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  • DrD

    #20 -- A Question of Stability (Revised)

    By DrD

        Mechanics Corner
        A Journal of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics by DrD, #20
        © Machinery Dynamics Research, 2015
    A Question of Stability Introduction     The word stability in its several forms is widely used in nontechnical communication. A person whose life it highly consistent from day to day is said to have a stable life. When the political situation in a particular area appears to be unlikely to change, it is said to be stable. A person who is well balanced and unlikely to be easily provoked to anger is said to be a stable person. When the medical condition of a sick or injured person ceases to get worse, the person is said to be stabilized. A company on the verge of bankruptcy is said to be an unstable company. But what does the word stability mean in a technical context? Each of the foregoing examples hints at the technical meaning without really being explicit about it.   A factor g = accel of gravity was missing in the potential energy expression. That is now corrected.
  • DrD

    A Question for Readers

    By DrD

    Many of you have asked me various questions, so now it is my turn. Let me lay a bit of background first, and then the questions.   I have had some conversations recently with JAG (one of the other writers here at ME Forums) regarding the choice of software for 3D modeling and analysis. JAG has made some excellent suggestions, specifically a cloud based program called Onshape. Unfortunately, for reasons that are unclear, my computer cannot run Onshape; I have worked with their help people for several hours, all to no avail. JAG recommends this in part because there is a "free version for the hobbyist" and a relatively inexpensive "full version for the professional." That is pretty attractive, but since I can't run it, I'm stuck.   I gather that virtually all engineering colleges these days are teaching some sort of 3D modeling and analysis software, but that raises a few questions in my mind. 1. If your college teaches brandX 3D software, what will you do when you go to work for a small company that cannot afford anything more than 2D drafting (simple CAD), with no analysis capability at all? How will you do your job then? You probably have your own pocket calculator, but will you have your own copy of ANSYS or Pro-E? 2. What software does your school teach (every students should have an answer to this question, so I expect lots of replies on this one!)? 3. If you have used software extensively for analysis of engineering problems (beam deflections, stress analysis, fluid flow, heat transfer, etc), are you confident  that you will be able to work all of those problems if there is no such software available to you on the job?   I might add, as sort of a postscript, most of you know that I am older than dirt (I just had another birthday, so the situation is even worse!), so I tend to look at things from an elderly perspective. One of my great fears as a working engineer was "What will happen when I'm ask to do something that I don't know how to do?" It happened more than once, and it usually resulted in a flurry of intense research to come up to speed on whatever topic was involved. I could usually do that because I have a pretty good library, and I knew how to use a university library as well. But in terms of software, I was always concerned that I had no FEA program, so how could I do problems that others were doing by FEA? I have come up with some interesting work-arounds, including writing my own FEA for some problems, but I never wanted to be dependent on software that I could not afford to own. So, back to my questions about: How are you going to buy your own copy of ANSYS? DrD
  • saurabhjain

    Calling Mechanical Engineers to collaborate on Twitter

    By saurabhjain

    If you are a mechanical engineering professional and have a twitter account .. we invite you in our mechanical engineering  campaign to collaborate on twitter.. Retweet the following status on Look forward for your presence. Regards Mechanical Engineeirng forum

Our community blogs

  1. [This blog is a repost from my other blog site, thought would be useful to Mechanical Engineering readers]

    Now every mechanical engineer uses CAD softwares. Weather software is SolidWorks, SolidEdge, Inventor or CATIA, Creo or UG-NX it has same theory of CAGD and Computational Geometry. Unforuntaly we in Mechanical Engineering does not have subjects to taught this in detailed. I hope this blog series helps you to understand What Lies Benith Your CAD Software !!! biggrin.png

    Mechanical CAD solid models are consisting of geometry and topology. Geometry by virtue of its visualization capability is easy to understand and comprehend. Topology is on the other hand, more of pure virtual concept hence many find it difficult to understand. In this article brief introduction to manifold topology is illustrated. Intended audience is new CAD developers or students of computational geometry.

    Geometry is a part of mathematics concerned with questions of size, shape, and relative position of figures and with properties of space. Many scientists have made contribution to its theory and lot has changed since Euler first laid foundation stone of Geometry. Following is brief review of the development.

    Euclid 300 BC, also known as Euclid of Alexandria, was a Greek mathematician and is often referred to as the Father of Geometry. His work “Elements” is the most successful textbook in the history of mathematics. In “Elements”, the principles of what is now called Euclidean geometry were deduced from a small set of axioms. The geometrical system described in the “Elements” was long known simply as geometry, and was considered to be the only geometry possible. Today, however, that system is often referred to as Euclidean geometry to distinguish it from other so-called Non-Euclidean geometries that mathematicians discovered in the 19th century.

    Euclid undertook a study of relationships among distances and angles, first in a plane (an idealized flat surface) and then in space. An example of such a relationship is that the sum of the angles in a triangle is always 180 degrees. Today these relationships are known as two- and three-dimensional Euclidean geometry. An essential property of a Euclidean space is its flatness. Important point to note is other spaces exist in geometry that are not Euclidean. For example, the surface of a sphere is not; a triangle on a sphere (suitably defined) will have angles that sum to something greater than 180 degrees.image002.jpg

    Next major contribution in Geometry came after around 2000 year by Leonhard Paul Euler (15 April 1707 – 18 September 1783). In 1736, Euler solved the problem known as the Seven Bridges of Königsberg. The city of Königsberg, Prussia was set on the Pregel River, and included two large islands which were connected to each other and the mainland by seven bridges. The problem is to decide whether it is possible to follow a path that crosses each bridge exactly once and returns to the starting point. It is not: there is no Eulerian circuit. This solution is considered to be the first theorem of graph theory, specifically of planar graph theory.


    In the processEuler also discovered the formula V − E + F = 2 relating the number of vertices, edges, and faces of a convex polyhedron, and hence of a planar graph. The constant in this formula is now known as the Euler characteristic for the graph (or other mathematical object), and is related to the genus of the object. The study and generalization of this formula, specifically by Cauchy and L'Huillier, is at the origin of topology.

    Next path breaking contribution was from Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (September 17, 1826 – image009.jpgJuly 20, 1866) an extremely influential German mathematician who made important Non-Euclidean geometries. This discovery was a major paradigm shift in mathematics, as it freed mathematicians from the mistaken belief that Euclid's axioms were the only way to make geometry consistent and non-contradictory. Research on these geometries led to, among other things, Einstein's theory of general relativity, which describes the universe as non-Euclidean. The subject founded by his work is Riemannian geometry. Riemann found the correct way to extend into n dimensions the differential geometry of surfaces. The fundamental object is called the Riemann curvature tensor. For the surface case, this can be reduced to a number (scalar), positive, negative or zero; the non-zero and constant cases being models of the known non-Euclidean geometries. contributions to analysis and differential geometry. He was first one to discover

    Riemannian geometry is the branch of differential geometry that studies Riemannian manifolds, smooth manifolds with a Riemannian metric, i.e. with an inner product on the tangent space at each point which varies smoothly from point to point. This gives in particular local notions of angle, length of curves, surface area, and volume. From those some other global quantities can be derived by integrating local contributions. Riemannian geometry deals with a broad range of geometries categorized into two standard types of Non-Euclidean geometry,spherical geometry and hyperbolic geometry, as well as Euclidean geometry itself.

    Non-Euclidean geometry describes hyperbolic and elliptic geometry, which are contrasted with Euclidean geometry. The essential difference between Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry is the nature of parallel lines. Euclid's fifth postulate, the parallel postulate, is equivalent to Playfair's postulate, which states that, within a two-dimensional plane, for any given line l and a point A, which is not on l, there is exactly one line through A that does not intersect l. In hyperbolic geometry, by contrast, there are infinitely many lines through A not intersecting l, while in elliptic geometry, any line through A intersects l.


    Another way to describe the differences between these geometries is as follows: Consider two straight lines indefinitely extended in a two-dimensional plane that are both perpendicular to a third line. In Euclidean geometry the lines remain at a constant distance from each other, and are known as parallels. In hyperbolic geometry they "curve away" from each other, increasing in distance as one moves further from the points of intersection with the common perpendicular; these lines are often called ultra parallels. In elliptic geometry the lines "curve toward" each other and eventually intersect.

    We started discussing how we end up in geometry discussion? I felt it was necessary to create basic understanding of historical development of Euclidean Geometry and Non-Euclidian geometry to understand next topics.


    As we saw earlier Euler was first one publish paper on topology in seven bridge problem demonstrating that it was impossible to find a route through the town of Königsberg that would cross each of its seven bridges exactly once. This result did not depend on the lengths of the bridges, nor on their distance from one another, but only on connectivity properties: which bridges are connected to which islands or riverbanks. In other words to solve many of geometric problems we do not need to know spatial information but what is requiring to be known is neighborhood or connectivity information termed as topology.

    Problems like a Möbius strip, an object with only one surface and one edge; such shapes are alos an object of study in topology.

    image012.jpgJules Henri Poincaré (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician and theoretical physicist, and a philosopher of science.

    As a mathematician and physicist, he made many original fundamental contributions to pure and applied mathematics, mathematical physics, and celestial mechanics. He was responsible for formulating the Poincaré conjecture, one of the most famous problems in mathematics. In his research on the three-body problem, Poincaré became the first person to discover a chaotic deterministic system which laid the foundations of modern chaos theory.

    He was a founder of topology, also known as “rubber-sheet geometry,” for its focus on the intrinsic properties of spaces.

    From a topologist’s perspective, there is no difference between a bagel (shape like torus or from Indian menu medu wada J ) and a coffee cup with a handle. Each has a single hole and can be manipulated to resemble the other without being torn or cut. Poincaré used the term “manifold” to describe such an abstract topological space.


    The simplest possible two-dimensional manifold is the surface of a soccer ball, which, to a topologist, is a sphere—even when it is stomped on, stretched, or crumpled. The proof that an object is a so-called two-sphere, since it can take on any number of shapes, is that it is “simply connected,” meaning that no holes puncture it. Unlike a soccer ball, a bagel is not a true sphere. If you tie a slipknot around a soccer ball, you can easily pull the slipknot closed by sliding it along the surface of the ball. But if you tie a slipknot around a bagel through the hole in its middle you cannot pull the slipknot closed without tearing the bagel.


    Euler- Poincaré equation

    Euler’s polyhedron formula was applicable to only simple polyhedron. This new equation from Poincaré provides relationship between topological elements for any single two-manifold body.

    V -E + F - Li = 2(1 - G)


    V : Number of vertices.

    E: Number of edges.

    F: Number of faces.

    Li: Number of interior loops.

    G: Genus, the number of closed paths on a surface which do not separate the surface into more than one region. Or, genus is the number of handles to be added to a sphere to make it homeomorphic to the object.

    Classification of manifolds

    · 0-manifold is just a discrete space. Eg Point in Cartesian space corresponds to vertex in topological space. Point or set of points are zero dimensional manifolds

    · 1-manifold is curve in Cartesian space. Eg circle, line, parabole b-spline curve (non intersecting)

    · 2-manfold is surface Cartesian space. Sphere (empty inside), torus, plane, cylinder, b-spline surface (if closed empty inside, orientable and non self-intersecting ) , circular disc

    · 3-manfold is 3 dimensional manifold. Eg Solid Objects, Solid Sphere, Solid Cylinder, Our universe J

    Two-dimensional manifolds were well understood by the mid-nineteenth century. But it remained unclear whether what was true for two dimensions was also true for three. Poincaré proposed that all closed, simply connected, three-dimensional manifolds—those which lack holes and are of finite extent—were spheres. The conjecture was potentially important for scientists studying the largest known three-dimensional manifold: the universe. Proving it mathematically, however, was far from easy. Most attempts were merely embarrassing, but some led to important mathematical discoveries, including proofs of Dehn’s Lemma, the Sphere Theorem, and the Loop Theorem, which are now fundamental concepts in topology.

    By the nineteen-sixties, topology had become one of the most productive areas of mathematics, and young topologists were launching regular attacks on the Poincaré. To the astonishment of most mathematicians, it turned out that manifolds of the fourth, fifth, and higher dimensions were more tractable than those of the third dimension. By 1982, Poincaré’s conjecture had been proved in all dimensions except the third. In 2000, the Clay Mathematics Institute, a private foundation that promotes mathematical research, named the Poincaré one of the seven most important outstanding problems in mathematics and offered a million dollars to anyone who could prove it.


    After nearly a century of effort by mathematicians, Grigori Perelman sketched a proof of the conjecture in a series of papers made available in 2002 and 2003. The proof followed the program of Richard Hamilton. Several high-profile teams of mathematicians have since verified the correctness of Perelman's proof.

    The Poincaré conjecture was, before being proven, one of the most important open questions in topology. It is one of the seven Millennium Prize Problems, for which the Clay Mathematics Institute offered a $1,000,000 prize for the first correct solution. Perelman's work survived review and was confirmed in 2006, leading to him being offered a Fields Medal, which he declined. The Poincaré conjecture remains the only solved Millennium problem.

    This article was written with the help of various sources of web sources, mainly Wikipedia. Intention is to explain interesting subject such as manifold which carries paramount importance in CAD development in less mathematical and elaborative manner. Research in Manifolds is as recent as 2006 and is one of the most studied area in mathematics.

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    Hi friends,

    We are pleased to inform you that our team has created a website "techno-zeal" (forwarding url: with a purpose to share the knowledge among students & working professionals from Engineering background specially for Mechanical design. This website contains projects ideas, interview experience of many PSUs and other relevant content. We are also dedicated to provide free online assistance for learning and projects execution. Although we did our best to keep the content simple and easy to understand. We are also planning for the content of other branches of engineering as well as the content from medical domain. There are still pages like PSUs Guide and B.Tech project ideas, that is common to all engineering branches.

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    Latest Entry

    Hii every one, I am a 3rd year mechanical student from New Delhi, INDIA, i and my some freinds want to make a F1 car, very much intrested and want to participate in SAE BAJA and Supra, Can any one tell me what is the procedure of making it and executing a best project, or post me some helpful links.

    Thank You

    Abhijeet Ranjan


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    Hi All,

    Could any one send me some notes and interview questions on HyperMesh my mail ID is

    Thank You,

    Best Regards,

    Clement Daniel

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    Dear All,

    Can anyone tell me the Exact difference between Linear and Non-Linear Analysis?????

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    Agnish Dhiman
    Latest Entry

    Ever felt in need of an opportunity to be able to apply basic Physics principles in a practical situation. Gearloose provides you with such a platform. Unleash your hidden mechanical skills with this year’s problem statement “Embark & Bombard” by designing a vehicle having both sailing and launching capabilities.

    To know more about Techkriti and Gearloose you can visit and you can

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    In many ways people can expect to obtain an ideal machine viewed from the angle of vibration , which is a machine that produces no vibration at all. Such an ideal machine will greatly save energy because of all the energy given to the whole machine will be used to perform the work alone, whether pumping a fluid, compressing the air, crushing paper etc. Without generating by products in the form of vibration.


    Atypical InFlow Thermodynamic

    Technology Proposal Submission

    Innovative [TURBO-ROTARY]

    Novel (Fueled) Motor Engine Type

    -The Gearturbine comes from the contemporary ecological essential global needs of an efficient power plant fueled motor engine. -Power thrust by bar (tube); air, sea, land and power generation, work use application.

    *Have the similar simple basic system of the "Aelopilie" Heron´s Steam Turbine device from Alexandria, [10-70 AD] one thousand nine hundred years ago. Because; the circular dynamic motion, with 2/Two Opposites power [polar position] lever, and is feeds from his axis center.

    YouTube Video/10.30 min; * Atypical New · GEARTURBINE / Retrodynamic = DextroRPM=> VS <=LevoInFlow + Ying Yang Thrust Way Type - Non Waste Looses

    -Desirable Contemporary Innovation, With the Possible [Efficient] Invention. -Mechanical [Thermodynamic] Universal Human History Evolution. [unlike] Epic Technology Revelation. -Next Step Power-plant New Design Form Function Device Change.

    *8-X/Y Thermodynamic CYCLE - Way Steps:

    1)1-Compression / bigger

    2)2-Turbo 1 cold

    3)2-Turbo 2 cold

    4)2-Combustion - circular motion flames / opposites

    5)2-Thrust - single turbo & planetary gears / ying yang

    6)2-Turbo 2 hot

    7)2-Turbo 1 hot

    8)1-Turbine / bigger

    *Innovation Technology Break Barrier / Paradigm [broken-Seal] Solution. State of the art. Innovative Turbo-Rotary concept Top system.

    -With Retrodynamic Dextrogiro vs. Levogiro Phenomenon Effect. / Rotor-RPM VS InFlow / front=> to <=front; "Collision-Interaction Type" - inflow vs. blades-gear-move. Technical unique dynamic innovative motion mode. [Retrodynamic Reaction = When the inflow have more velocity the rotor have more RPM Acceleration, with high (XY Position) Momentum] Which the internal flow (and rotor) duplicate its speed, when activated being in a rotor (and inflow) with [inverse] opposite Turns. A very strong Novel concept of torque power thrust. At field explanatory example with a metaphor is like if a sailboat take the wind from his prow front to move; wind/inflow + knots/rpm + wind/inflow + knots/rpm + wind/inflow + knots/rpm + etc... = Acceleration x Acceleration = Exponential Acceleration. Whereas it has more movements forwards, it receives a frontal impulse still but to move more forwards. A present example of the implementation of the Retrodynamic effect is in the application in the accelerator (and collider) of particles that this in the border of Switzerland and France.

    -Shape-Mass + Rotary-Motion = Inertia-Dynamic / Form-Function Wide [Flat] Cylindrical shape + positive dynamic rotary mass = continue Inertia kinetic positive tendency motion / all the complete Rotary motor mass weight is going with the power thrust move circular direction.

    -Non-waste parasitic looses system for cooling, lubrication & combustion; -Lubrication & Combustion, inside a conduit radial position, out way direction, activated by Centrifugal Force-Fueled Injected. -Cooling; a) IN-Thermomix flow, & B) OUT-Air Thermo transference.

    -Combustion 2Two [inside-Rotary-Dynamic] continue circular [Rockets] flames. Like two dragons trying to bite the tail of the [ying yang] opposite other.-Increase the first compression by going of flow reduction of one big circumference blades going pass to 2TWO reduced, very long distance (total captive compression) INFLOW [inside propulsion] CONDUITS [long flow interaction] [like a digestive system] Start were ends, in perfect shape balance in perfect equilibrium well balanced, like a snake bite his own tale. -4 TURBOS Rotary [inside-rotary-active] [in-Flow, Out-Flow] Total Thrust-Power Regeneration [Complete] Power System. -Mechanical direct 2two [small] "Planetary Gears" at polar position. Like the Ying Yang Symbol/Concept. Wide out the Rotor circumference were have much more lever [HIGH Torque] POWER THRUST. -Military benefits, No blade erosion by sand & very low heat target profile.-3 stages of inflow turbo compression before combustion; 1)1-Turbine, 2)2-Turbos 3)2-Turbos. -And 3 points of power thrust; 1-flow way, 2-gear, 3-turbine.

    *The most innovative power plant motor engine project today. Higher efficient % percent. Next trend wave toward global technological coming change.

    Patent; Dic. 1991 IMPI Mexico #197187 - Carlos Barrera. - Individual Designer - Inventor and project owner. / All Rights Reserved. - Monterrey NL Mexico.

  3. Francis_turbine.jpg


    A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work.

    The simplest turbines have one moving part, a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades, or the blades react to the flow, so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are windmills and water wheels.

    Gas, steam, and water turbines usually have a casing around the blades that contains and controls the working fluid.

  4. Admission open for Diploma in fire and Safety course at Pune.

    UGC and DEC Govt of India Approved from KSOU

    and Admission open at Pune for 2011 batch


    This courses is specially designed for Safety officers and for Fire and Safety engineers and executives.

    This Diploma in valid in Public/Private and in Government Sector.

    You can work in industry as Fire/Safety officers in any Company.

    Eligibility - 12th/ITI/Diploma and Degree Holders

    Participants should be able to: Identify different types of fire

    extinguishers and how to use in Industry with Safety Rules. Know the different classes of fire andhow to extinguish. General fire prevention.

    General evacuation procedures upon completion of the programme participants who attainthe level required by the instructor will be awarded a certificate.

    The course will lead to the following results namely in Fire and Safety Smoke Alarms, Make an Escape Plan, Fire Safety, Fire Sprinklers, Fire fighting,

    identification and use of fire extinguishers, evacuation training and

    fire warden training. Every year thousands of people are injured or

    killed because of inappropriate exit routes. It is a harsh fact that

    inadequate egress provisions are usually more responsible for

    casualties and fatalities than the actual emergency. This course gives

    you a basic understanding of means of egress and fire protection

    methods. It is essential to know how we can save co-workers lives as

    well as our own in workplace.

    I Semester -

    Fire Tech & Design

    Safety of People in the

    event of Fire

    Fire Risk Assessment

    Fundamental of Fire Engg. Science

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  5. BS.HARI


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    Suite of CAM software for all your NC programming needs such as turning, milling, EDM, free form and advanced Surface machining. Voted Metalworking Product of the Year 1999 by industry

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    Introduced by Bridgeport Machines, EZ-CAM CAD/CAM software has over 10,000 users worldwide. Developed by a team of software and machining specialists, the software combines an easily learned interface with powerful machining capabilities.


    Perform 3-D tube layout and design for forming and bending tube assemblies quickly and accurately with this simple software.


    LICOM AlphaCAM is a comprehensive and fully-featured CAD/CAM system for the Microsoft Windows 95/98/NT/2000 platforms. Capable of 3-5 axis milling, 3D router, turning, engraving, punching, laser & waterjet profiling. Available in 14 languages.


    Rapid prototyping software for rapid mould design, mould quoting and 3D file sharing.


    AutoCAD by Autodesk is one of the best professional design & drafting programs on the market. This award winning program is used by engineering and manufacturing companies around the world.

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    World’s leading CAD/CAM/CAE software for mechanical design of solid, hybrid or sheet metal parts. Stress and vibration analysis capabilities. Catia is the premier design software for SME's, the electronics, automotive, aerospace and shipbuilding industries.


    3D CAD software for foundries by Novacast. Works fully in 3D and changes in design can be made without going to 2D. The most suitable CAD system for a jobbing foundry. Easy import of most common CAD files. Comes with 20 different foundry catalogs.


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    Pro/ENGINEER 2000

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    Design simulation software to evaluate how products will perform in real-world conditions. Alternative to expensive & time consuming process of physical prototyping. Users can improve designs early in the development cycle to reduce cost and leadtimes.

    QuickPen - Sheet Metal CAD

    CAD system for sheet metal contractors. Quickly draw complete systems, including architectural, structural, and HVAC. Create multiple isometric and plan views and download to your plasma cutter for efficient fabrication and waste elimination.

    Radan Sheet Metal CAD/CAM

    Suite of sheet metal CAD/CAM and process management software solutions. Includes Radbend, the 3D sheet metal design system that can automatically unfold parts for downstream processing with Radpunch, Radprofile and RadbendCNC.

    Solid Edge

    The leading mid-range mechanical CAD software by Unigraphics Solutions. Solid Edge helps designers do more work with less effort than other CAD systems. The CAD/CAM system of choice for mechanical design professionals seeking a competitive edge.


    Free 3D CAD viewer which allows anyone with a Windows PC to view, measure, and mark-up CAD data. No need for expensive CAD software. Reads STL, SolidWorks, VRML, OBJ, and 3D Face data in DXF format.


    Powerful 3D CAD software for mechanical design. A simple windows interface with unique drag-and-drop capabilities help designers and engineers build assemblies in record time.

    SolidWorks Piping

    Piping design program and fittings library, fully integrated with SolidWorks. Automate complex piping design tasks & streamlines the design of industrial machinery and equipment.

    TurboCad 6.5

    Affordably priced 3D CAD and solid modeling software packages. Has file sharing capabilities with AutoCad and an easy to use drag and drop interface. $95.00 US for CAD & $495 for solid modeling.

    AFS Solidification System (3D)

    Solidification modeling software for the PC by Finite Solutions, Inc. The software lets you make a casting on the computer before it's made on the foundry floor. Predict whether your rigging design will work before patterns, core boxes or dies are made.


    2D and 3D geometry-based forming simulation software for simulating metalworking processes like open or closed die forging, extrusion, and rolling. Performs coupled thermal, elasto-plastic, elasto-viscoplastic, rigid-viscoplastic and workability modeling.

    Compass II, III, IV

    Material optimization software to help companies that shear & slit master coils or sheets to minimize scrap loss. Determine the optimal shearing patterns for producing blanks from stock. Win95/98/NT.


    Software for simulation of casting processes. Effective tools for component design or casting simulation for Windows, MacOS and UNIX. CastCAE is for casting simulation, CastDESIGN for feeding system design, and CastCHECK for component analysis.


    Panel optimizing software module that determines the best way to cut rectangular parts from sheets. Windows 95/98/NT system, from Pattern Systems Intl.


    Forging simulation software that enables designers to analyze metal forming processes on the computer rather than the shop floor using trial and error. The use of DEFORM has improved cost, quality and delivery at leading companies for nearly a decade.

    Delcam's Power Solution

    CAD/CAM solution developed by toolmakers for toolmakers. Each software products is focused on a specific aspect of the design, rapid prototyping, manufacture, inspection and reverse engineering of complex 3D forms.


    Software for process modeling and analysis of die casting and related processes, including permanent mold, semi-permanent mold, and squeeze casting. Developed at General Motors and currently maintained and marketed by Technalysis, Inc.


    Design and produce all the engraving, routing and machining jobs you’ve ever wanted. Create handcarved looks, engraved signs, awards and trophies, stamps, embossing dies, injection molds and engraved panel decorations for wood.

    EZ Pipe Software

    Software for pipe welding patterns and layout. Print custom pipe templates in minutes. Saves time for pipefitting, maintenance welding, drafting and engineering personnel. Free Demo available.


    Free shareware application for the forging industry developed by the Colorado School of Mines, Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering. AxiTherm, a simulation program which performs FEM thermal calculations, is now available for download.

    Forming Technologies Incorporated

    FTI offers a suite of metal stamping and forming software. Predict formability and blank size for 3D models of stamped sheet metal components before dies are developed. Helps reduce design lead-time and cut costs by identifying formability problems early.

    Foundry Technology II

    Software for design of gating and risering systems. Includes modules on weight estimation, mold weighting, modulus estimation, feeding distance, estimation, riser size an neck design, horizontal gating, filter calculation, metallurgical calculations and more.

    Directory of free Mechanical Engineering software. CAD/CAM software, finite element analysis software, dynamic simulation software, thermal analysis software, utility programs, calculators and others.

    HEXAGON Spring Software

    Software applications for calculating the design and cost for helical and conical compression springs, extention, torsion, disk, spiral, and leaf springs. Values for the most important spring materials are provided by the integrated material database.


    Software developed by foundrymen for casting process optimization. A simulation tool for the technological and quality focused production of castings. Improves understanding of mold filling, solidification, mechanical properties, thermal stresses and distortions.


    Foundry charge optimization software by Novacast. Increase productivity and improve accuracy in charge calculations. The consequenses of using different types of cast iron can easily be simulated. A helpful tool for choosing the best raw materials for each alloy.


    Engineering software for the sheet metal industry. 2D and 3D CAD programs for sheet metal, rollforming, tubes & pipes, shapes and drawn tubes and wire forming.


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    Cross Country Petroleum Pipelines Pipeline Design



    _ The Petroleum Act, 1934

    _ The Petroleum Rules, 2002

    _ Petroleum and Mineral Pipelines (Acquisition of Right of User in Land) Act,

    1962 & Amendment Act, 1977

    _ Indian Forest Act, 1927 And Indian Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980

    _ Guidelines for laying Petroleum Product Pipelines (Gazette Notification no. P-

    20012/5/99-PP dated 20.11.02)

    _ Supplementary guidelines for laying Petroleum Product Pipelines (Gazette

    Notification no. P-20012/5/99-PP/OR-II dated 26.10.04)

    1) THE PETROLEUM ACT, 1934

    The Petroleum Act, 1934 consolidates and amends the law relating to import,

    transport, storage, production, refining and blending of Petroleum products.


    The Petroleum Rules, 1976 were replaced by Petroleum Rules, 2002 with effect

    from 13th march, 2002. Part V of Petroleum Rules, 2002 deals in Transportation

    of Petroleum Products by Pipelines. The salient details of Part V of Petroleum

    rules are given below:

    Right of Way to be acquired - No pipeline and installation connected with a

    pipeline, shall be constructed without acquiring the necessary land, leasements

    and right for the construction.

    Approval of the design and route of the pipeline - No pipeline shall be laid

    without the prior written approval of the Chief Controller of the route of the

    pipeline, and of the design, construction and working thereof.

    Design of pipeline and attachments - The pipeline shall be constructed of suitable

    steel which is safe for the conditions under which it is to be used. The pipeline

    and its components shall be designed and constructed in accordance with a code

    recognized by the Chief Controller or OISD Standard 141 and shall be capable of

    withstanding a pressure which shall not be less than the maximum working

    pressure thereof plus an allowance for surge pressure, as anticipated. Provision

    shall be made for thermal expansion or contraction of the pipeline.

    The pipeline shall be protected by a casing of steel pipe or by increasing the

    thickness of its wall to prevent damage to the pipeline from usual external

    conditions which may be encountered in railway crossings, road crossings, river

    or water course crossings, bridges, long self supported spans, unstable ground,

    vibrations, weight of special attachments or thermal forces.

    By-pass relief valves, pressure limiting stations or automatic shut down

    equipment of approved design shall be provided in the pipe line.

    Isolation valves shall be installed at each of the following locations -

    _ On the suction end and the discharge end of the pump station.

    _ On each line entering or leaving the installation.

    _ On each main line at locations along the pipeline system that will minimize

    damage from accidental product discharge, as appropriate for the terrain in

    open country or for the location near cities or other populated areas.

    _ On each lateral take off from a trunk line.

    _ On each side of a water crossing that is more than 30m wide from high water

    mark to high-water mark.

    _ On each side of a reservoir holding water for human consumption.

    Laying of Pipe Line - Pipeline shall be laid in the most favorable route, avoiding

    known obstructions and areas in which unusual external conditions prevail.

    Pipeline shall be laid below the ground level except where laying above the

    ground level is desirable for topographical, economic or other special reasons.

    Where an underground Pipeline has to cross any existing underground water or

    gas line, cable, drain or other services, the pipeline shall be laid at least thirty

    centimeters below such services. The number of bends in the pipeline shall be

    kept to the minimum.

    The route of underground sections of a pipeline shall be indicated by markers and

    not less than two such markers shall be visible from any point along the route.

    Protection against corrosion - The pipeline shall be protected against corrosion by

    suitable coating strapping and where necessary by cathodic protection.

    Hydrostatic testing of pipeline – Before transporting petroleum for the first time,

    each pipeline or completed sections thereof shall be filled with water and the

    pressure in the line or section, as the case may be raised to 1.1 times the design

    internal pressure and maintained for a period of atleast 24 hours or as per

    procedure laid down in the relevant pipelines design code recognized by Chief

    Controller. A pipeline or a section thereof showing any significant drop of

    pressure during the period of testing shall not be used for transporting petroleum

    until necessary repairs have been carried out and satisfactory retest done.

    The test specified above shall be carried out atleast once in every 12 months in

    each completed pipeline section which crosses an area where there is danger of

    water pollution by any leakage. However, the provision shall not apply to crosscountry

    pipelines, for which new technologies are available.

    Shut down of pipeline - Except when shut down for maintenance work, a pipeline

    when not in operation shall be shut down under pressure and a careful record

    made of the pressure during the shut down period. Any significant drop in

    pressure shall be deemed to render the pipeline unfit for transport of petroleum

    until it is repaired and tested.

    Patrolling of pipeline -

    _ The whole of every pipeline shall be efficiently patrolled by the company

    owning the pipeline.

    _ Telegraph or telephone or radio communication facilities shall be provided at

    frequent intervals along the pipeline.

    Checking of gauges - Tank gauges or gauges at intermediate or booster pump

    stations shall be checked atleast once a year.

    Additions and alterations in the pipeline -

    No addition or alteration to a pipeline shall be carried out without the previous

    approval of Chief Controller in writing. Every person desirous of carrying out any

    additions or alterations in any pipeline shall submit an application to the Chief

    Controller. The Chief Controller shall, if he is satisfied, approve the proposed

    additions or alterations subject to such conditions as he may deem fit.

    Repair and maintenance of pipeline

    - No maintenance or repair involving cutting

    or rewelding of any pipeline shall be carried out except under following

    conditions, namely:

    (i) An experienced engineer shall inspect the section requiring maintenance or

    repair before the work is undertaken and issue a written permit specifying

    therein the precautions to be observed and the procedure to be followed for

    carrying out the work. The permit so issued shall be preserved by the owner

    of the pipeline for a period of six months.

    (ii) All work involving cutting or welding shall be carried out by an experienced


    (iii) The section of the pipeline shall be isolated and drained before starting

    repairs or maintenance.

    (iv) Only mechanical cutters shall be used for cutting the pipeline or any

    connection thereof unless the section of the pipeline and its connections

    have been purged with an inert gas.

    (v) No hot work shall be carried out on any pipeline until the section thereof

    requiring repair has been isolated drained and purged with inert gas or steam

    or kept filled with water or until such section has been prepared in a manner

    approved in writing by the experienced engineer.

    (vi) The section of the pipeline in which repairs or maintenance work has been

    carried out shall not be used for transporting petroleum until such sections

    are replaced with hydrostatically pre tested sections and the repaired weld

    joints pass the radiography test.

    (vii) No section of any pipeline, and no valve fitted to it shall be separated until

    an efficient electrical bond has been established between the parts to be so

    separated which shall not be broken until the separated parts have been


    Relaying or repairs to a pipeline in public interest - Where the Chief Controller is

    of the opinion that it is in the interest of public safety to do so, he may, by a notice

    in writing given to the owner of the pipeline, require such owner, to relay, renew

    repair such pipeline in accordance with such requirements as may be specified in

    such notice.

    Power of inspection and examination - The Chief Controller or Controller may at

    any time inspect and examine any pipeline.

    Reports of fire or major leakage - The occurrence of any fire or major leakage in a

    pipeline and connected facilities shall be reported immediately by the person for

    the time being incharge of the pipeline to the nearest Magistrate or officer-in

    charge of the nearest police station and to the Chief Controller by telephone/fax

    and also by telegram at his telegraphic address, namely “Explosives Nagpur”.



    The Petroleum and Mineral Pipelines (Acquisition of Right of User in Land) Act

    (P&MP Act), 1962 provides for the acquisition of Right of User in land for laying

    petroleum pipelines. Given below are the salient details of this Act:

    Competent Authority: Competent Authority is defined as any person or authority

    authorized by the Central Government, by notification in the Official Gazette, to

    perform the functions of the Competent Authority under the P&MP Act.

    Publication of notifications for acquisition - Section 3(1): Whenever it appears to

    the Central Government that it is necessary in the public interest that for the

    transport of petroleum or any mineral from one locality to another locality

    pipelines may be laid by that Government or by any State Government or a

    corporation and that for the purpose of laying such pipelines it is necessary to

    acquire the right of user in any land under which such pipelines may be laid, it

    may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare its intention to acquire the

    right of user therein.

    Power to enter, survey etc.(Section 4): On the issue of 3(1) notification, it shall be

    lawful for any person authorized by the Central Government or by the State

    Government or the corporation which proposes to lay pipelines for transporting

    petroleum or any mineral, and his servants and workmen –

    a) To enter upon and survey and take levels of any land specified in the


    B) To dig or bore into the subsoil.

    c) To setout the intended line of work.

    d) To mark such levels, boundaries & line by placing marks and cutting


    e) Where otherwise survey cannot be completed and levels taken and the

    boundaries and lines marked, to cut down and clear away any part of

    standing crop, fence or jungle; and

    f) To do all other acts necessary to ascertain whether pipelines can be

    laid under the land.

    Hearing of Objections - Section 5(1): Any person interested in land may, within

    21 days from the date of notification under sub-section (1) of section 3, object to

    the lying of the pipelines under the land.

    Objections shall be made to CA and order by CA shall be final.

    Declaration of Acquisition of Right of User - Section 6 (1): Where no objections

    under subsection of section 5 have been made to the CA within the period

    specified therein or where the CA has disallowed the objections, CA shall submit

    a report containing his recommendations and record of the proceedings to Central

    Government and upon receipt of such report, the Central Government shall

    declare, by notification in the Official Gazette, that the right of user in the land for

    laying the pipeline should be acquired.

    On publication of 6(1) notification, the right of user shall vest in the Central

    Government free from all encumbrances. Central Government may direct by

    order in writing that the right of user instead of vesting in Central Government,

    vest in the State Government or the corporation proposing to lay the pipelines,

    free from all encumbrances.

    Central Government or State Government or corporation to lay pipelines -

    Section 7: It is lawful for the Central Government or State Government or

    corporation to lay pipelines provided that no pipeline shall be laid under –

    a) any land which was used for residential purposes immediately before the

    date of 3(1) notification.

    B) any land on which a permanent structure is there.

    c) any land which is appurtenant to a dwelling house.

    d) any land at a depth which is less than one metre from the surface.

    Power to enter land for maintaining, examining, repairing, alerting inspection etc.

    – Section 8

    Compensation – Section 10: For any damage, loss or injury sustained by any

    person interested in the land under which the pipeline is proposed to be, or is

    being, or has been laid, by reason of

    i) the removal of trees or standing crops

    ii) the temporary severance of land under which the pipeline has been laid from

    other lands belonging to or in occupation of such person

    iii) any injury to any other property or the earnings of such person

    the Central Government, State Government or the Corporation, as the case may

    be, shall be liable to pay compensation to such person for such damage, loss or

    injury, the amount of which shall be determined by the CA. In case the amount of

    compensation is not acceptable to either of the parties, the amount of

    compensation shall be determined by the District Judge.

    No account shall be taken of any structure or other improvement made in the land

    after the date of the notification under section 3(1) in determining the


    A compensation calculated by the CA at 10% of the market value of that land on

    the date of 3(1) notification shall also be paid to the affected land owner.

    Penalty – Section 15 (1): Whoever willfully obstructs any person in doing any of

    the act authorized by P&MP act or willfully fills up, destroys, damages or

    displaces any trench or mark shall be punishable with imprisonment which may

    extend to six months or fine or with both.

    (2) Whoever willfully removes, displaces, damages or destroys any pipeline laid

    under section 7, shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term which

    shall not be less than one year, but which may extend to 3 years and shall also be

    liable to fine.


    ACT, 1980

    This act is applicable to the Pipeline ROU passing through reserved forest,

    protected forest or any area recorded as forest in the government records.


    (GAZETTE NOTIFICATION NO. P-20012/5/99-PP DATED 20.11.02)

    Categorization of Pipelines

    1. The petroleum product pipelines would be categorized as follows:

    (i) Pipelines originating from refineries, whether coastal or inland unto a

    distance of around 300 kilometers from the refinery.

    (ii) Pipelines dedicated for supplying product to particular consumer,

    originating either from a refinery or from oil company's terminal and,

    (iii) Pipelines originating from refineries exceeding 300 Km in length and

    pipelines originating from ports, other than those specified in (i) and (ii)


    Ownership and access

    2. Right of User (RoU) in land for laying pipelines under the Petroleum

    Pipelines (Acquisition of right of User in Land) Act, 1962 for the pipelines

    falling under category specified in sub-clauses (i) and (ii) of Clause 1, will be

    granted in favor of applicant company treating such pipelines as captive

    pipelines for exclusive use by the proposer company.

    3. For grant of ROU in land for laying pipelines under the Petroleum Pipelines

    (Acquisition of right of User in Land) Act 1962 for the pipelines falling under

    the category specified in sub-clause (iii) of clause 1, the following procedure

    will be followed:

    3.1 A proposal for laying common usage product pipeline could originate from

    any single interested party or a joint-venture (herein after referred to as


    3.2 The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas shall publicize in such manner as

    the Ministry may decide, the proposal inviting expression of interest, within a

    period of three months from anyone interested in the proposal. In case any

    company is interested in taking any capacity in the pipeline, it could express

    its interest and enter into “take of pay” or any other mutually agreeable

    contract with the proposer. The pipeline size and design would be finalized by

    the proposer after taking into consideration all such requests.

    3.3 In case, no expression of interest is received from any industry player within a

    period of three months of publicizing the proposal, the proposer would be at

    liberty to go ahead with the project.

    3.4 The designed pipeline capacity would be atleast 25% more than the capacity

    requirement of the proposer and of those who take capacity under clause 3.2

    as may be decided by the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas.

    3.5 The ownership of the pipeline would be that of the proposer or as may be

    decided by the proposer, irrespective of whether the other industry player(s)

    take pipeline capacity or not.

    3.6 The excess capacity, as mentioned in clause 3.4, would be available for use by

    anyone other than the owner and those taking capacity under clause 3.2 at the

    approved tariff as per the provisions under clause 4, on “common carrier”

    basis i.e. capacity would be made available to anyone interested and offering

    to pay the tariff. In case, such demand exceeds this excess capacity, the

    allocation of the excess capacity would be prorated amongst the interested

    users other than the owner and those taking capacity under clause 3.2.


    4. Tariff for the pipelines commissioned after the date of publication of this

    notification in the Official Gazette and falling in the category specified in subclause

    (iii) of clause 1, will be subject to the control orders or the regulations

    that may be issued by the Government or the statutory authority in this behalf

    under any law for the time being in force.

    Conditions under ROU acquisition

    5. The ROU acquisition under the Petroleum Pipelines (Acquisition of Right of

    User in Land) Act, 1962 will be subject to such conditions as may be deemed

    fit by the Government in public interest. Such conditions may inter alia

    include the following:

    5.1 Sharing of portions of acquired ROU falling in forest areas, wild life/marine

    sanctuaries/parks, prohibited/restricted areas etc with the other interested


    5.2 In case the route alignment of the Pipeline crosses another pipeline

    route/alignment, the points of crossing would be decided by mutual agreement

    between the parties failing which the matter will be referred to the Ministry of

    Petroleum and Natural Gas whose decision will be final.



    PP/OR-II DATED 26.10.04)

    The Supplementary guidelines are applicable for pipelines falling under category

    – 1(iii) of Guidelines for laying Petroleum Product Pipelines.

    Common Carrier Capacity

    1. The “Common carrier” capacity to be built under para 3.4 of the Guidelines

    for Laying Petroleum Product Pipelines notification F.No.P-20012/5/99-PP

    dated 20.11.2002 provides the right of first use to any party other than the

    owner / proposer, throughout the life of the pipeline.

    2. In the event that capacity is available out of the common carrier capacity, the

    owner / proposer may utilize the same with the stipulation that should any

    other party seek transportation through common carrier capacity, the owner /

    proposer would vacate and make available common carrier capacity up to the

    designated level immediately.

    Time Frame for Completion of Pipeline

    3. Pipeline project will be required to be commissioned with in the time period

    provided in the sanction / approval letter, which shall have an outer limit of 36

    months from the date of sanction / approval.

    Bank Guarantee

    4. The owner / proposer will be required to furnish an irrevocable bank

    guarantee of an amount equivalent to 2% of the project outlay or Rs. 2 lakhs

    per kilometer of pipeline proposed, whichever is higher, as a guarantee for

    commissioning the pipeline project as per the approved time schedule. The

    irrevocable bank guarantee shall be encashable any time after 36 months from

    the date of the sanction / approval and will be dischargeable only on advice of

    the Government. If the completion of the project is delayed beyond 36 months

    from the date of sanction / approval of the project, then the bank guarantee

    may be invoked.

    5. The ROU acquisition would be commenced after execution of Bank

    Guarantee and its deposit with the Government.

    6. The Bank Guarantee may be deposited within 30 days of issue of sanction

    letter failing which sanction letter would stand withdrawn.

    7. The Bank Guarantee will be discharged on commissioning of the pipeline

    within the time period specified and satisfactory compliance of conditions

    imposed through the sanction / approval letter.

    Competent Authority for Acquiring ROU

    8. Only serving Government Officers will be considered for working as

    Competent Authority under the Petroleum and Minerals Pipelines

    (Acquisition of Right of User in Land) Act, 1962.

    Transfer of Ownership

    9. Where a pipeline implementing company is a subsidiary company and has

    been granted sanction / approval letter on the basis of its holding / parent

    company’s balance sheet, permission of Ministry of Petroleum and Natural

    Gas will be required to be obtained prior to any change in management

    majority holding in such pipeline implementing subsidiary.

    Eligibility of Players Seeking Capacity in a Pipeline Project

    10. Any party may approach the proposer to seek capacity in a pipeline project for

    which an EOI has been issued under Guidelines for Laying Petroleum Product

    Pipelines Notification F.No.P-20012/5/99-PP dated 20.11.2002. Eligibility of

    parties seeking capacity will not be limited on the grounds that the party,

    seeking capacity is neither a refinery nor possessing any marketing rights.


    a) Environmental Clearance –

    i) State Pollution Control Board’s (SPCB) Consent for Establishment

    ii) Ministry Of Environment and Forest clearance (including CRZ & non

    CRZ areas)

    iii) State Forest Clearance for Reserve / Protected / State forest crossing

    ROUs (upto 5 hectares in a state). Clearance from State Forest Department

    in case of Social forest crossings specifically in case of such notified areas

    along High way/ Local road networks

    iv) Clearance from Regional Conservator of Forests for Reserve / Protected /

    State forest crossing ROUs (From 5 to 20 hectares of forest areas in a

    state). For more than 20 hectares, approval of Central Forest department is

    required under MOEF

    v) SPCB consent for operation before commissioning of the project

    B) ROU approvals –

    i) State Government’s deputation of in service Government officer (preferably

    revenue officers) for notification as Competent Authority under Petroleum

    & Mineral Pipeline (Right of Use Acquisition) Act., 1962

    ii) MOP&NG’s notification of Competent Authority under PMP Act 1962

    iii) MOP&NG’s notification of ROU under 3(1), 6(1) sections of PMP

    Act,1962, CA’s conduction of Objection hearing under 5(1) section after

    3(1) notification

    iv) Approval of Zonal railways for railway crossings

    v) Approval of State Panchayat, State R&Bs (PWD), NH authorities for

    various road crossings

    vi) Approval of Rivers/canals/Streams/Nalahs/Drains/ water body crossings

    from respective State Irrigation Authorities

    vii) Approval / Consent from other Utility owners like Telecom, Water/

    Petroleum pipelines etc.

    viii) Approval of District Magistrate for crossing of ROU in Government, lands

    ix) Approval from Port Trust and other Govt. bodies where ever applicable for

    restricted ROUs in their lands

    c) Approvals from Central Departments -

    i) CCOE Construction approvals for Pipeline alignment, Station / Terminal

    layouts & approval for commissioning after project completion

    ii) Approval for Fire Advisor, Ministry of Home

    iii) Approval of Ministry of Finance for concessional Custom Duty

    iv) Notification of entry ports for concessional duty imports

    v) Approval from Ministry of Communication for HF/ VHF wireless frequency

    vi) Approval of Central Electricity Authority for energizing HV/EHV electrical


    d) Approvals from State Departments -

    i) Certificate of Registration from Regional Labor commissioner

    ii) Construction approval from Director of Factories

    iii) NOC from respective District Magistrates for all Stations/ Terminals

    iv) Approval of plans from respective Municipal authorities

    v) Approval of HT/LT Electrical Loads, DG set installation

    vi) State Fire Service Dept.’s approval of plans and Fire officer’s approval

    before commissioning


    OISD (Oil Industry Safety Directorate) Standards

    1) OISD 138 Inspection of Onshore Pipelines

    2) OISD 140 Inspection of Jetty Pipelines

    3) OISD 141 Design & Construction of Hydrocarbon Pipelines

    International Codes, Standards & Practice

    1) DNV Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems

    2) ASME B 31.8 Gas Transportation and Distribution Piping Systems

    3) ASME B 31.4 Pipeline transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons

    and other liquids

    4) API RP 1102 Recommended Practice for Rail And Highway Crossings

    5) API 1104 Standard for Welding Pipeline and Related Facilities

    6) API RP 1110 Recommended Practice for Pressure Testing of Liquid

    Petroleum Pipelines

    7) API RP 1111 Recommended Practice for Design, Construction,

    Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Hydrocarbon


    8) NACE MR 0175 Material Requirements- Sulphide Stress Cracking Resistant

    Materials for Oil Field Equipment

    9) IP 6 Pipeline Safety Code

    10) OTHER


    Applicable Standards / Specifications Of ANSI / ASME,

    API, NACE, MSS, BS and DIN

    OISD : Oil Industry Safety Directorate

    API : American Petroleum Institute

    ASME : The American Society of Mechanical Engineers

    ANSI : American National Standards Institute

    NACE : The National Association of Corrosion Engineers

    BS : British Standard

    DNV : Det Norske Veritas

    MSS : Manufacturers Standardization Society of Valve and Fittings Industry

    AWS : American Welding Society

    DIN : Deutsches Institute fur Normung

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    Fluids like water or oil are the best substances to work using pressure.

    "Pressure" is the epicenter of all hydraulic system design calculations. Pressure arises because of the sheer density of water, as we know which is about 1000 kg/cu. meter. The weight of water column increases in proportion to the depth, as in the case of the ocean. The deeper we dive, the higher we feel the pressure.

    The same pressure term can be used, when we are analyzing it in a context of a hydraulic press, which of course is an equipment found in a factory, on land, rather than the sea. And it also does not need lots of water to accomplish the "Pressing". The pressure in a hydraulic press is induced by means of other compression media, pumps for example, which are more compact.

    But... Still what next. How does it still help for oil/ liquid to be used for the working of hydraulic systems?

    The reason, quite simply put it, Fluids (oils talking in industrial context, i.e., everything with specific gravity value less than or equal to 1) are incompressible. (It is known that oils are lighter, specific gravity< 1).

    This brings us to what Pascal discovered, combining pressure and incompressibility, which we know today as the universal law stating...

    "Any change of pressure on an incompressible fluid in an enclosed space is transmitted equally and undiminished in all directions on to the surface of the container".

    What supports the statement above is that fluids, like water and oil, unlike gases(gases can also be termed fluids because they can flow) are the least compressible. Talking of compressibility, it is known that intermolecular forces are at the least among gases. They are to move about in every direction, spread if allowed to(The open perfume bottle in a room trick) but also compressible into closed containers upto pressures possibly unthinkable. These gases, viz.,atmospheric air, can also be used for power transmission, but their use is limited. Pneumatics, or "air power" as an engineering entity is quite similar to hydraulics using the same fundamentals of pressure causing displacement or useful work, but with a lesser efficiency. Still, gases under pressure do follow the Pascal's Law. It is to be understood that both pneumatics and hydraulics employ fluid power, only difference being the use of medium for power transmission.

    Following Pascal's law...As liquids or oils are incompressible, let us consider any closed container, containing a liquid, such as a piston cylinder assembly. If it is subjected to force along the piston rod, ideally the fluid trapped in would have equal reactive forces acting normally to the inner walls of the cylinder, and also opposing the piston, or in other words....the cylinder walls and piston will the stressed uniformly from within. The fluid pressure acts equally on all the surfaces it comes in contact with.

    We may have another physical interpretation....

    Imagine the Tyre of a vehicle being inflated...It gets all puffed up and stiff from all sides and corners, doesn't it?. All the sides inflate uniformly.Same Logic applies since gases are also fluids. As earlier stated, it is Pneumatic power that is used, but it still works as per law.

    This concludes our first basic insight into how a hydraulic system works.

  6. Mumbai: Virendra Kumar Sinha, who runs a workshop in East Champaran in Bihar, was ignorant about the possibilities of his pollution control device that can be attached to generators or other diesel engines to reduce noise and air pollution. With emissions of carbon dioxide forecasted to touch 43 percent by 2035, Virendra's device could go a long way in making a big difference in the world, which requires a cleaner and greener environment.

    Virendra's workshop, which started in 1981 by manufacturing iron gates and grills, situated just opposite a school. Since they face frequent power cuts, Virendra had to install a generator that resulted in noise and air pollution, which affected school children and neighbors. "It was difficult to move to a new location for me so I started thinking about ways to control this pollution," says Virendra. This was when he thought about something that could control the pollution and finally he come up with a device that can be attached to a generator or other diesel engines to minimize the noise and smoke, reports Manu A B from Rediff Business. It took him six years of experiments to build the first device. Initially, what started as a mission to carry out his work smoothly, turned into a successful innovation with universal appeal and value.

    A patented device, it allows carbon deposits to get collected periodically. This can be reused as raw material for shoe polish and local small-scale industry units. Virendra Kumar is now fine-tuning the device to further reduce noise emanating from engines. His next project is a pollution control device for four-wheelers.

    Just like most other innovators in India, Virendra Kumar faces a severe fund crunch. Most of the work is now done manually but if machinery is in place, he can manufacture the device faster and more cost-effectively.

    "There has been no recognition for my innovation even in my home state. If the government does not take interest in such innovations, how can we grow? This device can reduce pollution considerably. My dream is to make this device available to people across India," says 62-year-old Virendra Kumar.

    This unit was fitted to the 10 HP engine used in his workshop. He found that the noise levels could be brought down considerably. He continued to work on it to make it more efficient. And he managed to get the desired results.

    The attachment consists of a cylindrical drum having concentric perforated screens and a few long perforated tubes having equally spaced mesh linings. The cylindrical drum is placed between the generator and the exhaust pipe. The exhaust gases, which enter the unit, strike against the array of protruding fins and perforated tubes continuously. The vortex results in the dissociation of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide into carbon particulates and oxygen.

    The innovation also works as a silencer by internally canceling out sound waves as they pass through a series of concentric channels. The carbon-based effluents are removed as soot and solid deposits. As a result the exhaust gases are very clean.

    On an average, after 3,000 hours of engine operation, about 5 kg of soot gets collected at the bottom of the drum. In about six to eight months, it collects 12 to 14 kg of carbon, which can be easily taken out.

    The testing of the device was done in BIT Mesra, Ranchi. The institute also observed a reduction in carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide up to 30 percent and considerable reduction in temperature.

    While it takes one day to make a small device, a bigger one would take two days. Virendra Kumar has sold about 40 pollution control devices for different types of engines so far. The device costs Rs.2500 to Rs.10,000 depending upon the type of engine. While Virendra takes just 5 percent as his profit, this innovation can turn out to be very profitable for small factories and households that use generators.

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