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Erica Zhu Feilong Jiangli

Brief analysis of automobile common materials

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There are many kinds of materials used to produce automobiles: iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, plastics, rubber, glass, ceramics and so on. According to statistics, in recent years, the weight composition ratio of the main materials of an ordinary car is approximately 65%-70%, 10%-15% of non-ferrous metals, and 20% of non-metallic materials.

Various new materials, such as light metal materials, composite materials, high-tech synthetic materials, are increasingly used in modern automobiles.

Metal materials have various properties. It has physical and chemical properties, mechanical properties and process properties.

Physical and chemical properties refer to the properties of metal materials under various physical conditions and the ability to resist the erosion of various chemical media. Density: mass per unit volume; thermal conductivity: the ability to conduct heat; electrical conductivity: the ability to conduct electric current; thermal expansion: the ability to increase volume when heated; melting point: the temperature when the solid state becomes liquid; magnetism: the magnetic conductivity of metallic materials is called magnetism; corrosion resistance: metal resists the occurrence of the surrounding medium at room temperature The ability of chemical reactions to be destroyed; oxidation resistance: the ability of metals to resist oxidation at high temperatures.

Mechanical performance refers to the resistance of metallic materials under various loads (external forces). It has the following indicators:

Castability: Castability refers to the fluidity of liquid metals, the size of shrinkage segregation during cooling and solidification (inhomogeneity of chemical composition and microstructure of solidified metals), and the removal and absorption of gases.

Pressure Processing Performance: Pressure Processing Performance refers to the ability of metal to produce deformation without destroying in cold and hot conditions, and the greater the plasticity, the smaller the deformation resistance, the better the pressure processing performance.

Welding performance: Welding performance refers to the two pieces of metal materials in the local heating to the melting state, can be firmly welded together; Welding is good, easy to use general methods and processes to weld, welding is not easy to form cracks, porosity, slag inclusion and other defects, weld strength can be similar to raw materials.

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