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Oil is picked up from the sump by means of a strainer, fed through a pump into the engine and then:

Often there is a feeder within the con-rod which passess high pressure oil from the big-end to the small. this has additional functions. The small end lubrication point can have a "nozzel" directing oil to the base of the piston crown for cooling.

Some engines also direct oil spray from the con-rod to the inner cylinder below the piston to provide a lubrication film which is then hydraulically pressurised by the movement of the piston, via directional grooves, around and behind the oil ring, assisting in the sealing and scraping effect of the ring.

Other engines use a similar system, "engineering" the gudgeon pin to provide the end route to lubrication.

Early engines relied purely on "splash" lubrication which (materials aside) was one of the reasons that their longevity was not so great.

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There are two types of engine one is having Piston Cooling Nozzle and another is having splash lubrication system to cool the piston. The ultimate goal of both the system is to send lub oil to the piston. There are groove provided in the piston where the piston ring sits. There are internal holes through which oil reaches to the piston rings which can be seen in a dismantle  piston.


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