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Turbocharger : it is used as economizer in commercial vehicles and some passenger vehicle to boost up performance in lesser quantity of fuel.It have a compressor wheel and a turbine wheel attached to a common shaft and runs by the exhaust gases of engine.Firstly turbine wheel starts to rotate as it is pushed by the exhaust gases then the compressor connected to same shafts rotates and manage its function to sucks fresh air and sends it engine combustion chamber extra air means better rate combustion ultimately batters the performance of the whole unit. But the problem of turbo lag occurs, it's the time taken for turbocharger comes in action after exhaust gases reaches the turbine wheel

Supercharger : Supercharger is installed for the same purpose in the vehicle, but with more adaptivity. it is installed in sports class vehicle used for racing purpose they are only performance oriented,that's why they are connected to directly the output shaft of the vehicle.It will successfully fulfill the need of sports vehicle of rapid change in velocities with high power and torque, by neglecting the need of giving emphasis to fuel economy upto some extent.There is one input geared shaft and output geared shaft in a properly meshed condition which rotates and other ultimately do its job.   

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Superchargers and turbochargers are mentioned almost in the same breath by many people in the auto industry. There is definitely a difference between the two of them.

Either one will deal with power. Turbochargers and superchargers are known as forced induction systems. It means that either will compress the air flowing into the engine, which provides more power to the car. This creates a considerable amount of boost, which can be as much as 50% more power into the engine. This makes a luxury car or high-end sports car roar like a lion whenever the owner is tired of the engine purring like a kitten. A main difference between the turbocharger and the supercharger lies in the power supply.

A turbocharger uses the exhaust stream for its energy. The exhaust will run through a turbine that will itself spin the compressor. The turbine spinning can be as much 150,000 RPM (Rotations Per Minute). To put that in layman’s terms, the turbocharger is able to have an RPM speed that can be almost 30 times faster than an ordinary automobile engine. It does take a little while for the turbine to produce the boost, and can result in the car lunging forward when the turbocharger kicks into action. The size of the turbocharger can impact power with a smaller one producing more boost faster. A turbocharger is particularly effective at high altitudes where other engines experience difficulty. Because the air is less dense a normal engine gets a smaller amount of air. Turbocharged engines do not suffer a dramatic reduction in power since the turbocharger is more capable of pumping thinner air.

The source of the power for the supercharger is in a belt connected directly to the engine. A supercharger will compress air of the atmospheric pressure, and create the boost by forcing air into the engine. The supercharger can add as much as 46% more horsepower because the increased air will allow more fuel to be added to the combustion charge. Like the turbocharger, a supercharger will do well in high-altitude.


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Difference between Turbocharger and Supercharger in Tabular Form

Turbocharger is a forced induction system that compresses the atmospheric gases and sends it to the engine cylinder.
Super charger is also a forced induction system. It compresses the atmospheric air and sends it to the engine cylinder.
It uses exhaust gases for its energy.
It is connected to the crankshaft of the engine for its energy.
It is not directly connected to the engine.
It is directly connected to the engine through belt.
It has smog altering equipment which helps in lowering the carbon emission.
It doesn’t have wastegate, so the smog emits from the supercharger.
It spins with a speed upto 150000 rpm.
It spins with a speed upto 50000 rpm.
It is much quieter than supercharger.
It is not so quieter.
It is less reliable.
It is more reliable.
Maintenance is not easy.
Maintenance is easy.
Turbocharger delivers their boost better at high rpm.
Supercharger can deliver their boost at lower rpm.
It is more efficient.
It is less efficient.
The compressed air in turbocharger has high temperature.
The compressed air in supercharger has less temperature.
It requires intercooler for the compressed air to lower its temperature.
It may or may not require intercooler. But in some types, it requires intercooler.
It is more complex.
It is less complex.
It has lag problem due to discontinuous supply of energy.
It has negligible lag problem because of continuous supply of energy by crankshaft.
The compressor is rotated by the turbine.
The compressor is rotated by the engine crankshaft through a belt.


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On 9/4/2016 at 3:44 AM, Srinivas Naidu said:

I think victor Raymond post is correct but I didn't understand the thing is twin charger system can u explain in indetail please

The Twin Charger uses both a turbocharger (driven off the exhaust gas) and a supercharger (driven off the engine) in sequence. First, the supercharger is engaged at low speeds where the exhaust is too weak to drive the turbos. Then, at higher speeds when the turbos are generating boost, the supercharger is disengaged. The idea is to overcome the inevitable "turbo lag" at low speeds.

This is not the same as the turbocharged 2-stroke diesels, which rely on supercharging for scavenging, but may have a turbo to produce intake boost upstream of the supercharger.

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