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What is the difference between Brazing and Soldering and when Brazing is used?

saurabhjain

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What is the difference between Brazing and Soldering and when Brazing is used?

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Soldering and Brazing are joining processes where materials, similar or dissimilar, are bonded together using a heating method and a filler metal without melting the base materials.

The difference between soldering and brazing lies in the temperature of the heating process: soldering occurs at temperatures less than 400°C, and brazing occurs at temperatures over 400°C. soldering+and+brazing.PNG

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Soldering and Brazing are similar metal joining process.  Soldering uses a filler material alloy of tin and lead that melts below 425°C.  Brazing uses alloys of Silver or copper that melts above 425°C.  Brazing is used when strength requirements are greater offers higher resistance to corrosion and pleasing aesthetics.

Source: "Design for Manufacturability Handbook", 2nd Ed., James G. Bralla, Ch 7.4 Solder and Brazed Assemblies 

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Brazing joins two metals by heating and melting a filler (alloy) that bonds to the two pieces of metal and joins them. The filler obviously must have a melting temperature below that of the metal pieces. Brazing can join dissimilar metals such as aluminum, silver, copper, gold, and nickel. Flux is often used during brazing. It is a liquid that promotes wetting, which lets the filler flow over the metal parts to be joined. It also cleans the parts of oxides so that the filler bonds more tightly to the metal parts. In addition, fluxes are used in welding to clean the metal surfaces.

Soldering is a low-temperature analog to brazing. By the American Welding Society’s definition, soldering takes place with fillers (also known as solders) that melt at below 840°F (450°C). Metals that can be soldered include gold, silver, copper, brass, and iron. The filler, called solder, melts. When it solidifies, it is bonded to the metal parts and joins them. The bond is not as strong as brazed joint or welded one. Solder was once made mainly of lead, but environmental concerns are pushing industry to lead-free alternatives.

 

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In German, we separate the process of joining metal by another metal/alloy without melting the metal which is to join (Löten) in Weichlöten (weak-Löten; soft-soldering/soldering) and Hartlöten (hard-Löten; hard-soldering/brazing) mainly by the temperature which is under/over 450°C. The first process is mainly used in electrics, the second one mainly in plumbering.

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