processing with Radpunch, Radprofile and RadbendCNC.
The leading mid-range mechanical CAD software by Unigraphics Solutions. Solid Edge helps designers do more work with less effort than other CAD systems. The CAD/CAM system of choice for mechanical design professionals seeking a competitive edge.
Free 3D CAD viewer which allows anyone with a Windows PC to view, measure, and mark-up CAD data. No need for expensive CAD software. Reads STL, SolidWorks, VRML, OBJ, and 3D Face data in DXF format.
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Affordably priced 3D CAD and solid modeling software packages. Has file sharing capabilities with AutoCad and an easy to use drag and drop interface. $95.00 US for CAD & $495 for solid modeling.
AFS Solidification System (3D)
Solidification modeling software for the PC by Finite Solutions, Inc. The software lets you make a casting on the computer before it's made on the foundry floor. Predict whether your rigging design will work before patterns, core boxes or dies are made.
2D and 3D geometry-based forming simulation software for simulating metalworking processes like open or closed die forging, extrusion, and rolling. Performs coupled thermal, elasto-plastic, elasto-viscoplastic, rigid-viscoplastic and workability modeling.
Compass II, III, IV
Material optimization software to help companies that shear & slit master coils or sheets to minimize scrap loss. Determine the optimal shearing patterns for producing blanks from stock. Win95/98/NT.
Software for simulation of casting processes. Effective tools for component design or casting simulation for Windows, MacOS and UNIX. CastCAE is for casting simulation, CastDESIGN for feeding system design, and CastCHECK for component analysis.
Panel optimizing software module that determines the best way to cut rectangular parts from sheets. Windows 95/98/NT system, from Pattern Systems Intl.
Forging simulation software that enables designers to analyze metal forming processes on the computer rather than the shop floor using trial and error. The use of DEFORM has improved cost, quality and delivery at leading companies for nearly a decade.
Delcam's Power Solution
CAD/CAM solution developed by toolmakers for toolmakers. Each software products is focused on a specific aspect of the design, rapid prototyping, manufacture, inspection and reverse engineering of complex 3D forms.
Software for process modeling and analysis of die casting and related processes, including permanent mold, semi-permanent mold, and squeeze casting. Developed at General Motors and currently maintained and marketed by Technalysis, Inc.
Design and produce all the engraving, routing and machining jobs you’ve ever wanted. Create handcarved looks, engraved signs, awards and trophies, stamps, embossing dies, injection molds and engraved panel decorations for wood.
EZ Pipe Software
Software for pipe welding patterns and layout. Print custom pipe templates in minutes. Saves time for pipefitting, maintenance welding, drafting and engineering personnel. Free Demo available.
Free shareware application for the forging industry developed by the Colorado School of Mines, Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering. AxiTherm, a simulation program which performs FEM thermal calculations, is now available for download.
Forming Technologies Incorporated
FTI offers a suite of metal stamping and forming software. Predict formability and blank size for 3D models of stamped sheet metal components before dies are developed. Helps reduce design lead-time and cut costs by identifying formability problems early.
Foundry Technology II
Software for design of gating and risering systems. Includes modules on weight estimation, mold weighting, modulus estimation, feeding distance, estimation, riser size an neck design, horizontal gating, filter calculation, metallurgical calculations and more.
Directory of free Mechanical Engineering software. CAD/CAM software, finite element analysis software, dynamic simulation software, thermal analysis software, utility programs, calculators and others.
HEXAGON Spring Software
Software applications for calculating the design and cost for helical and conical compression springs, extention, torsion, disk, spiral, and leaf springs. Values for the most important spring materials are provided by the integrated material database.
Software developed by foundrymen for casting process optimization. A simulation tool for the technological and quality focused production of castings. Improves understanding of mold filling, solidification, mechanical properties, thermal stresses and distortions.
Foundry charge optimization software by Novacast. Increase productivity and improve accuracy in charge calculations. The consequenses of using different types of cast iron can easily be simulated. A helpful tool for choosing the best raw materials for each alloy.
Engineering software for the sheet metal industry. 2D and 3D CAD programs for sheet metal, rollforming, tubes & pipes, shapes and drawn tubes and wire forming.
Free full-function solid modeling 3D CAD program for Windows 95, Windows NT 3.51, Windows NT 4.0 and LINUX. MINOS delivers world-class solid modeling in an easy-to-learn, easy-to-use package. Download your personal copy here.
Forging simulation software that optimizes the industrial forging process by predicting material flow and die loads, while maximizing material usage and reducing forging defects. Import any CAD tooling data via StereoLithography (STL) description.
NovaFlow & Solid´s
Mould filling and solidification simulation software by Novacast. Compatible with Windows NT/95/98/2000. Works for gravity casting, lost wax casting, shell moulding, investment casting, high & low pressure diecasting of most alloys.
A leading casting simulation software. The 3D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software interfaces with most commercially available CAD packages. Capabilities include automatic meshing, thermal analysis, fluid flow, and radiation effects.
Roll-forming design software for every manufacturer of cold roll-formed profiles or seamed tubes from sheet metal and for designers of rollformers and tube forming machines.
Software for the sheet metal industry. Ubeco's sheet design software is usefull for all manufacturers of HVAC and folded sheet metal parts. Performs calculations of unfoldings, penetrations and cut-outs of geometrical models.
Forging simulation software developed for a windows 95/98/NT environments. Simulates cold, warm, and hot closed die forging, powder forging and electric upsetting. Covers mechanical, screw, and hydraulic presses, hammers and multi-ram presses.
Shareware CAD program for sheet metal engineering and manufacturing. Create cylinders, cones, rectangular ducts and oval, chutes, fluess, chimneys, hoppers, etc.
Metal forming and fabrication solutions. Offers a suite of sheet metal fabrication software. Programs are available as add-on's to AutoCAD or as stand-alone solutions.
Tubular Tech Calculator - Version 4
Free shareware utility for tube fabricators that calculates tangent distances, unit conversions, arc lengths, bases of a right triangle, and more. A 32 bit Windows app. courtesy of Advanced Tubular Tech.
Software for industrial engraving and sculpting. Cost effective complement to CAD/CAM systems. Compatible with any CNC or engraving machine.
OrnaCad - Casting Library
Software by FabCad with a library of 1200 castings patterns that can be incorporated into your drawings. Formats are .DWG and .WMF.
OrnaCad - Gate Library
This ornamental metal CAD library is an add-on feature to the OrnaCad casting library. It contains 20 driveway gates and 13 walk gates fully drawn.
Stamping and forming metal simulation software for quick die design and evaluation. Compatible with UNIX workstations from DEC, Hewlett Packard, IBM, SGI and SUN.
How Carburetor works ?
The carburetor mixes air with fuel so that it burns more easily in the engine. A vacuum caused when your car's pistons make their downward stroke pulls air into the carburetor. The mixture of gasoline and air is regulated according to engine speed. With higher engine speeds, more gas is sent to the carburetor. This is called a 'rich' air and fuel mixture.
If your car is cruising or idling, it needs less fuel, or what's known as a 'lean' air and fuel mix. If your car isn't getting the kind of mileage it should be, it could be an indication of a carburetor malfunction. Other potential indicators of carburetor problems are hard starting, rough idling, stalling, engine misfiring, or dark exhaust smoke. Most newer cars are equipped with fuel injection rather than a carburetor. You'll find carburetors on many cars more than a few years old, especially those with larger engines. Contact a qualified auto mechanic in your area for more information on carburetors.
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Hypothetically, Knowledge-based Design Automation can automate any simple or complex engineering or manufacturing-related design tasks. They enable real-time design of custom products and allow for complete product design, thereby, speeding up the product development cycle. They also enable reduction of engineering time for custom products from 70% to 80% over traditional CAD approaches. Knowledge-based Design Automation can be full or partial in nature.
Practically, I would like to understand and explore the feasibility and scope of the MDA..........I request SME / Professionals to share and contribute to achieve my objective.
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Cross Country Petroleum Pipelines Pipeline Design
LEGISLATION & REGULATIONS
_ The Petroleum Act, 1934
_ The Petroleum Rules, 2002
_ Petroleum and Mineral Pipelines (Acquisition of Right of User in Land) Act,
1962 & Amendment Act, 1977
_ Indian Forest Act, 1927 And Indian Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980
_ Guidelines for laying Petroleum Product Pipelines (Gazette Notification no. P-
20012/5/99-PP dated 20.11.02)
_ Supplementary guidelines for laying Petroleum Product Pipelines (Gazette
Notification no. P-20012/5/99-PP/OR-II dated 26.10.04)
1) THE PETROLEUM ACT, 1934
The Petroleum Act, 1934 consolidates and amends the law relating to import,
transport, storage, production, refining and blending of Petroleum products.
2) THE PETROLEUM RULES, 2002
The Petroleum Rules, 1976 were replaced by Petroleum Rules, 2002 with effect
from 13th march, 2002. Part V of Petroleum Rules, 2002 deals in Transportation
of Petroleum Products by Pipelines. The salient details of Part V of Petroleum
rules are given below:
Right of Way to be acquired - No pipeline and installation connected with a
pipeline, shall be constructed without acquiring the necessary land, leasements
and right for the construction.
Approval of the design and route of the pipeline - No pipeline shall be laid
without the prior written approval of the Chief Controller of the route of the
pipeline, and of the design, construction and working thereof.
Design of pipeline and attachments - The pipeline shall be constructed of suitable
steel which is safe for the conditions under which it is to be used. The pipeline
and its components shall be designed and constructed in accordance with a code
recognized by the Chief Controller or OISD Standard 141 and shall be capable of
withstanding a pressure which shall not be less than the maximum working
pressure thereof plus an allowance for surge pressure, as anticipated. Provision
shall be made for thermal expansion or contraction of the pipeline.
The pipeline shall be protected by a casing of steel pipe or by increasing the
thickness of its wall to prevent damage to the pipeline from usual external
conditions which may be encountered in railway crossings, road crossings, river
or water course crossings, bridges, long self supported spans, unstable ground,
vibrations, weight of special attachments or thermal forces.
By-pass relief valves, pressure limiting stations or automatic shut down
equipment of approved design shall be provided in the pipe line.
Isolation valves shall be installed at each of the following locations -
_ On the suction end and the discharge end of the pump station.
_ On each line entering or leaving the installation.
_ On each main line at locations along the pipeline system that will minimize
damage from accidental product discharge, as appropriate for the terrain in
open country or for the location near cities or other populated areas.
_ On each lateral take off from a trunk line.
_ On each side of a water crossing that is more than 30m wide from high water
mark to high-water mark.
_ On each side of a reservoir holding water for human consumption.
Laying of Pipe Line - Pipeline shall be laid in the most favorable route, avoiding
known obstructions and areas in which unusual external conditions prevail.
Pipeline shall be laid below the ground level except where laying above the
ground level is desirable for topographical, economic or other special reasons.
Where an underground Pipeline has to cross any existing underground water or
gas line, cable, drain or other services, the pipeline shall be laid at least thirty
centimeters below such services. The number of bends in the pipeline shall be
kept to the minimum.
The route of underground sections of a pipeline shall be indicated by markers and
not less than two such markers shall be visible from any point along the route.
Protection against corrosion - The pipeline shall be protected against corrosion by
suitable coating strapping and where necessary by cathodic protection.
Hydrostatic testing of pipeline – Before transporting petroleum for the first time,
each pipeline or completed sections thereof shall be filled with water and the
pressure in the line or section, as the case may be raised to 1.1 times the design
internal pressure and maintained for a period of atleast 24 hours or as per
procedure laid down in the relevant pipelines design code recognized by Chief
Controller. A pipeline or a section thereof showing any significant drop of
pressure during the period of testing shall not be used for transporting petroleum
until necessary repairs have been carried out and satisfactory retest done.
The test specified above shall be carried out atleast once in every 12 months in
each completed pipeline section which crosses an area where there is danger of
water pollution by any leakage. However, the provision shall not apply to crosscountry
pipelines, for which new technologies are available.
Shut down of pipeline - Except when shut down for maintenance work, a pipeline
when not in operation shall be shut down under pressure and a careful record
made of the pressure during the shut down period. Any significant drop in
pressure shall be deemed to render the pipeline unfit for transport of petroleum
until it is repaired and tested.
Patrolling of pipeline -
_ The whole of every pipeline shall be efficiently patrolled by the company
owning the pipeline.
_ Telegraph or telephone or radio communication facilities shall be provided at
frequent intervals along the pipeline.
Checking of gauges - Tank gauges or gauges at intermediate or booster pump
stations shall be checked atleast once a year.
Additions and alterations in the pipeline -
No addition or alteration to a pipeline shall be carried out without the previous
approval of Chief Controller in writing. Every person desirous of carrying out any
additions or alterations in any pipeline shall submit an application to the Chief
Controller. The Chief Controller shall, if he is satisfied, approve the proposed
additions or alterations subject to such conditions as he may deem fit.
Repair and maintenance of pipeline
- No maintenance or repair involving cutting
or rewelding of any pipeline shall be carried out except under following
(i) An experienced engineer shall inspect the section requiring maintenance or
repair before the work is undertaken and issue a written permit specifying
therein the precautions to be observed and the procedure to be followed for
carrying out the work. The permit so issued shall be preserved by the owner
of the pipeline for a period of six months.
(ii) All work involving cutting or welding shall be carried out by an experienced
(iii) The section of the pipeline shall be isolated and drained before starting
repairs or maintenance.
(iv) Only mechanical cutters shall be used for cutting the pipeline or any
connection thereof unless the section of the pipeline and its connections
have been purged with an inert gas.
(v) No hot work shall be carried out on any pipeline until the section thereof
requiring repair has been isolated drained and purged with inert gas or steam
or kept filled with water or until such section has been prepared in a manner
approved in writing by the experienced engineer.
(vi) The section of the pipeline in which repairs or maintenance work has been
carried out shall not be used for transporting petroleum until such sections
are replaced with hydrostatically pre tested sections and the repaired weld
joints pass the radiography test.
(vii) No section of any pipeline, and no valve fitted to it shall be separated until
an efficient electrical bond has been established between the parts to be so
separated which shall not be broken until the separated parts have been
Relaying or repairs to a pipeline in public interest - Where the Chief Controller is
of the opinion that it is in the interest of public safety to do so, he may, by a notice
in writing given to the owner of the pipeline, require such owner, to relay, renew
repair such pipeline in accordance with such requirements as may be specified in
Power of inspection and examination - The Chief Controller or Controller may at
any time inspect and examine any pipeline.
Reports of fire or major leakage - The occurrence of any fire or major leakage in a
pipeline and connected facilities shall be reported immediately by the person for
the time being incharge of the pipeline to the nearest Magistrate or officer-in
charge of the nearest police station and to the Chief Controller by telephone/fax
and also by telegram at his telegraphic address, namely “Explosives Nagpur”.
3) PETROLEUM AND MINERAL PIPELINES (ACQUISITION OF RIGHT
OF USER IN LAND) ACT, 1962 & AMENDMENT ACT, 1977
The Petroleum and Mineral Pipelines (Acquisition of Right of User in Land) Act
(P&MP Act), 1962 provides for the acquisition of Right of User in land for laying
petroleum pipelines. Given below are the salient details of this Act:
Competent Authority: Competent Authority is defined as any person or authority
authorized by the Central Government, by notification in the Official Gazette, to
perform the functions of the Competent Authority under the P&MP Act.
Publication of notifications for acquisition - Section 3(1): Whenever it appears to
the Central Government that it is necessary in the public interest that for the
transport of petroleum or any mineral from one locality to another locality
pipelines may be laid by that Government or by any State Government or a
corporation and that for the purpose of laying such pipelines it is necessary to
acquire the right of user in any land under which such pipelines may be laid, it
may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare its intention to acquire the
right of user therein.
Power to enter, survey etc.(Section 4): On the issue of 3(1) notification, it shall be
lawful for any person authorized by the Central Government or by the State
Government or the corporation which proposes to lay pipelines for transporting
petroleum or any mineral, and his servants and workmen –
a) To enter upon and survey and take levels of any land specified in the
To dig or bore into the subsoil.
c) To setout the intended line of work.
d) To mark such levels, boundaries & line by placing marks and cutting
e) Where otherwise survey cannot be completed and levels taken and the
boundaries and lines marked, to cut down and clear away any part of
standing crop, fence or jungle; and
f) To do all other acts necessary to ascertain whether pipelines can be
laid under the land.
Hearing of Objections - Section 5(1): Any person interested in land may, within
21 days from the date of notification under sub-section (1) of section 3, object to
the lying of the pipelines under the land.
Objections shall be made to CA and order by CA shall be final.
Declaration of Acquisition of Right of User - Section 6 (1): Where no objections
under subsection of section 5 have been made to the CA within the period
specified therein or where the CA has disallowed the objections, CA shall submit
a report containing his recommendations and record of the proceedings to Central
Government and upon receipt of such report, the Central Government shall
declare, by notification in the Official Gazette, that the right of user in the land for
laying the pipeline should be acquired.
On publication of 6(1) notification, the right of user shall vest in the Central
Government free from all encumbrances. Central Government may direct by
order in writing that the right of user instead of vesting in Central Government,
vest in the State Government or the corporation proposing to lay the pipelines,
free from all encumbrances.
Central Government or State Government or corporation to lay pipelines -
Section 7: It is lawful for the Central Government or State Government or
corporation to lay pipelines provided that no pipeline shall be laid under –
a) any land which was used for residential purposes immediately before the
date of 3(1) notification.
any land on which a permanent structure is there.
c) any land which is appurtenant to a dwelling house.
d) any land at a depth which is less than one metre from the surface.
Power to enter land for maintaining, examining, repairing, alerting inspection etc.
– Section 8
Compensation – Section 10: For any damage, loss or injury sustained by any
person interested in the land under which the pipeline is proposed to be, or is
being, or has been laid, by reason of
i) the removal of trees or standing crops
ii) the temporary severance of land under which the pipeline has been laid from
other lands belonging to or in occupation of such person
iii) any injury to any other property or the earnings of such person
the Central Government, State Government or the Corporation, as the case may
be, shall be liable to pay compensation to such person for such damage, loss or
injury, the amount of which shall be determined by the CA. In case the amount of
compensation is not acceptable to either of the parties, the amount of
compensation shall be determined by the District Judge.
No account shall be taken of any structure or other improvement made in the land
after the date of the notification under section 3(1) in determining the
A compensation calculated by the CA at 10% of the market value of that land on
the date of 3(1) notification shall also be paid to the affected land owner.
Penalty – Section 15 (1): Whoever willfully obstructs any person in doing any of
the act authorized by P&MP act or willfully fills up, destroys, damages or
displaces any trench or mark shall be punishable with imprisonment which may
extend to six months or fine or with both.
(2) Whoever willfully removes, displaces, damages or destroys any pipeline laid
under section 7, shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term which
shall not be less than one year, but which may extend to 3 years and shall also be
liable to fine.
4) INDIAN FOREST ACT, 1927 AND INDIAN FOREST (CONSERVATION)
This act is applicable to the Pipeline ROU passing through reserved forest,
protected forest or any area recorded as forest in the government records.
5) GUIDELINES FOR LAYING PETROLEUM PRODUCT PIPELINES
(GAZETTE NOTIFICATION NO. P-20012/5/99-PP DATED 20.11.02)
Categorization of Pipelines
1. The petroleum product pipelines would be categorized as follows:
(i) Pipelines originating from refineries, whether coastal or inland unto a
distance of around 300 kilometers from the refinery.
(ii) Pipelines dedicated for supplying product to particular consumer,
originating either from a refinery or from oil company's terminal and,
(iii) Pipelines originating from refineries exceeding 300 Km in length and
pipelines originating from ports, other than those specified in (i) and (ii)
Ownership and access
2. Right of User (RoU) in land for laying pipelines under the Petroleum
Pipelines (Acquisition of right of User in Land) Act, 1962 for the pipelines
falling under category specified in sub-clauses (i) and (ii) of Clause 1, will be
granted in favor of applicant company treating such pipelines as captive
pipelines for exclusive use by the proposer company.
3. For grant of ROU in land for laying pipelines under the Petroleum Pipelines
(Acquisition of right of User in Land) Act 1962 for the pipelines falling under
the category specified in sub-clause (iii) of clause 1, the following procedure
will be followed:
3.1 A proposal for laying common usage product pipeline could originate from
any single interested party or a joint-venture (herein after referred to as
3.2 The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas shall publicize in such manner as
the Ministry may decide, the proposal inviting expression of interest, within a
period of three months from anyone interested in the proposal. In case any
company is interested in taking any capacity in the pipeline, it could express
its interest and enter into “take of pay” or any other mutually agreeable
contract with the proposer. The pipeline size and design would be finalized by
the proposer after taking into consideration all such requests.
3.3 In case, no expression of interest is received from any industry player within a
period of three months of publicizing the proposal, the proposer would be at
liberty to go ahead with the project.
3.4 The designed pipeline capacity would be atleast 25% more than the capacity
requirement of the proposer and of those who take capacity under clause 3.2
as may be decided by the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas.
3.5 The ownership of the pipeline would be that of the proposer or as may be
decided by the proposer, irrespective of whether the other industry player(s)
take pipeline capacity or not.
3.6 The excess capacity, as mentioned in clause 3.4, would be available for use by
anyone other than the owner and those taking capacity under clause 3.2 at the
approved tariff as per the provisions under clause 4, on “common carrier”
basis i.e. capacity would be made available to anyone interested and offering
to pay the tariff. In case, such demand exceeds this excess capacity, the
allocation of the excess capacity would be prorated amongst the interested
users other than the owner and those taking capacity under clause 3.2.
4. Tariff for the pipelines commissioned after the date of publication of this
notification in the Official Gazette and falling in the category specified in subclause
(iii) of clause 1, will be subject to the control orders or the regulations
that may be issued by the Government or the statutory authority in this behalf
under any law for the time being in force.
Conditions under ROU acquisition
5. The ROU acquisition under the Petroleum Pipelines (Acquisition of Right of
User in Land) Act, 1962 will be subject to such conditions as may be deemed
fit by the Government in public interest. Such conditions may inter alia
include the following:
5.1 Sharing of portions of acquired ROU falling in forest areas, wild life/marine
sanctuaries/parks, prohibited/restricted areas etc with the other interested
5.2 In case the route alignment of the Pipeline crosses another pipeline
route/alignment, the points of crossing would be decided by mutual agreement
between the parties failing which the matter will be referred to the Ministry of
Petroleum and Natural Gas whose decision will be final.
6) SUPPLEMENTARY GUIDELINES FOR LAYING PETROLEUM
PRODUCT PIPELINES (GAZETTE NOTIFICATION NO. P-20012/5/99-
PP/OR-II DATED 26.10.04)
The Supplementary guidelines are applicable for pipelines falling under category
– 1(iii) of Guidelines for laying Petroleum Product Pipelines.
Common Carrier Capacity
1. The “Common carrier” capacity to be built under para 3.4 of the Guidelines
for Laying Petroleum Product Pipelines notification F.No.P-20012/5/99-PP
dated 20.11.2002 provides the right of first use to any party other than the
owner / proposer, throughout the life of the pipeline.
2. In the event that capacity is available out of the common carrier capacity, the
owner / proposer may utilize the same with the stipulation that should any
other party seek transportation through common carrier capacity, the owner /
proposer would vacate and make available common carrier capacity up to the
designated level immediately.
Time Frame for Completion of Pipeline
3. Pipeline project will be required to be commissioned with in the time period
provided in the sanction / approval letter, which shall have an outer limit of 36
months from the date of sanction / approval.
4. The owner / proposer will be required to furnish an irrevocable bank
guarantee of an amount equivalent to 2% of the project outlay or Rs. 2 lakhs
per kilometer of pipeline proposed, whichever is higher, as a guarantee for
commissioning the pipeline project as per the approved time schedule. The
irrevocable bank guarantee shall be encashable any time after 36 months from
the date of the sanction / approval and will be dischargeable only on advice of
the Government. If the completion of the project is delayed beyond 36 months
from the date of sanction / approval of the project, then the bank guarantee
may be invoked.
5. The ROU acquisition would be commenced after execution of Bank
Guarantee and its deposit with the Government.
6. The Bank Guarantee may be deposited within 30 days of issue of sanction
letter failing which sanction letter would stand withdrawn.
7. The Bank Guarantee will be discharged on commissioning of the pipeline
within the time period specified and satisfactory compliance of conditions
imposed through the sanction / approval letter.
Competent Authority for Acquiring ROU
8. Only serving Government Officers will be considered for working as
Competent Authority under the Petroleum and Minerals Pipelines
(Acquisition of Right of User in Land) Act, 1962.
Transfer of Ownership
9. Where a pipeline implementing company is a subsidiary company and has
been granted sanction / approval letter on the basis of its holding / parent
company’s balance sheet, permission of Ministry of Petroleum and Natural
Gas will be required to be obtained prior to any change in management
majority holding in such pipeline implementing subsidiary.
Eligibility of Players Seeking Capacity in a Pipeline Project
10. Any party may approach the proposer to seek capacity in a pipeline project for
which an EOI has been issued under Guidelines for Laying Petroleum Product
Pipelines Notification F.No.P-20012/5/99-PP dated 20.11.2002. Eligibility of
parties seeking capacity will not be limited on the grounds that the party,
seeking capacity is neither a refinery nor possessing any marketing rights.
LIST OF STATUTORY APPROVALS REQUIRED FOR A PIPELINE PROJECT
a) Environmental Clearance –
i) State Pollution Control Board’s (SPCB) Consent for Establishment
ii) Ministry Of Environment and Forest clearance (including CRZ & non
iii) State Forest Clearance for Reserve / Protected / State forest crossing
ROUs (upto 5 hectares in a state). Clearance from State Forest Department
in case of Social forest crossings specifically in case of such notified areas
along High way/ Local road networks
iv) Clearance from Regional Conservator of Forests for Reserve / Protected /
State forest crossing ROUs (From 5 to 20 hectares of forest areas in a
state). For more than 20 hectares, approval of Central Forest department is
required under MOEF
v) SPCB consent for operation before commissioning of the project
ROU approvals –
i) State Government’s deputation of in service Government officer (preferably
revenue officers) for notification as Competent Authority under Petroleum
& Mineral Pipeline (Right of Use Acquisition) Act., 1962
ii) MOP&NG’s notification of Competent Authority under PMP Act 1962
iii) MOP&NG’s notification of ROU under 3(1), 6(1) sections of PMP
Act,1962, CA’s conduction of Objection hearing under 5(1) section after
iv) Approval of Zonal railways for railway crossings
v) Approval of State Panchayat, State R&Bs (PWD), NH authorities for
various road crossings
vi) Approval of Rivers/canals/Streams/Nalahs/Drains/ water body crossings
from respective State Irrigation Authorities
vii) Approval / Consent from other Utility owners like Telecom, Water/
Petroleum pipelines etc.
viii) Approval of District Magistrate for crossing of ROU in Government, lands
ix) Approval from Port Trust and other Govt. bodies where ever applicable for
restricted ROUs in their lands
c) Approvals from Central Departments -
i) CCOE Construction approvals for Pipeline alignment, Station / Terminal
layouts & approval for commissioning after project completion
ii) Approval for Fire Advisor, Ministry of Home
iii) Approval of Ministry of Finance for concessional Custom Duty
iv) Notification of entry ports for concessional duty imports
v) Approval from Ministry of Communication for HF/ VHF wireless frequency
vi) Approval of Central Electricity Authority for energizing HV/EHV electrical
d) Approvals from State Departments -
i) Certificate of Registration from Regional Labor commissioner
ii) Construction approval from Director of Factories
iii) NOC from respective District Magistrates for all Stations/ Terminals
iv) Approval of plans from respective Municipal authorities
v) Approval of HT/LT Electrical Loads, DG set installation
vi) State Fire Service Dept.’s approval of plans and Fire officer’s approval
PIPELINE DESIGN CODES
OISD (Oil Industry Safety Directorate) Standards
1) OISD 138 Inspection of Onshore Pipelines
2) OISD 140 Inspection of Jetty Pipelines
3) OISD 141 Design & Construction of Hydrocarbon Pipelines
International Codes, Standards & Practice
1) DNV Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems
2) ASME B 31.8 Gas Transportation and Distribution Piping Systems
3) ASME B 31.4 Pipeline transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons
and other liquids
4) API RP 1102 Recommended Practice for Rail And Highway Crossings
5) API 1104 Standard for Welding Pipeline and Related Facilities
6) API RP 1110 Recommended Practice for Pressure Testing of Liquid
7) API RP 1111 Recommended Practice for Design, Construction,
Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Hydrocarbon
8) NACE MR 0175 Material Requirements- Sulphide Stress Cracking Resistant
Materials for Oil Field Equipment
9) IP 6 Pipeline Safety Code
Applicable Standards / Specifications Of ANSI / ASME,
API, NACE, MSS, BS and DIN
OISD : Oil Industry Safety Directorate
API : American Petroleum Institute
ASME : The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ANSI : American National Standards Institute
NACE : The National Association of Corrosion Engineers
BS : British Standard
DNV : Det Norske Veritas
MSS : Manufacturers Standardization Society of Valve and Fittings Industry
AWS : American Welding Society
DIN : Deutsches Institute fur Normung
Recent EntriesLatest Entry
Oil has always been the most beneficial of natural resources, as much as it is useful as a source of power and energy as fuel, like LP gas or Petrol, there are other alternative methods for harnessing its power. This is evident by the abundance of machinery and equipments using this "Fluid Power" as a source for getting useful work done. Isn't it amazing to think that it can also be used to power structures like Cranes and Presses.
Welcome to the amazing world of fluid power.
One of the best places to get up close and personal lesson on hydraulics are machines at a construction site. The thing that is most amazing about these machines is their sheer size. From backyard log splitters to the huge machines you see on construction sites, hydraulic equipment is amazing in its strength and agility. On any construction site you see hydraulically-operated machinery in the form of bulldozers, backhoes, shovels, loaders, fork lifts and cranes. In most other hydraulic systems, hydraulic cylinders and pistons are connected through valves to a pump supplying high-pressure oil .
The word "HYDRAULICS" is derived from the Greek "HYDRO" meaning water. (See Hydraulics at Wikipedia). There are many instances in the past where water was employed for useful work in the distant past to suit our needs. Modern hydraulics, especially in the industrial context is mainly concentrated on Oil as power transmission mediums.
Fluids like water or oil are the best substances to work using pressure.
"Pressure" is the epicenter of all hydraulic system design calculations. Pressure arises because of the sheer density of water, as we know which is about 1000 kg/cu. meter. The weight of water column increases in proportion to the depth, as in the case of the ocean. The deeper we dive, the higher we feel the pressure.
The same pressure term can be used, when we are analyzing it in a context of a hydraulic press, which of course is an equipment found in a factory, on land, rather than the sea. And it also does not need lots of water to accomplish the "Pressing". The pressure in a hydraulic press is induced by means of other compression media, pumps for example, which are more compact.
But... Still what next. How does it still help for oil/ liquid to be used for the working of hydraulic systems?
The reason, quite simply put it, Fluids (oils talking in industrial context, i.e., everything with specific gravity value less than or equal to 1) are incompressible. (It is known that oils are lighter, specific gravity< 1).
This brings us to what Pascal discovered, combining pressure and incompressibility, which we know today as the universal law stating...
"Any change of pressure on an incompressible fluid in an enclosed space is transmitted equally and undiminished in all directions on to the surface of the container".
What supports the statement above is that fluids, like water and oil, unlike gases(gases can also be termed fluids because they can flow) are the least compressible. Talking of compressibility, it is known that intermolecular forces are at the least among gases. They are like...free to move about in every direction, spread if allowed to(The open perfume bottle in a room trick) but also compressible into closed containers upto pressures possibly unthinkable. These gases, viz.,atmospheric air, can also be used for power transmission, but their use is limited. Pneumatics, or "air power" as an engineering entity is quite similar to hydraulics using the same fundamentals of pressure causing displacement or useful work, but with a lesser efficiency. Still, gases under pressure do follow the Pascal's Law. It is to be understood that both pneumatics and hydraulics employ fluid power, only difference being the use of medium for power transmission.
Following Pascal's law...As liquids or oils are incompressible, let us consider any closed container, containing a liquid, such as a piston cylinder assembly. If it is subjected to force along the piston rod, ideally the fluid trapped in would have equal reactive forces acting normally to the inner walls of the cylinder, and also opposing the piston, or in other words....the cylinder walls and piston will the stressed uniformly from within. The fluid pressure acts equally on all the surfaces it comes in contact with.
We may have another physical interpretation....
Imagine the Tyre of a vehicle being inflated...It gets all puffed up and stiff from all sides and corners, doesn't it?. All the sides inflate uniformly.Same Logic applies since gases are also fluids. As earlier stated, it is Pneumatic power that is used, but it still works as per law.
This concludes our first basic insight into how a hydraulic system works.
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Mumbai: Virendra Kumar Sinha, who runs a workshop in East Champaran in Bihar, was ignorant about the possibilities of his pollution control device that can be attached to generators or other diesel engines to reduce noise and air pollution. With emissions of carbon dioxide forecasted to touch 43 percent by 2035, Virendra's device could go a long way in making a big difference in the world, which requires a cleaner and greener environment.
Virendra's workshop, which started in 1981 by manufacturing iron gates and grills, situated just opposite a school. Since they face frequent power cuts, Virendra had to install a generator that resulted in noise and air pollution, which affected school children and neighbors. "It was difficult to move to a new location for me so I started thinking about ways to control this pollution," says Virendra. This was when he thought about something that could control the pollution and finally he come up with a device that can be attached to a generator or other diesel engines to minimize the noise and smoke, reports Manu A B from Rediff Business. It took him six years of experiments to build the first device. Initially, what started as a mission to carry out his work smoothly, turned into a successful innovation with universal appeal and value.
A patented device, it allows carbon deposits to get collected periodically. This can be reused as raw material for shoe polish and local small-scale industry units. Virendra Kumar is now fine-tuning the device to further reduce noise emanating from engines. His next project is a pollution control device for four-wheelers.
Just like most other innovators in India, Virendra Kumar faces a severe fund crunch. Most of the work is now done manually but if machinery is in place, he can manufacture the device faster and more cost-effectively.
"There has been no recognition for my innovation even in my home state. If the government does not take interest in such innovations, how can we grow? This device can reduce pollution considerably. My dream is to make this device available to people across India," says 62-year-old Virendra Kumar.
This unit was fitted to the 10 HP engine used in his workshop. He found that the noise levels could be brought down considerably. He continued to work on it to make it more efficient. And he managed to get the desired results.
The attachment consists of a cylindrical drum having concentric perforated screens and a few long perforated tubes having equally spaced mesh linings. The cylindrical drum is placed between the generator and the exhaust pipe. The exhaust gases, which enter the unit, strike against the array of protruding fins and perforated tubes continuously. The vortex results in the dissociation of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide into carbon particulates and oxygen.
The innovation also works as a silencer by internally canceling out sound waves as they pass through a series of concentric channels. The carbon-based effluents are removed as soot and solid deposits. As a result the exhaust gases are very clean.
On an average, after 3,000 hours of engine operation, about 5 kg of soot gets collected at the bottom of the drum. In about six to eight months, it collects 12 to 14 kg of carbon, which can be easily taken out.
The testing of the device was done in BIT Mesra, Ranchi. The institute also observed a reduction in carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide up to 30 percent and considerable reduction in temperature.
While it takes one day to make a small device, a bigger one would take two days. Virendra Kumar has sold about 40 pollution control devices for different types of engines so far. The device costs Rs.2500 to Rs.10,000 depending upon the type of engine. While Virendra takes just 5 percent as his profit, this innovation can turn out to be very profitable for small factories and households that use generators.
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