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  1. Mechanics Corner

    A Journal of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics by DrD, #46


    Comments on

    A Calculus Challenge


    I would like to thank all those who took part in the Challenge. My solutions and comments are attached.

    46 CalcChallengeComments.pdf

  2. New_product_development_process.png

    New product development is vital to any engineering company especially n this fast moving consumer market. But there is a high chance that your new product fail because of some avoidable mistakes. Read more on how you can avoid those common mistakes


  3. For the job placement in the mechanical engineering private companies, it is very necessary to know about the very important mechanical engineering interview questions and answers. During the interview session, the employer can ask you the mechanical engineering basic questions to examine your knowledge about your subject and sector. If you planning to seat in the job placement, these frequently asked mechanical engineering questions and answers will help you in reply to the employer questions. These mechanical engineering interview questions and answers are meant for the purpose of a job interview and getting an idea of interview question for fresher.


    Today we are going to discuss Mechanical Interview Questions and Answers-Topics:  Boiler

    In this video we discuss the following question with answer:

    Question Number 1. What is boiler?

    Question Number 2: What are the boiler mountings?

    Question Number 3. What are boiler accessories?

    Question Number 4. What is circulation ratio of a boiler?

    Question Number 5. What is turn down ratio of boiler?

    Question Number 6. What is foaming of boiler?

    Question Number 7. What is priming of boiler?

    Question Number 8. What is critical point of steam?

    Question Number 9. What is evaporation ratio of Boiler?

    Question Number 10. What is acid due point in boiler?

    Question Number 11. What is gross calorific value and net calorific value of coal?


    You will all answer after see this video: https://youtu.be/ANifcZlS9Mg


  4. In today's market there are lot of mechanical engineers who are seeking for career building at different stages of their career, one who just recently graduated looking for masters or seeking for jobs, and a case of already employed is looking for career growth.

    Mechanical engineers has lots of option to choose from mechatronics, automotive,aerospace, production, robotics, power, computational sciences, plastics, nanotechnology, Industrial engineering ,Engineering & management and many more.


    An internship is a period of work experience offered by an employer to give students and graduates exposure to the working environment, often within a specific industry,which relates to their field of study.

    Internships can be as short as a week or as long as 12 months. They can be paid or voluntary; however, before you start an internship it’s important to know your rights with regards to getting paid.

    Internships can be done in a range of sectors, including sales,  marketing,  engineering,  graphic design, management, I.T. and many, many more. Throughout an internship you will develop a variety of soft skills, including communication skills, personal effectiveness, presentation skills, creative problem solving and influencing skills.

    ‘On-the-job’ experience can be as valuable as anything learned in your studies. After all, you cannot really understand what a job is all about until you have worked in that environment. Internships are great opportunities to speak directly to people who have experience in the role you aspire to; and their knowledge of the job and working environment will give you a greater understanding of what it’s all about and what you need to do to progress.

    Your career aspirations may change when you’re faced with the true realities of a role. Internships can therefore be used as a ‘try before you buy’ option, before you embark on a career and confirm if this is what you want to do in the long term.

    Internships can give you a genuine knowledge into the universe of work, enabling you to expand on the hypothesis you learned at college and helping you to increase commonsense aptitudes that will help reinforce your CV and make you more employable. Entry levelpositions offer you the opportunity to test your abilities, in actuality, circumstances, investigate your profession alternatives and gain a knowledge into an organisation or career path.


    Many foreign universities look for Internships, Certifications, work experience, recommendations and give more importance how good your statement of purpose is drafted at the time of application to give admission.

    Before Graduating participating in extra circular activities, attending various technical seminars, workshops and passing in any design certification exam will have an edge over getting admission in top universities apart from the score secured in competitive exams like GRE, GATE,TOEFL,IELTS.

    Every hour is more valuable after graduating, if u been rejected/or not qualified to the universities, you have to wait for a couple of months more to reapply and time keeps on ticking off .

    After graduating seek internships with the help of your parents, friends ,relatives or any providers in the market , which will add value to your profile rather than just waiting for the outcome of the further process. Internship will fill the void in your resume for any future endeavors & boosts your skill capability individually.

    If you have been geared up with the required skills with a minimum experience & exposure of work ,it might help you in seizing the opportunity when given to you. These Internship programs might be paid depending upon the outcome of the work & effort you have put in benefiting to the organisation .

    Mechanical Internships will be accessible in both design & manufacturing segment who are keen in improving their technical ability & working towards to their career path. Many young entrepreneurs are keen in picking up these graduates who wish to work as intern for couple of months and would recruit few of them if they perform outstanding among all.

    Mechrise is one such organisation creating a wonderful platform by bridging the gap between the academia & Industry for mechanical engineers who are seeking for internships . I am particularly glad and pleased with the kind of service, attention they take on each and every candidate advising career opportunities along with the skills required at industry level says Mr A. Jayan MD of NEC Pvt Ltd.

    For more information Click the link http://www.mechrise.com/auth/Blog

  5. Smart hello to every one...

    As off late I got busy in some personal projects, this year we are back and look forward to make the community live, quick, vibrant and responsive.

    I recommend few points to give it a great push...

    • Make sure to login every day on the website mechanical-engg.com
    • Time to showcase your skills, start your blog, give response to others, appreciate the starters.
    • Do not put ads or promote others links, website.... we are making it a clean community..once banned you will miss the long term opportunities.
    • Ask researchers, professors, to write their learning and teachings 
    • We will be starting  quizzes very soon...we will even invite professors who are willing to make some interesting/challenging quiz for us 
    • We look forward to start job section soon - will need help from community members to give us information of various openings in your company.. help us to reach your HR.
    • Help us to reach and connect each and every single mechanical engineering professional. I am listing down the following ways 
    • Facebook - Connect with me directly on this profile  https://www.facebook.com/mechanical.engineering.website and add all your friends in the following group https://www.facebook.com/groups/4mechanicalengineers/
    1. Whatsapp - we will be forming whatsaopp groups.. 
    2. https://mechanical-engg.com/whatsapp-group/  These groups will be just to send you the updates on phone .. do not join more then one group as same information will be shared on each group...
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  6. Tobee® TH Slurry pumps are interchangeable with world’s standard Warman AH slurry pumps for heavy duties, A wide variety of impellers and shaft seals provide a perfect fit for a wide range of applications. The TH slurry pump provides excellent wear life while maintaining efficiency during the wear cycle providing the best total operating cost. These horizontal slurry pumps are designed for hyper heavy duty applications such as mill discharge, process plant, coal washing, dregding sands, tailings and high pressure pipelines, as well as other specialty applications.


    Size: 1" to 22"
    Capacity: 3.6-5400m3/h
    Head: 6-125m
    Handing solids: 0-130mm
    Max.pressure: 2020 kPa
    Materials: Hyper chrome alloy, Rubber, Polyurethane, Ceramic, Stainless steel etc.

    Design Features:

    • Bearing assembly - a large diameter shaft with short overhang minimizes deflection and contributes to long bearing life. Only four through bolts are required to hold the cartridge type housing in the frame.
    • Liners - easily replaceable liners are bolted, not glued, to the casing for positive attachment and east of maintenance. Hard metal liners are completely interchangeable with pressure moulded elastomer.
    • Elastomer seal rings back all liner joints.
    • Casing - Casing halves of cast or ductile iron with external reinforcing ribs provide high operating pressure capabilities and an extra measure of safety.
    • Impeller - front and rear shrouds have pump out vanes that reduce recirculation and seal contamination. Hard metal and moulded elastomer impellers are completely interchangeable.
    • Cast in impeller threads require no inserts or nuts. High efficiency and high head designs are also available.
    • Throatbush - wear is reduced and maintenance simplified by the use of tapered mating faces to allow positive accurate alignment during assembly and simple removal.
    • One-piece frame - a very robust one-piece frame cradles the cartridge type bearing and shaft assembly.
    • An external impeller adjustment mechanism is provided below the bearing housing for easy adjustment of impeller clearance.

    Add:Hi-tech Development Zone | Shijiazhuang City | Hebei Province | China.
    Email:Sales@tobeepump.com | Skype:Tobee.pump | Mob:+86-18032034573 | Web:www.tobeepump.com


    Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene 

    Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), it is a dark thermoplastic and amorphous polymer. It is a terpolymer (copolymer comprising of three unmistakable monomers) of Acrylonitrile, Butadiene, and Styrene. Together they make an item that is adaptable and light in weight that can be shaped into numerous things that we use in our regular day to day existences. 

    The benefit of ABS is that an assortment of changes can be had to enhance impact protection, sturdiness, and heat protection. Molding at a high temperature enhances the gleam and heat protection of the item while molding at a low temperature is where the highest impact resistance and strength are obtained.


    Polyethylene is a thermoplastic polymer with variable crystalline structure and a huge scope of uses relying upon the type. It is a standout amongst the most adaptable and most famous plastics on the planet since the 1950s when it was produced by German and Italian researchers. The two most regular kinds of this plastic are high-thickness polyethylene (HDPE) and low-thickness polyethylene (LDPE). 

    The upsides of polyethylene are abnormal amounts of pliability, rigidity, impact protection, protection from dampness, and recyclability. The higher the thickness of the polyethylene material utilized the more grounded, more unbending, and more heat safe the plastic is. The essential employments of polyethylene are plastic sacks, plastic films, compartments including bottles, and geomembranes.

    Polyamide (Nylon) 

    Nylon material is utilized as a part of a vast scope of various applications in view of its electrical properties, sturdiness, wear protection and chemical protection being very noteworthy. Nylon has an abnormal state of strength and is impervious to numerous outer components like scratches, impact, and chemicals. This material produces plastic parts utilized as a part of numerous businesses, for example, 

    • Medicinal items 
    • Car items 
    • Games hardware 
    • Attire and footwear 
    • Industrial components


    High Impact Polystyrene 

    High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) is a prevalent and intense plastic that is in the Polystyrene family. Polystyrene is weak and can be more impact safe if joined with different materials. It is made from modifying crystal styrene with rubber which helps to give it many levels of impact resistance. It is low cost, has good dimensional stability and rigidity. There are FDA grades available since it is non-toxic and used as containers for many food goods. 

    It is exceptionally flammable, yet there are fire resistant and polished evaluations that are generally utilized for injection molding. 


    This is an extremely regular plastic that is known for its adaptability. PP (polypropylene) is an exceptionally unique plastic and has been intensified for an extensive variety of properties. A few attributes of this plastic are its high liquefying point, high protection toward stress and splitting, magnificent impact quality, and does not break down from responses with water, acids, and cleansers. 

    PP is ok for use as food holders since it doesn’t filter chemicals into nourishment items. It can be generally found in family unit merchandise, for example, utensils, athletic clothing, area rugs, and car parts, for example, auto batteries.


  8. Điều gì khiến cho chiếc xe của bạn bị rung lắc? Có thể đang có nhiều vấn đề và nguyên nhân gây ra. Nguyên nhân về kỹ thuật xe là điều phải đặc biệt chú ý.

    Sử dụng một chiếc ô tô lâu dài, chắc chắn điều không tránh khỏi là các vấn đề kỹ thuật của xe ngày càng đi xuống. Một trong những vấn đề xảy ra là sự rung lắc xe khi chuyển động. Điều này làm bạn khó chịu khi ngồi trên xe. Hơn thế nữa, nó còn ảnh hưởng đến các tính năng an toàn, dẫn hướng trên xe. Vậy nguyên nhân nào dẫn đến sự rung lắc này?

    Bạn sẽ tự hỏi rằng tại sao xe mình lại rung như vậy? Nguyên nhân do đâu? Tiếp tục đi có bị ảnh hưởng gì không? Nếu bạn không phải là người chuyên môn kỹ thuật ô tô, bạn khó có thể biết được nguyên nhân là gì?

    Thật sự là một lợi thế nếu bạn có thể phán đoán được nguyên nhân gây ra sự rung lắc này. Nó giúp bạn biết được vì sao, bộ phận hay chi tiết nào hỏng, cần khắc phục chỗ nào… Điều này sẽ giúp bạn nắm được chi phí của việc sửa chữa…

    Dưới đây là tổng hợp 10 nguyên nhân chính thường gây ra sự rung lắc ô tô.

    1. 1Lốp xe bị hỏng


    Lốp xe bị cũ, khô, phồng rộp, mòn là nguyên nhân gây xe bị rung lắc quá mức khi chuyển động. Bởi vì lốp xe là bộ phận duy nhất tiếp xúc, liên kết chiếc xe của bạn với đường, nó lại làm việc trong những điều kiện vô cùng khắc nghiệt nên tuổi thọ của lốp xe là tương đối ngắn.

    Dưới đây là các vấn đề chính mà lốp gặp phải gây ra rung lắc cho xe:

    + Lốp xe bị nứt, tách - yêu cầu phải thay lốp



    + Bề mặt lốp bị mòn không đều (vẫn còn đảm bảo tiêu chuẩn) - yêu cầu đảo lốp, xoay lốp


    + Lốp xe đã bị méo (out of round), không còn cuộn đều - yêu cầu thay lốp

    out-of-round-1.jpg out-of-round.jpg

    + Áp suất lốp quá thấp - bơm thêm cho lốp

    + Lốp quá cũ - thay lốp

    • 2Lốp Profile thấp hoặc lốp cản lăn thấp


    Lốp cản lăn thấp hay còn được gọi là lốp profile thấp, đang ngày càng trở nên phổ biến với sự gia tăng xe hybrid và EVs. Những lốp xe này làm giảm lực cản, với mục đích làm tăng sự tiết kiệm nhiên liệu EPA, là một biện pháp quan trọng của các loại xe này, đặc biệt cho mục đích marketing. Tuy nhiên những lốp xe cản lăn/profile thấp thường không hấp thụ bề mặt đường tốt, do đó nó truyền va đập lên xe và hệ thống lái gây ra một sự rung lắc và ảnh hướng đến cảm giác lái.

    Nhiều người thích loại lốp này vì nhìn nó đẳng cấp, thể thao. Tuy nhiên nó lại không thực sự tốt nếu xe của bạn không được thiết kế để lắp loại lốp này.

    Đây chỉ là một nguyên nhân gây ra sự rung lắc xe. Bởi nó liên quan đến thiết kế xe. Tuy nhiên bạn có thể khắc phục bằng cách thay loại lốp và la răng (không khuyến cáo). Khuyên bạn nên khắc phục các vấn đề khác.

    • 3La răng bị méo hoặc hư hỏng nặng


    Các nguyên nhân như đường ổ gà, bị va chạm gây ra sự hư hỏng la răng, khiến chiếc la răng của bạn bị méo, nứt,...

    Nếu một hoặc các bánh xe bị hỏng, méo la răng, nó sẽ khiến bánh xe bị mất cân bằng khi quay, sự mất cân bằng này tác động lên xe gây ra sự rung lắc. Trầm trọng hơn, nó còn gây ra sự mất kiểm soát dẫn hướng, gây mất an toàn...

    Trường hợp bị hỏng nặng thì bạn có thể nhận thấy bằng mắt. Nhưng với những trường hợp không thể quan sát, bạn cần sự hỗ trợ kiểm tra của kỹ thuật viên bằng cạch sử dụng máy chuyên dụng để đo sự rung lắc bánh xe.

    Khi la răng bị méo, nứt hỏng nặng, khuyên bạn nên thay thế bánh xe mới.

    • 4La răng/Bánh xe không cân bằng


    Việc bánh xe hoặc la răng không cân bằng gây ra sự mất ổn định khi quay, nó gây ra các mô men và các lực ly tâm không cân bằng, khiến cho bánh xe bị lắc, mất ổn định, tác động lên thân xe gây ra rung lắc xe.

    Việc cân bằng bánh xe tốt nhất phải có trang thiết bị và máy tính kiểm tra để đo các khối lượng cân bằng. Chắc hẳn bạn đã thấy các mẩu kim loại nhỏ gắn vào la răng, đó chính là các mảnh khối lượng cân bằng gắn vào.

    Việc bánh xe hoặc la răng không cân bằng là một nguyên nhân phổ biến gây ra sự rung lắc bánh xe. Tuy nhiên bạn không thể tự mình kiểm tra được, mà phải cần đến sự trợ giúp của các gara có trang thiết bị đo. Giá cả của việc kiểm tra này cũng không đắt đâu, nên bạn yên tâm đem xe đến các đại lý 3S hoặc 5S để kiểm tra nhé.

    • 5Nguyên nhân do hệ thống lái/Trợ lực lái


      Nếu chiếc xe của bạn chỉ bị rung lắc, hay cảm giác rung lắc trên tay bạn khi mà bạn đánh lái thì chắc chắn nguyên nhân từ hệ thống lái,: các chi tiết liên kết bị nỏng, rơ, trợ lực lái có vấn đề.

      Có thể là bị dò dỉ dầu trợ lực, bơm hỏng, hay các thanh răng, các thanh rằng bị cong, các khớp nối quá rơ rão,... Do vậy, khi bạn đánh lái mà cảm thấy rung lắc ngay cả trên mặt đường bằng phẳng, thì tốt nhất bạn hãy đánh xe đến gara và yêu cầu kiểm tra hệ thống lái.

    • 6Trục quay và Cầu xe có vấn đề


      Xe của bạn chạy trên đường, băng qua các vật cản có thể gây ra hư hỏng các trục và cầu xe. Dẫn đến trục các đăng, cầu xe, các bán trục có thể bị cong, các khớp nối bị méo nứt...

      Vì nó truyền chuyển động, truyền lực từ động cơ đến bánh xe, cho nên nguyên nhân gây ra khiến trục mất cân bằng khi quay, tạo sự dao động dẫn đến rung lắc xe. Kể cả các trục bánh chủ động hay bị động bị hư hại đều gây ra sự rung lắc này.

    • 7Hệ thống phanh có vấn đề


      Nếu hiện tượng rung lắc xe xảy ra khi bạn đạp phanh, khả năng lớn là nguyên nhân gây ra ở hệ thống phanh.

      Có thể đĩa phanh hoặc trống phanh bị cong, nứt, méo... hoặc có sự mắc kẹt ở má phanh. Hay má phanh đã bị mòn hết, khi phanh các tấm kim loại ép nhau, vì nó không phẳng nên gây ra rung lắc.

    • 8Các điểm liên kết của động cơ có vấn đề


      Các cụm liên kết giữa động cơ với khung xe, với giá đỡ được cấu tạo từ kim loại và cao su. Nếu các cụm kết nối này bị vỡ, hỏng, nó sẽ làm mất tính năng đàn hồi cần thiết, mất liên kết giữa động cơ và thân xe. Do dó nó gây ra sự rung lắc rất mạnh.

      Hãy nhanh chóng đưa xe đến gara để sửa chữa và thay thế các cụm kết nối này để tránh làm hư hại đến động cơ và giá đỡ, thân xe.

    • 9Động cơ có vấn đề


      Nếu sự rung lắc mạnh phát ra từ động cơ thì chắc chắn chiếc động cơ trên xe của bạn đang gặp vấn đề kỹ thuật cần khắc phục kịp thời.

      Các nguyên nhân khiến động cơ rưng lắc rất nhiều: một hoặc vài xy lanh bị mất lửa; hệ thống nạp bị tắc hay cảm biến hỏng; nguyên nhân từ trục khuỷu, thanh truyền có thể bị cong,...

      Để cảm nhận được rung khi xe đang chạy, bạn cần có kinh nghiệm lái xe: khi bạn tăng tốc, chiếc xe có cảm giác như co giật, rùng mình; xe chạy một lát sau đó bắt đầu rung lắc,...

      Khi bạn nhận thấy sự rung lắc xe là từ động cơ, hãy đưa xe đi sửa chữa ngay, nếu nhẹ, bạn chỉ phải thay một vài cái buji, hay bộ lọc khí.

    • 10Hệ thống treo có vấn đề


      Hệ thống treo là liên kết duy nhất từ bánh xe lên thân xe. Nó là một hệ thống có chức năng kết nối xe thân xe với truyền động, và là tiện nghi.

      Khi hệ thống treo bị trục trặc: gãy nhíp, gãy lò xo, hỏng lớp đệm, giảm trấn bị hỏng,... nó sẽ không thể hấp thu được các rung động từ mặt đường nữa, và bản thân sự hư hại này cũng trực tiếp gây ra tác động đến thân xe khiến cho chiếc xe của bạn bị rung lắc mạnh.

      Trên đây là các nguyên nhân chính gây ra sự rung lắc xe của bạn. Khi xe của bạn trở nên rung lắc, khuyên bạn hãy đưa xe đến các trung tâm dịch vụ để kiểm tra và khắc phục kịp thời.

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  9. HVAC industry offers good potential for numerous careers in various fields as in Design & Drafting, Execution & Maintenance, AC Technicians and sales & Marketing. Apart, it also provides scope even for self employment and entrepreneurship. HVAC industry can even thrive in times of poor economy. According to US Bureau of Labor Statistics, a typical Technician can earn around US $18 dollars per Hour, narrating the work and economical potential of the industry.

    If any one want to know more about this topic Comment below

  10. blog-0215643001357428484.jpg


    Atypical InFlow Thermodynamic

    Technology Proposal Submission

    Innovative [TURBO-ROTARY]

    Novel (Fueled) Motor Engine Type

    -The Gearturbine comes from the contemporary ecological essential global needs of an efficient power plant fueled motor engine. -Power thrust by bar (tube); air, sea, land and power generation, work use application.

    *Have the similar simple basic system of the "Aelopilie" Heron´s Steam Turbine device from Alexandria, [10-70 AD] one thousand nine hundred years ago. Because; the circular dynamic motion, with 2/Two Opposites power [polar position] lever, and is feeds from his axis center.

    YouTube Video/10.30 min; * Atypical New · GEARTURBINE / Retrodynamic = DextroRPM=> VS <=LevoInFlow + Ying Yang Thrust Way Type - Non Waste Looses


    -Desirable Contemporary Innovation, With the Possible [Efficient] Invention. -Mechanical [Thermodynamic] Universal Human History Evolution. [unlike] Epic Technology Revelation. -Next Step Power-plant New Design Form Function Device Change.

    *8-X/Y Thermodynamic CYCLE - Way Steps:

    1)1-Compression / bigger

    2)2-Turbo 1 cold

    3)2-Turbo 2 cold

    4)2-Combustion - circular motion flames / opposites

    5)2-Thrust - single turbo & planetary gears / ying yang

    6)2-Turbo 2 hot

    7)2-Turbo 1 hot

    8)1-Turbine / bigger

    *Innovation Technology Break Barrier / Paradigm [broken-Seal] Solution. State of the art. Innovative Turbo-Rotary concept Top system.

    -With Retrodynamic Dextrogiro vs. Levogiro Phenomenon Effect. / Rotor-RPM VS InFlow / front=> to <=front; "Collision-Interaction Type" - inflow vs. blades-gear-move. Technical unique dynamic innovative motion mode. [Retrodynamic Reaction = When the inflow have more velocity the rotor have more RPM Acceleration, with high (XY Position) Momentum] Which the internal flow (and rotor) duplicate its speed, when activated being in a rotor (and inflow) with [inverse] opposite Turns. A very strong Novel concept of torque power thrust. At field explanatory example with a metaphor is like if a sailboat take the wind from his prow front to move; wind/inflow + knots/rpm + wind/inflow + knots/rpm + wind/inflow + knots/rpm + etc... = Acceleration x Acceleration = Exponential Acceleration. Whereas it has more movements forwards, it receives a frontal impulse still but to move more forwards. A present example of the implementation of the Retrodynamic effect is in the application in the accelerator (and collider) of particles that this in the border of Switzerland and France.

    -Shape-Mass + Rotary-Motion = Inertia-Dynamic / Form-Function Wide [Flat] Cylindrical shape + positive dynamic rotary mass = continue Inertia kinetic positive tendency motion / all the complete Rotary motor mass weight is going with the power thrust move circular direction.

    -Non-waste parasitic looses system for cooling, lubrication & combustion; -Lubrication & Combustion, inside a conduit radial position, out way direction, activated by Centrifugal Force-Fueled Injected. -Cooling; a) IN-Thermomix flow, & B) OUT-Air Thermo transference.

    -Combustion 2Two [inside-Rotary-Dynamic] continue circular [Rockets] flames. Like two dragons trying to bite the tail of the [ying yang] opposite other.-Increase the first compression by going of flow reduction of one big circumference blades going pass to 2TWO reduced, very long distance (total captive compression) INFLOW [inside propulsion] CONDUITS [long flow interaction] [like a digestive system] Start were ends, in perfect shape balance in perfect equilibrium well balanced, like a snake bite his own tale. -4 TURBOS Rotary [inside-rotary-active] [in-Flow, Out-Flow] Total Thrust-Power Regeneration [Complete] Power System. -Mechanical direct 2two [small] "Planetary Gears" at polar position. Like the Ying Yang Symbol/Concept. Wide out the Rotor circumference were have much more lever [HIGH Torque] POWER THRUST. -Military benefits, No blade erosion by sand & very low heat target profile.-3 stages of inflow turbo compression before combustion; 1)1-Turbine, 2)2-Turbos 3)2-Turbos. -And 3 points of power thrust; 1-flow way, 2-gear, 3-turbine.

    *The most innovative power plant motor engine project today. Higher efficient % percent. Next trend wave toward global technological coming change.

    Patent; Dic. 1991 IMPI Mexico #197187 - Carlos Barrera. - Individual Designer - Inventor and project owner. / All Rights Reserved. - Monterrey NL Mexico.




    Featured Project Development - State of the Art Novel InFlowTech; 1Gearturbine RotaryTurbo 2Imploturbocompressor One Compression Step:


    Rotary-Turbo-InFlow Tech

    Atypical InFlow Thermodynamic

    Technology Proposal Submission

    Novel Fueled Motor Engine Type

    State of the art Innovative concept Top system Higher efficient percent.*Power by bar, for Air-Planes, Sea-Boats, Land-Transport & Dynamic Power-Plant Generation.

    -Have similar system of the Aeolipile Heron Steam device from Alexandria 10-70 AD. -New Form-Function Motor-Engine Device. Next Step, Epic Design Change, Broken-Seal Revelation. -Desirable Power-Plant Innovation.

    YouTube; * Atypical New • GEARTURBINE / Retrodynamic = DextroRPM VS LevoInFlow + Ying Yang Thrust Way Type - Non Waste Looses

    -This  innovative concept consists of hull and core where are held all 8 Steps of the work-flow which make the concept functional. The core has several gears and turbines which are responsible for these 8 steps (5 of them are dedicated to the turbo stages). The first step is fuel compression, followed by 2 cold turbo levels. The fourth step is where the fuel starts burning – combustion stage, which creates thrust for the next, 5th step – thrust step, which provides power to the planetary gears and turbines and moves the system. This step is followed by two hot turbo steps and the circle is enclosed by the final 8th step – bigger turbine. All this motion in a retrodynamic circumstance effect, wich is plus higher RPM speed by self motion. The Reaction at front of the action.

    8-X/Y Thermodynamic CYCLE - Way Steps:

    1)1-Compression / bigger

    2)2-Turbo 1 cold

    3)2-Turbo 2 cold

    4)2-Combustion - circular motion flames / opposites

    5)2-Thrust - single turbo & planetary gears / ying yang

    6)2-Turbo 2 hot

    7)2-Turbo 1 hot

    8)1-Turbine / bigger

    -With Retrodynamic Dextrogiro vs Levogiro Phenomenon Effect. / Rotor-RPM VS InFlow / front to front; "Collision-Interaction Type" - inflow vs blades-gear-move. Technical unique dynamic innovative motion mode. [Retrodynamic Reaction = When the inflow have more velocity the rotor have more RPM Acceleration, with high (XY Position) Momentum] Which the internal flow (and rotor) duplicate its speed, when activated being in a rotor (and inflow) with [inverse] opposite Turns. The Reaction at front of the action. A very strong Novel torque power concept. -Non waste parasitic looses for; friction, cooling, lubrication & combustion.

    -Shape-Mass + Rotary-Motion = Inertia-Dynamic / Form-Function Wide [Flat] Cylindrical shape + positive dynamic rotary mass = continue Inertia positive tendency motion. Kinetic Rotating Mass. Tendency of matter to continue to move. Like a Free-Wheel.

    -Combustion 2Two continue circular [Rockets] flames. [ying yang] opposite one to the other. – With 2TWO very long distance INFLOW [inside propulsion] CONDUITS. -4 TURBOS Rotary Total Thrust-Power Regeneration Power System. -Mechanical direct 2two [Small] Planetary Gears at polar position. -Like the Ying Yang Symbol/Concept.

    -The Mechanical Gear Power Thrust Point Wide out the Rotor circumference were have much more lever [HIGH Torque] POWER THRUST. -No blade erosion by sand & very low heat target signature profile. -3 points of power thrust; 1-flow way, 2-gear, 3-turbine. *Patent; Dic. 1991 IMPI Mexico #197187 All Rights Reserved. Carlos Barrera.

    *2-IMPLOTURBOCOMPRESSOR; One Moving Part System Excellence Design - The InFlow Interaction comes from Macro-Flow and goes to Micro-Flow by Implossion - Only One Compression Step; Inflow, Compression and outflow at one simple circular dynamic motion Concept.

    ·“Excellence in Design" because is only one moving part. Only one unique compression step. Inflow and out flow at the same one system, This invention by its nature a logic and simple conception in the dynamics flow mechanics area. The invention is a wing made of one piece in a rotating motion, contained in a pair cavity system connected by implocavity, and interacting dynamically with a flow, that passes internally "Imploded" through its simple mechanism. This flow can be gas (air) or liquid (water). And have two different applications, in two different form-function; this one can be received (using the dynamic flow passage, as a receiver). Or it can be generated (with a power plant, generating a propulsion).

    An example cut be, as a Bike needs a chain to work from motor to wheel. And for the Imploturbocompressor application, cut be as; in a circumstance at the engine, as an A-activate flow, and with a a tube flow conduit going to the wheel as a B-receiving-flow the work use.

    To see a Imploturbocompressor animation, is posible on a simple way, just to check the Hurricane Satellite view, and is the same implo inflow way nature.

    And when the flow that is received and that is intended to be used at best, must no necessarily by a exhausting or rejection gas, but must be a dynamic passing gas or liquid flow with the only intention to count it or to measure it. This could be possible at the passing and interacting period when it passes inside its simple mechanism. This can be in any point of the work flow trajectory.

    In case the flow that is received is a water falling by gravity, and a dynamo is placed on the rotary bar, the Imploturbocompressor can profit an be obtained by generating? electricity such as obtained by the pelton well, like I say before. The "Imploturbocompressor", is a good option to pump water, or a gas flow, and all kinds of pipes lines dynamic moves. 

    Or only receive the air-liquid flow, in order to measure its passage with a counter placed on the bar, because when this flow passes through the simple mechanism of a rotating wing made of only one piece it interacts within the implocavities system. And this flow can be air wind, with the difference of can have an horizontal work position, and that particle technical circumstances make an easy way for urban building work new use application, and have wind flow from all the sides 180 grades view. The aforementioned information about this invention refers to technical applications, such as a dynamic flow receiver. (whether being gas or liquid).

    With the appropriate power plant and the appropriate dimensioning and number of RPM this invention is also feasible to generate an atmospheric air propulsion and the auto-propulsion of an aircraft. Being an effective and very simple system that implodes and compresses the atmospheric air permits the creation of a new concept of propulsion for aircrafts, due to its simple mechanism and innovative nature. At the place of the aircraft were the system appears and the manner how the propulsion direction can be oriented with a vectorial flow (no lobster tail) with I call "yo-yo system" (middle cut (at the shell) to move, one side loose), guided and balanced is feasible to create a new concept of TOVL-vertical take-off landing, Because the exhaust propulsion can going out radial in all the 360 vectorial positions, going out direct all the time in all the vectors direction. With his rotor cover for an better furtive fly, like going down of a bridge for example.

    Likewise, with the due form and dimensioning, and considering the liquid density and the due revolutions for this element there could be generated a propulsion (water) in order to move an aquatic ship, whether on surface or under water. Also can be a good option to pump liquid combustion for a rocket propulsion.

    Making a metaphoric comparison with the intention to expose it more clearly for a better comprehension of this innovative technical detail, it would be similar to the trajectory and motion of a dynamic flow compared with a rope (extended) that passes through the system would have now a knot (without obstructing the flow), so the complete way of the flow at the imploturbocompresor system have three direct ways and between make two different turns; direct way (entrance) - turn - direct way (implocavity) - turn - direct way (exit), all this in a 1 simple circular move system concept.

    Its prudent to mention that the curves and the inclinations of the blades of a rotating wing made of this invention, is conferred by its shape and function a structural rigidity allowing it to conduct and alter appropriately the dynamic flow passing through its system. 1326 W

    *Author; Carlos Barrera. Inventor-Individual/Self Taught. Monterrey, NL Mexico 66220.

    Resume; *State of the Art - Novel InFlow Tech - Featured Project Development; |/ ·1; Rotary-Turbo-InFlow Tech / - GEARTURBINE PROJECT Have the similar basic system of the Aeolipilie Heron Steam Turbine device from Alexandria 10-70 AD * With Retrodynamic = DextroRPM VS LevoInFlow + Ying Yang Way Power Type - Non Waste Looses *8X/Y Thermodynamic CYCLE Way Steps. 4 Turbos, Higher efficient percent. No blade erosion by sand & very low heat target signature Pat:197187IMPI MX Dic1991 Atypical Motor Engine Type. |/·2; Imploturbocompressor; One Moving Part System Excellence Design - The InFlow Interaction comes from Macro-Flow and goes to Micro-Flow by Implossion - Only One Compression Step; Inflow, Compression and outflow at one simple circular dynamic motion / New Concept. To see a Imploturbocompressor animation, is possible on a simple way, just to check an Hurricane Satellite view, and is the same implo inflow way nature.

    Tags; Aero, aerodynamics, aeolipile, alternative, applied, atypical, bang, blow, change, combustion, compression, compressor, concept, cycle, design, development, device, dynamic, ecological, efficient, electrolysis, emerging, energy, engine, engineering, flow, gear, gearturbine, generator, idea, imploturbocompressor, in, industry, inflow, information, innovation, invention, investigation, jet, mechanical, momentum, motion, motor, new, next, on, paradigm, power, project, propulsion, reaction, research, retrodynamic, rotary, rotor, scientific, shock, squeeze, suck, system, task, tech, technical, technology, thermodynamic, thrust, tip, top, torque, total, transport, trends, turbine, turbo, turbomachinery, type, unconventional, unlike, unpresedent, vtol, wave, weird, 


    Draw Gearturbine GRIS imagesCAB503AX.jpg

    Gearturbine front view.jpg

    Gearturbine Lateral Cut Technical Draw.jpg

    Gearturbine Front Cut Draw.jpg

    Gearturbine Next Spep Detail Engineering Evolution Draw.jpg

    Imploturbocompressor front cut.jpg

    Imploturbocompressor top view cut.jpg

    Imploturbocompressor Isometric Draw.jpg

  11. LightSail Energy is one of the most eminent startups that hails from Silicon Valley founded by Danielle Fong, Steve Crane, and Ed Berlin in 2009. LightSail Energy has the concept of low-cost grid-scale energy storage solution in order to optimise power grids, democratizing access to energy and adhere on sustainable development. Investors such as Khosla Ventures, Innovacorp, Triple Point Capital, Peter Thiel, Bill Gates have invested in LightSail Energy.

    LightSail Energy produces one of the world cleanest and economical storage systems.The website of the startup is http://www.lightsail.com/  They have designed an excellent method of capturing heat energy and regenerating useful energy from compressing air. The process involves injecting fine, a dense mist of water spray which rapidly absorbs heat energy of compression and provides it during expansion. The system is fully reversible. To store energy, the system draws electricity from the grid and converts it into compressed air and heat. To deliver energy, compressed air and heat are turned back into electricity using the same system.

    The system has 300+ hours of operation, 10 degrees Celcius temperature difference, 1000 rpm reciprocating piston compressor/expander and 250 KW highest power achieved. For low-cost storage, air is packed in a convenient shipping container and for large storage, underground caverns are used. This way of storing energy could be helpful in transforming intermittent wind and solar power into baseload energy. 



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  12. Hello,

    I'm glad to inform you that IMF'18 is live now and you can register your participation online. As the event is quickly approaching and your early responses would be exciting.

    Likewise, we are putting our best efforts to make your participation in IMF more worthful.

    We sincerely hope you will carry back pleasing memories that you can share to inspire your friends and peers. The excitement is growing every week and will feature 5 thematic plenary workshops with more than 50 expert speakers. Plus, we've exclusive session, in fact a half-day working session that will identify the most effective ways to direct policies across some extended domains that needs more wisdom and request your active participation here. 


    P.S. IMF'18 is the perfect opportunity to bring your entire team to spend on the state-of-the-art trends and opportunities. 



    Dr. Muralidhar Lakkanna

    Secretary,  Inclusive Manufacturing Forum

    National Institute of Advanced Studies, IISc Campus, Bengaluru - 560 012, India,

    Phone: + 91 80 22185064 Fax: +91 - 80 – 22185028


  13. ========================================================================

    Adapted from: Kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery by Robert L. Norton.


    Download the much better formatted .PDF version from here: LINK


    At times the designer would like to design a mechanism that would have to go through three positions. In this case the designer would start with the required three positions of the coupler and would work his way to decide on the location of the two pivot points for the ground link. The location of the two pivot points is not the result of the designer’s choice, but is decided by the geometry of the three positions required. This is not practical; often times the designer is constrained to work with specific pivot points to form the ground link while still achieving the required three positions by the coupler motion. This article discusses one of the simplest methods to go about doing that.  


    Let’s talk a look at this problem:


    Figure1: Problem Statement

    Design fourbar linkage to move the link CD shown between the positions C1D1 to C2D2 and then to C3D3. Use specified fixed pivots O2 and O4. 

    The first thing we need to do is to “invert” the problem. The way to do this is to think about the coupler (C1D1) as the ground instead and the ground (O2O4) as the coupler. For now we have one ground, (C1D1), and we have only one position for the coupler (O2O4). We are going to find two more positions for the now coupler (O2O4) that would correspond to the two other positions (C2D2). To do this we need to define the relation between The coupler and the ground.

     Draw construction arcs from point C2 to O2 and from point D2 to O2 whose Radii define the sides of triangle C2O2D2. This defines the relationship of the fixed pivot O2 to the coupler line CD in the second coupler position. Draw construction arcs from C2 to O4 and from point D2 to O4 to define the triangle C2O4D2. This defines the relationship  of the fixed pivot O4 to the coupler line CD in the second position.


    After locking the relative location of O2O4 in relation to the second position C2D2, it is  time to slide this ground, now coupler, to its new location as if it wasn’t the ground but the coupler. That’s to say, we are trying to answer the question: if C1D1 is the ground, where would the coupler, O2O4, be in the second position? 

     You can imagine this happening by sliding the triangle along the two lines C2C1 and D2D1. This results in a new position for O2’O4’. By doing this, we have pretended that the ground link moved from O2O4 to O2’O4’ instead of the coupler moving from C1D2 to C2D2. We have effectively inverted the problem.


     Now we have two positions for the now coupler, O2O4; O2O4 and O2’O4’. We need another third position to correspond with the third position C3D3. To do this, we need to repeat the same process again by defining the relation of the link O2O4  in relation to C3D3 after that we need to shift it back to C1D1 as if the link O2O4 was the coupler not the ground.


     Performing this will result in the third position O2’’O4’’. This is the relative location of the link O2O4 in its third position as a coupler in relation to the new ground link C1D1. Now we have three positions for the pretended coupler O2O4. O2O4, O2’O4’ and O2’’O4’’


    Right now the problem is fully redefined; we have three positions for the newly decided coupler O2O4 and the link CD in the first location C1D1. We can now rename those three positions O2O4, O2’O4’ and O2’’O4’’ to E1F1, E2F2 and E3F3. We can now deal with the three positions as we would normally solve for three position coupler problem.  First we need to draw the lines E1E2 and E2E3. Then we have to draw the perpendicular bisectors of these lines. The bisectors will intersect in point G. We repeat the same process for point F; draw lines F1F2 and F2F3 then draw the perpendicular bisector of these lines. These two bisectors will intersect in point H.


    Now we have a fourbar linkage, GEFH, in which the coupler, EF, goes through three positions. 


    If you recall, EF is not actually our coupler. EF represents our ground O2O4. What we need to do now is to re-invert the problem again to its original form. By switching EF to be the ground link and GH to be the coupler link we reach at this linkage.


    Now we have our coupler, link GH, that should be connected back to the first position that we wish to achieve; C1D1. By extending link 3, GH, to reach to C1D1 we form our final mechanism that guides the coupler, link 3 (HGCD) through the three required positions.


    The final thing we need to do is to add a driver Dyad to drive the link O4H. This is simply done by treating O4H as rocker in a crank rocker design problem. The rocker, now O4H, has to pass through H2 and H3 to result in the required motion. Afterwards, the final mechanism is checked for toggle positions and that it can reach the required positions smoothly and in orderly fashion.

    In conclusion, the designer is not limited to the resulting fixed pivots for the solution of three positions coupler problems. By using the illustrated method, the design can specify the required fixed pivots and the required coupler motion and work his way around to getting those two requirements achieved.

    Adapted from: Kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery by Robert L. Norton.

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    About engine;

                             An engine or motor is a machine,designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy.Heat engine burn a fuel to create heat, which is then used to create a force. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion; pneumatic motors use compressed air and clockwise motors in wind up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and eventually motion.


    (i). External combustion engine: In external combustion engine, the combustion of fuel takes place outside the engine. Example: steam engine.(ii). Internal combustion engine: In internal combustion engine, the combustion of fuel takes place inside the engine. Two stroke and four stroke petrol and diesel engine are the examples of internal combustion engine.

    1.The I.C. engines are classified on the following basis:

    (i). Reciprocating engine: In reciprocating engine, there is a piston and cylinder, the piston does reciprocating (to and Fro) motion within the cylinder. Due to the reciprocating motion of the piston, it is called reciprocating engine. 2 stroke and four stroke engines are the common examples of reciprocating engine.

    (ii). Rotary engine: In rotary engine, the rotor does rotary motion to produce power. There is no reciprocating motion. A rotor is present in the chamber which does rotary motion inside a chamber. Wankel rotary engine , turbine engines are the rotary types of engine.

    2. Types of Fuel Used

    On the basis of types of fuel used, the engine is classified as petrol engine, diesel engine and gas engine.

    (i). Petrol engine: The engine which uses petrol for its working is called petrol engine.

    (ii). Diesel engine: The engine which uses diesel for its working is called diesel engine.

    (iii). Gas engine: An engine using gas fuel for the working is called gas engine.

    3.Cycle of Operation

    On the basis of cycle of operation the engine types are:

    (i). Otto cycle engine: These types of engine works on Otto cycle.

    (ii). Diesel cycle engine: The engine working on diesel cycle is called diesel cycle engine.

    (iii). Dual cycle engine or semi-diesel cycle engine: The engine that works on both diesel as well as Otto cycle is called dual cycle engine or semi diesel cycle engine.

    4.Number of Strokes

    On the basis of number of stroke, the types of engine are:

    (i). Four Stroke Engine: It is an engine in which the piston moves four times i.e.2 upward (form BDC to TDC) and 2 downward (from TDC to BDC) movement in one cycle of power stroke is called four stroke engines.

    (ii). Two Stroke Engine: The engine in which the piston does two times motion i.e. one from TDC to BDC and other from BDC to TDC to produce a power stroke is called two stroke engines.

    (iii). Hot spot ignition engine: This type of engine is not in practical use.

    5. Type of Ignition

    On the basis of ignition, the engines are classified as:

    (i). Spark ignition engine (S.I. engine): In spark ignition engine there is a spark plug which is fitted at the engine head. The spark plug produces spark after the compression of the fuel and ignites the air fuel mixture for the combustion. The petrol engines are spark ignition engine.

    (ii). Compression ignition engine (C.I. engine): In Compression ignition engine there is no spark plug at the cylinder head. The fuel is ignited by the heat of the compressed air. The diesel engines are compression ignition engine.

    6. Number of Cylinders

    On the basis of number of cylinders present in the engine, the types of engine are:

    (i). Single cylinder engine: An engine which consists of single cylinder is called single cylinder engine. Generally the single cylinder engines are used in motorcycles, scooter, etc.

    (ii). Double cylinder engine: The engine which consists of two cylinders is called double cylinder engine. 

    (iii). Multi cylinder engine: An engine which consists of more than two cylinders is called multi cylinder engine. The multi cylinder engine may have three, four, six, eight, twelve and sixteen cylinder.

    7. Arrangement of Cylinders

    On the basis of arrangement of cylinders the engines classification is:

    (i). Vertical engine: in vertical engines, the cylinders are arranged in vertical position as shown in the diagram.

    (ii). Horizontal engine: In horizontal engines, the cylinders are placed horizontal position as shown in the diagram given below.

    (iii). Radial engine:  The radial engine is reciprocating type internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders radiate outward from a central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel. When it is viewed from the front, it resembles a stylized star and is called a ‘star’ engine. Before the gas turbine engine is not become predominant, it is commonly used for aircraft engines.

    (iv). V-engine: In v types of engine, the cylinders are placed in two banks having some angle between them. The angle between the two banks is keep as small as possible to prevent vibration and balancing problem.

    (v). W type engine: In w type engines, the cylinders are arranged in three rows such that it forms W type arrangement. W type engine is made when 12 cylinder and 16 cylinder engines are produced.

    (vi). Opposed cylinder engine: In opposed cylinder engine, the cylinders are place opposite to each other. The piston and the connecting rod show identical movement. It is runs smoothly and has more balancing. The size of the opposed cylinder engine increase because of its arrangement.

    8. Valve Arrangement 

    According to the valve arrangement of the inlet and exhaust valve in various positions in the cylinder head or block, the automobile engines are classified into four categories. These arrangements are named as ‘L’, ‘I’, ‘F’ and ‘T’.  It is easy to remember the word ‘LIFT’ to recall the four valve arrangement.

    (i). L-head engine: In these types of engine, the inlet and exhaust valves are arranged side by side and operated by a single camshaft. The cylinder and combustion chamber forms and inverted L.

    (ii). I-head engine: In I-head engines, the inlet and exhaust valves are located in the cylinder head. These types of engine are mostly used in automobiles.

    (iii). F-head engine: It is a combination of I-head and F-head engines. In this, one valve usually inlet valve is in the head and the exhaust valve lies in the cylinder block. Both the sets of valve are operated by the single camshaft.

    (iv). T-head engine: In T-head engines, the inlet valve located at one side and the exhaust valve on other side of the cylinder. Here two camshafts are required to operate, one for the inlet valve and other one is for the exhaust valve.

    9. Types of cooling

    On the basis of types of cooling, the engines are classified as:

    (i). Air cooled engines: In these engines, the air is used to cool the engines. In air cooled engines the cylinder barrels are separated and metal fins are used which provides radiating surface area that increase cooling. The air cooled engines are generally used in motorcycles and scooters.

    (ii). Water cooled engines: In water cooled engines, the water is used for the cooling of engine. Water cooled engines are used in cars, buses, trucks and other four wheeled vehicles, heavy duty motor vehicles. An anti-freezing agent is added in the water to prevent it from freezing during cold weather. Every water cooled engines has radiator for the cooling of hot water from the engine.

    Beside above types of engine, the internal combustion engine is also classified on the basis of the following.

    1. Speed: 

    On the basis of speed, the types of engines are:

    (i). Low speed engine

    (ii). Medium speed engine

    (iii). High speed engine

    2. Method of Fuel Injection

    On the basis of method of fuel injection the engines are classified as:

    (i). Carburetor engine

    (ii). Air injection engine

    (iii). Airless or solid injection engine

    3. Method of Governing

    (i). Hit and miss governed engine: It is an engine type in which the entry of the fuel is controlled by the governor. It controls the speed of the engine by cutting off the ignition and fuel supply of the engine at very high speed.

    (ii).Quantitative governing: In this system of governing, the quality of charge (i.e. air-fuel ratio of the mixture) is kept constant. But the quantity of mixture supplied to the engine cylinder is varied by means of a throttle valve which is regulated by the centrifugal governor through rack and pinion arrangement.

    the part load efficiency of SI engine is poor because air fuel ratio remains constant even if we need low power

    (iii).Qualitative governing: In this system of governing, a control valve is fitted in the fuel delivery pipe, which controls the quantity of fuel to be mixed in the charge. The movement of control valve is regulated by the centrifugal governor through rack and pinion arrangement.

    part load efficiency of I C engine is good because we can use lean mixture and rich mixtures easily according to our requirement

    4. Application

    (i). Stationary engine: Stationary engine is an engine in which its framework does not move. It is used to drive immobile equipment like pump, generator, mill or factory machinery etc.

    (ii). Automotive engine: These are the types of engines which are used in automobile industries. For example: petrol engine, diesel engine, gas engine are internal combustion engines falls in the category of automotive engine.

    (iii). Locomotive engine: The engines which are used in trains are called locomotive engines.

    (iv). Marine engine: The engines which are used in marines for boat or ship propulsion is called marine engine.

    (v). Aircraft engine: Types of engine which are used in aircraft is called aircraft engine. Radial and gas turbine engines are used in aircraft propulsion.


    The link below is an article about the value of certification for manufacturers. It is a heavy sell for certification. In my opinion it misses the most basic benefit of certification, which is the path to getting certified.


    When people ask me about ISO 9000, the simple explanation I give, “the process of certification requires you to write down your process and demonstrate that you follow the process.” The certification system does not dictate your process.

    The mere action of writing down and maintaining the written procedure is the real value. In one of my blogs “Dumbest Guy in the Room", written in two parts, http://www.jagengrg.com/blog, I touch on the value of the written word and the perils of oral communication. 

    Writing it down allows everyone to see exactly what the author thinks is being done or should be done. Others can read the written word and identify ambiguous sections, missing information, or errors that can easily be overlooked using oral communication.

    When everyone is carrying the information in their head’s via oral direction I can guarantee there is more than one interpretation. I would venture to say you will have as many interpretations as you have people involved.

    When written procedures do exist but do not come under the scrutiny of a certification body, it is very common for procedures to become stale, be incomplete, rely on undocumented knowledge, and for steps in the process to be missed from time to time.

    The subject article closes with a realistic assessment of the value for certification. “Is having a certification the end-all-be-all of manufacturing? No. However….”

    You reach the "however" stage, not my hanging the certification on the wall, but the process for obtaining it. 

  15. what is the difference between refrigeration and air conditioning?

    • A major difference between refrigeration and air conditioning is the point of supply for the gases. Refrigeration systems have gas installed in a series of tubes. In old refrigerators, this gas was chloro-flouro-carbon, or CFC, but this has harmful effects on people, so refrigerators not contain HFC-134a. HFC-134a is the sole gas used as a coolant in refrigeration systems. Air conditioning systems use built-in chemicals, but also air from the room or rooms being heated. Gases built into air conditioning units cool air that circulates through the unit; the unit then redistributes the cooled air through the room.
    • Air conditioners have circulation systems designed to project cool air away from the units while refrigeration units have circulation systems designed to retain coolant in a confined space. Refrigeration systems circulate cool liquids and gases through a series of tubes and vents. Cool air from within a refrigerator is sucked into a compressor that recycles the gas through the tubes. Air conditioners, while also employing tubes in the coolant system, have fans for the dispersal of air. Unlike refrigeration systems, which keep gases contained to a pre-determined space, air conditioning systems disperse cool air throughout areas of unknown volume.
    • Refrigeration refers to processes that take thermal energy away from a place and gives off that energy to a place with a higher temperature. Naturally, thermal energy flows from a place with a higher temperature to a place with a lower temperature. Therefore, refrigeration runs against the natural heat flow and so it requires work to be done.Refrigerator is a name that we use for devices that are used to keep food at low temperatures. A refrigerator consists of a fluid called refrigerantwhich gets expanded and compressed in a cycle:
  16. Tema I


    La fabricación de piezas por maquinado


    1.1 Introducción

    Todo ingeniero debe tener una cultura general integral y, dentro de esta, como es lógico, una cultura de la profesión. Parte de la cultura del ingeniero mecánico consiste en conocer la historia de la ingeniería, y en el caso particular de este blog es importante comenzar por conocer muy brevemente la historia de las máquinas herramienta. Para ello se presentará  más adelante el anexo I, el cual trata sobre la Evolución de las máquinas herramienta [1].  


    La revolución industrial surgida con la máquina de vapor no hubiera sido posible si no se hubiera construido primero una máquina herramienta capaz de fabricar las piezas fundamentales del invento que sintetizó James Watt: la máquina de vapor. Por cierto, para que Watt llegara a su invento tuvo que haber otros que le precedieron e hicieron sus propios descubrimientos previos en el mismo campo de la energía del vapor de agua a presión, de modo que, como casi siempre ocurre, Watt recopiló esos conocimientos, los organizó, sistematizó, les añadió algo más y construyó, ayudado por Wilkinson y su mandrinadora, la primera máquina de vapor.


    Y antes de eso, y después de eso, siempre ha sido así. Sin máquinas herramienta no hay desarrollo posible. Las máquinas herramienta fabrican las piezas que se ven a diario sin que se les preste la debida atención: las del ómnibus que lleva a los pasajeros, las de la termoeléctrica o el grupo electrógeno que produce la electricidad, las del combinado lácteo que procesa la leche, las de los equipos que emplea el médico, las de los equipos que perforan para buscar o bombear petróleo desde las profundidades de la tierra, las del molino del central azucarero. Y como si todo esto fuera poco, las máquinas herramienta fabrican otras máquinas herramienta, se podría decir figuradamente que son las únicas máquinas que garantizan la continuidad de su especie.



    ¿Por qué “máquinas herramienta” y no “máquinas herramientas”? En la lengua castellana los sustantivos formados por dos sustantivos forman el plural solo con el primero de ellos. Así, otros ejemplos pueden ser: profesores guía; palabras clave; fresas madre. No obstante, en ocasiones se puede considerar que el segundo de los dos sustantivos hace función de adjetivo, y entonces sería “máquinas herramientas”. En este blog se prefiere la primera variante.

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    1. In a steam turbine, the ............ is allowed to rotate?

    2. Which valve controls the flow of steam into the turbine?        

    3. The blades in a ............... turbine are designed so that the pressure below the blade is always higher than the pressure above which causes them to move (or spin) as high velocity fluid flows through them.       

    4. Where in the steam path is the energy transferred from the steam to the turbine?       


    5. There is excessive corrosion on the turbine/driven unit train.  The carbon rings have been inspected and are clean, and do not need replacing.  What is the most probable cause of the corrosion?       

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  17. 1) How to make the spiral pipe


    2) Accessory of the pipe (Use to connect the pipe and bring pipe up)



    3) Application



    4) Drawing 

    Click Download drawing of Bridge foundation 3D ( reference drawing )

    Click Download catalogue of the product



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