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Universal Testing Machine or UTM for short is used for tensile/compressive stress analysis.

firstly we define a scale in which the rod/tube is to be marked

then gripping the specimen in the grip and starting the machine on a specific load .

the machine automatically stops when the specimen develops cracks and finally breaks off.

the marking is now increased as our specimen has elongated. then by the use of formulas we can calculate the stress.

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Just to add few things:

With UTM we calculate the Yield strength(upper and lower), Proportionality limit, Ultimate tensile/compression strength, modulus of elasticity etc.
The name universal signifies its versatility. 


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I sure did. It was a long while ago. I do recall even 40 years ago the metallurgical lab was a "ghost town". We used the front half of the room with a large table for an ad hoc study group. One day we went to the other end of the room and uncovered the polishing wheels that had not been used in years. There was also a machine shop than had long gone out of use. Perhaps the UTM's have been set adrift.

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On universal testing machine we check out the strength of the material and the stage at which the material holds for stress, we checked out the tensile strength of the material, bending stress etc

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