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  1. 4 points
    Dear Mechanical Engineers We invite you for the following discussion Application of Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning in Mechanical Engineering How can we apply AI in filed of Machine learning ? You can consider your workspace, your industry.....let all of us have come together with ideas...
  2. 3 points

    What Makes A Ship Move?

    Mechanics Corner A Journal of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics by DrD, #47 What Makes a Ship Move? One of the problems that often confronts engineers is the description of large, interconnected systems. Engineers tend to specialize, so that one is very knowledgeable on gears, another knows bearings, a third knows pumps, but none of them are comfortable with the whole system. In the automotive context, this is often expressed as, "How does the engine cause the car to move forward?" On the one hand, most engineers can describe the process in words, but they are far less quick to talk about equations for the whole system. Here, I will address a similar modeling question in the marine context, "What makes a ship move?" WhatMakesAShipMove.pdf
  3. 1 point


    Fit_and_Dimensional_Tolerances_Mechanical_Engineering_Drawing Source Ashish K Darpe Department of Mechanical Engineering IIT Delhi Thanks to Mr. Ashish K Darpe Regards Saurabh Jain
  4. 1 point

    Hands on - manual side

    The term "hands-on" seems to fit, but I don't think I've ever seen the phrase "manual side." What is this last phrase intended to convey? DrD
  5. 1 point
    Is Mechanical Engineering Really Good for Girls??? As I just checked my Shoutbox, I came across the most widely asked question by @Corrine Lovato: “Hello, I am 4th year High school student. And I'm going to take BS Mechanical Engineering. My problem is, I AM A FEMALE. :3 Did you think guys, it suits me? I DO REALLY REALLY LIKE AND LOVE TO BE A MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SOMEDAY.... Any Advice guys? It may help me ) Thank you!! Mechanical Engineers and to be Mechanical Engineers.” This is the most talked about, discussed and opinionated question for every girl who wish to pursue mechanical engineering and also for every parent who is in two minds for a daughter who wishes to pursue mechanical engineering. As soon as I finished my high school, I strongly wished to pursue “Mechanical Engineering” because I was always curious since my childhood to know how machines work and always in awe with the perfection they delivered the outcome. I believe, every girl who wishes to pursue this field goes through the following stages: What Is Mechanical Engineering? Mechanical Engineering is a discipline in which you ought to learn something from every field of engineering. From the theory of machines to its designing, from electronics to how motors work, from programming to database information retrieval system. If I could sum it all up, I can be a branch which is a Jack of all fields. Also Mechanical Engineering is a branch where you find the least amount of girls or sometimes none at all!! Do girls really have to go through the hard labour work while pursuing this course?? During the first two years, you have to complete your workshop duties which include working on lathe machines for manufacturing a component. It always seems tough at first, but it never is. And you always bound to get help from you fellow mates. But the finishing given to the component is always given the BEST by the girls!!! How actually is a life as a female mechanical engineer?? Firstly, you will have very very few female friends. Most of the friends you get from other branches like computers or electronics, whom you get to meet either during lunch time or sometimes not at all! Secondly, you have no option left than to be with your male classmates. Believe me, male friends are more honest, helpful, selfless and dependable. Especially, the males who wish to uplift women than suppress them. It is always better to be focused and carve your own niche. Because in the end it’s all about you!!! Is there any scope for girls in mechanical engineering?? As I said, in the end it’s all about you. The world is changing and so is mentality of people. After completion of Diploma in Mechanical Engineering, even being a “female”, I had a host of opportunities to work in well known companies. You can go for research work, designing, internships, teaching, shop work and anything that matches your interest. Or better you can pursue your higher studies and specialize in it. Remember :Where there is a will, there is a way!!! Feel free to comment or ask about any doubts and questions!! Any suggestions or feedback are also welcome!
  6. 1 point
    Speaking of cars, in particular of the chassis, if we keep a car stopped for years, will the weight of the engine and all the components form cracks in the crystalline microstructure of the iron? if we think about a spring, if we leave it compressed for so long it will lose its ability to flex, it will not come back as before (i guess), isn't it the same for a frame that has to hold up an engine for years? perhaps there is a load limit below which the piece will return as before also being compressed for many years? What happens to the metal microstructure in these cases? Correct me if I'm wrong. if the weight of the motor has been designed to keep the deformation of the underlying frame always in the "elastic" and not "plastic" area, how can it damage the metal in the absence of external environmental attacks? thanks
  7. 1 point


    Turbo supercharger acts as lungs in a CI engine. They enhance the performance of a CI engine by pushing in more air into the cylinder which leads to complete burning of the fuel thus delivering more power to weight ratio. This work deals with the performance of turbo supercharger used in Locomotives. This includes the role played by the turbo chargers in increasing the mean effective pressure which in turn leads to greater power to weight ratio being developed by the engine. This on the other hand leads to an effect of increasing the peak temperature of the inlet air into the cylinders.
  8. 1 point

    Pendulum Hammer Impact Force Calculation

    Looks like you now have enough reading material to keep you busy for quite a while! I notice that, as usual, the quality of the document from DTIC is dismal; they must have the worst Xerox machines in captivity. DrD
  9. 1 point

    Pendulum Hammer Impact Force Calculation

    Gabe, I found the attached article on the 'net. I have not read it through, but I'll bet it has some information for you. The internet also has tons of other information on this machine. DrD MediamWeightShockMachine.pdf
  10. 1 point

    Pendulum Hammer Impact Force Calculation

    Ah, Gabe! I knew I had seen that figure before, but I certainly did not remember the mil-spec designation! Sadly, really nothing is conserved all the way through the motion. Energy is conserved before the impact and after the impact, but energy is not conserved during the impact. This is where the coefficient of restitution stuff comes in. I would strongly suggest that you keep looking for more definition from the military. There has to be a more complete description, because without such, you cannot possibly have a standard test. If everybody has a different test machine, there is nothing standardized or comparable about the results. DrD
  11. 1 point
    Dr D can likely tell you what to do off the top of his head. (TOLD YOU SO, JUST SAW DR D's REPLY) I would need to refresh myself on this. Conservation of momentum may be the best approach. Now that we know the anvil can move, (anvils as used by a blacksmith don't), the g question makes sense but still many issues. If the hammer is one ounce and the anvil a ton, the anvil will not move for all practical applications. Switch the weight values and the anvil will take off like a rocket. Make either out of a compliant material and the answer will once again be different. You will need to know the mass of the hammer and anvil. If you neglect mechanical friction and air drag, you will arrive a velocity greater than actual. By how much I don't know without running numbers. If you are designing to protect for max impact then that approach will provide some margin. If you must apply a minimum g load as part of a test this would not be a good approach. From the video the anvil is pretty complicated with springs. The g loading will be one value for the base being struck and less for the spring mounted upper section. Your first cut would be to use m1 x dv1 = m2 x dv2. ( for greater detail https://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/momentum/Lesson-2/Momentum-Conservation-Principle) Calculate the velocity of the hammer at impact. Measure the weight of the hammer and anvil. From above you get dv2 (speed of anvil) but this too has a wide range due to many variable. Assuming ideal conditions gives you a ballpark number. Depending on how close you need to be will depend on how close you need to mathematically model the system. It may be a lot easier and more accurate to use instrumentation. Or as Dr D suggested the info may exist in some spec.
  12. 1 point
    The anvil is supported, but not fixed in the vertical direction? So when it is struck it will be propelled up?
  13. 1 point
    The Least count refers to the smallest measurable length by the vernier caliper. It can be found by dividing the difference of 1 Main scale division by the number of divisions between two vernier scale values (usually 10). i.e 1 Main Scale Division/10.
  14. 1 point
    oil is the best lubricant because it lubricates all parts which are made by electrons and metallic parts.it serves as a self lubricant in high temperature.its serves as a incompressible component,
  15. 1 point
    Dr D. Pit bulls are some of the gentlest dogs unless they are trained otherwise. A lawyer like a politician only cares, or must force themselves to only care, about winning. How much is training, and how much is evil by their nature is impossible to determine.They present a set of information (I hesitate to use facts). The presented information is turned over to a third party judge/jury who come to a decision based on two or more biased and incomplete sets of information. I have sat in court knowing the full story and listening to what was presented which then becomes the only "truth" the jury knows. I have come to realize that we have a legal system and justice is an illusion. I would go one step further and say we have a decision system. As engineers we need to get as close to the truth to prevent danger to those using our designs. The legal system needs to reach a decision so the system can move on. And they are very slow to undo a decision even when confronted with information that would have altered the original decision. My advice about our legal system, avoid it like a disease. If dragged into it don't expect justice any more than you would expect a fair fight from a mugger. Good engineers can keep you out of trouble. A good lawyer can get you out of trouble. For the first case good is a complement. In the latter, it does not necessarily have the same connotation as the first. Praised be to God we made our livelihood as engineers.
  16. 1 point

    What Makes A Ship Move?

    I agree that the description of large interconnected systems is difficult for most of us. In my opinion, this lack of skill responds to two main factors: First, the mechanical engineering curriculum usually devotes more time to the teaching and evaluation of very specific topics and less time to the analysis of large interconnected systems. Second, the industry, for the most part, demands specialized personnel either to solve problems or to make small improvements in subsystems in order to obtain a small but continuous improvement that allows them to remain competitive at the lowest possible cost. Regarding the issue of education, I do not have any complaints, after all, whoever wants to learn has all the resources and tools at their disposal to do so. Similarly, regarding the behavior of the industry, I do not complain, it is a behavior that responds to more factors (economic, social and political) which I do not intend to mention here. It is known that one can succeed in the exercise of the profession in different ways and one of them is to become an expert in a specific area. So if the educational system, neither the industry nor the economic incentive are of interest for the analysis of large interconnected systems, I suppose that only people who have a desire to understand and describe these systems will do so. I believe that we all have the ability to describe those systems and if so, we would surely notice an incredible advance in the technological development since great advances are a consequence not of the improvement of very specific things but of the proposition of new approaches for the solution of a problem. The main idea that I take away after reading your article is to try to describe through equations a complete system and in doing so identify which areas I lack knowledge or skill. One point that caught my attention is the fact that all the thrust generated by the turbine reaches a single point (the seat of the thrust bearing) that although it was obvious I had not stopped to think about it and its importance in the structural design of the ship's hull. Finally, I have a question, if one wanted to develop the ability to describe systems at that level, is it enough to take systems at random and try to describe them with equations or are there books that teach methods of analyzing those systems that would be worth studying? If so, I would appreciate a recommendation. Best regards, HKS.
  17. 1 point
    Good company will give u the abstract about the work on there home website as how they provide services for society development. Fisrt need to choose a category like pumps ( design, installation, commissioning, operation & maintaining), pipe laying. Above 2 section need knowledge in material selection, which type welding needed according to the load and the fuild that need to transfer also. HVAC is an entirely different and challenging section that one need good knowledge in thermodynamics.
  18. 1 point
    Why diesel Engine don't have spark plug? 1. You can answer this question. 2. You can like the best answer. 3. You can share the question
  19. 1 point

    Flywheel and DC motor

    Hetal, Please publish your results here so that we may all benefit from them. DrD
  20. 1 point
    Mustafa Alobaidy

    Define coefficient of Drag

    Coefficient of drag: is a number without unit used to calculate the resistance of a fluid on a moved body through like resistance of water on submarine or air on a vehicle, bullet , rocket 🚀 or plane ..etc depends on the shape & the nature of the surface body material & it’s resistance friction ,density of fluid,velocity & applied area... Cd is used in the equation of drag .. low Cd mean low fluid resistance high Cd mean high fluid resistance.
  21. 1 point
    abhijeet chandak

    Machine Design Methods

    I have study Mechanical Engineering were calculator is the only tool and lots of determinations , frustration and dedications until i become one..now, I am a CAD-CAM-CAE Engineer , which i only use this tools in Engineering Design... Machine Design Procedure: Understand the Requirements: ... Analyse and Evaluate the Design Mechanism: ... Analysis of Forces: ... Design of Elements: ... Material Analysis and Selection: ... Design Iteration for Manufacturing: ... Creation of Detailed Mechanical Drawings would be happy to hear some comments and discussion from others on these matters.
  22. 1 point
    • Graded Mode
    • 10 minutes
    • 17 Questions
    • 57 Players
    Mechanical Engineering Quiz 8
  23. 1 point
    • Graded Mode
    • 10 minutes
    • 17 Questions
    • 67 Players
    Mechanical Engineering Quiz 5
  24. 1 point
    When fuel is injected into combustion chamber, the droplets of fuel takes heat from surrounding air and vaporizes. Then it's temperature goes on increasing till it reaches to auto ignition temperature and then combustion starts. This whole process requires some time (fraction of second) and it is known as IGNITION DELAY OR DELAY PERIOD. Ideally, as injrction starts, ignition should take place simultaneously. That is , ignition delay should be as small as possible. Suppose auto ignition temperature of fuel is more then there will be more ignition delay period. This means that after injection start, the fuel will droplets will accumulate in combustion chamber. And after auto ignition temperature reaches, this accumulated fuel burns promptly. In fact it explodes. This is cause of knocking in CI Engine. There are several factors which affects knocking such as A/F ratio, compression ratio, auto ignition temperature, engine speed, inlet temperature, intake pressure etc. It is very difficult to differentiate between normal engine running and knocking in case of CI Engine.
  25. 1 point

    Flywheel and DC motor

    Why in the world do you want to put a flywheel on a DC motor? The purposes of a flywheel are (1) to smooth out irregularities in the rotational motion of the shaft (torsional vibration), and (2) to store energy in order to continue operation though a power interruption. You did not mention either of these, so I ask again, "why do you want to put a flywheel on a DC motor?"
  26. 1 point

    From the album: All in a picture!

    All of the basic hydraulic valves and their symbols
  27. 1 point
    It’s from a Manufacturing Processes book by Serope Kalpakjian. (Kinda reference for most major college in Manufacturing Processes course) your reference practically replacing my feed rate v=f*N, with object length L. Also using Davg.
  28. 1 point
    Do = 100 mm d = 1 mm f = 0.1 mm/rev N = 2000 rpm v = f*N = 0.1 mm/rev * 2000 rpm = 200 mm/min d = (Do - Df)/2 => Df = 98 mm Davg = (Do + Df)/2 = 99 mm MRR = pi*Davg*d*f*N = pi * 99mm * 1mm * 200 mm/min = 62203 mm3/min = 0.0622 cm3/min
  29. 1 point
    V.k. Vishal

    Types of Welding

    Dear Admin, Thanks a lot for your wonderful work. I really appreciate your work. I wish if pdf format was available.it will provide more comfort to learn the topics with more ease. Another thing that I felt that contents provided are awesome but at the GATE level you need to improve a lot...lots of materials should be added so that for those who are preparing for GATE or other Engineering competitive Exams can get much more benefits. Thanks again... Wish you and all the members, all the best for your future. Regards Vishal S.
  30. 1 point
    • Graded Mode
    • 5 minutes
    • 10 Questions
    • 22 Players
    Questions on the concepts of automobile engineering. This quiz has been reset on 14 Oct 2019
  31. 1 point
    Is there any wind? If wind blown horizontally, a vertical plate will cool faster. If no wind, theoretically it's all the same due to same exposure area. IRL, have you ever saw people drying their clothes sideways?
  32. 1 point
    The mechanical properties of a material are those properties that involve a reaction to an applied load. The mechanical properties of metals determine the range of usefulness of a material and establish the service life that can be expected. Mechanical properties are also used to help classify and identify material. STRENGTH: The strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation.In machine design yield point or ultimate tensile / shear / compressive strength is used while designing. Stiffness: Stiffness is the rigidity of an object — the extent to which it resists deformation in response to an applied force. The complementary concept is flexibility or pliability: the more flexible an object is, the less stiff it is. Hardness: Hardness is a measure of how resistant solid matter is to various kinds of permanent shape change when a compressive force is applied. Some materials (e.g. metals) are harder than others (e.g. plastics). Elasticity: the ability of an object or material to resume its normal shape after being stretched or compressed. On a stress-strain diagram it is considered to be below proportional limit.But widely this point is taken as the yield point by drawing a line offset by 0.2% parallel to the straight line until it intersects the curve. Plasticity: It describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces. Brittleness: A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant plastic deformation. Brittle materials absorb relatively little energy prior to fracture, even those of high strength.
  33. 1 point


    I have one reference drawing about conveyor, you download by this link : http://adf.ly/16014671/conveyor-belt. (solidwork version 2014" And you can download geartrax software to help you draw the sprocket easier: http://adf.ly/16014671/geartrax2015 Have a nice day.
  34. 1 point

    What is Curie point ?

    It is the point at which metal leave its magnetic property.
  35. 1 point
    Jay shah

    What is mohr's circle used for ?

    Mohr circle is used to determine the value of state of stress in the planes of different orientation.
  36. 1 point


    Powerpoint Notes on Metal forming Topic includes— Hot &Cold working Forging Extrusion Rolling Drawing
  37. 1 point


    Materials Numerical Quantities-Forms Tables designed for the metal trade are intended for use, mostly by vocational schools, and companies. Individuals of different experience levels will greatly benefit from this book, whether novice or specialized workers. In total, this book contains 7 chapters, each of which cover fundamental aspects of the subject. The chapters in this book include Measures And Weights, Metal Cutting Operations, Engineering Components, Mechanics, Numbers, Materials, and Engineering Drawings. Simply, this is a book similar to design data book which contains some requisite information on Metal Trade. I have scanned the pages and made a ebook. You can also buy it. Just 120 Rupees. Worth it!!
  38. 1 point
    Priming is process of removing air from from suction pipe by filling water in suction.
  39. 1 point
    In my view nothing difference in efficiency. Based on the design configuration can be made to deliver same efficiency for same vehicle ?
  40. 1 point
    Hi Joshua, I've just read your message and I couldn't agree with you more. The Diesel engine and the gas engine ARE both internal combustion engines. It's a very amateurish mistake that I've made and I apologise to anyone who may have been misled by this. I can't imagine what I was thinking of when I wrote it. Thanks for your correction. Roger
  41. 1 point
    Petrol get ignited with at low temp. But for diesel high temp is required for combustion. ..This sole purpose is not achieved by spark plugs so we go with compression ignition. ...thus we don't have spark plugs in diesel engine. ..
  42. 1 point
    Petrol get ignited with at low temp. But for diesel high temp is required for combustion. ..This sole purpose is not achieved by spark plugs so we go with compression ignition. ...thus we don't have spark plugs in diesel engine. ..
  43. 1 point
    In normal helical gears there is no problem of impact stresses but there are axial thrusts on the bearings of shafts on which they are mounted.these gears are good for moderate power transmission because bearing can be designed.But in very high power transmission design of bearing for a small and compact system becomes very tough and unemployable.Thus herringbone gears were designed to eliminate these axial thrusts.This gear contains both right hand helical profile and left hand helical profile on same gear as you can see in diag. .The axial components of transmission force is cancelled by each other on same gear.Thus eliminating the problem of thrust force. these gears are used in racing cars where high power transmission is required and bearing size can not be increased after certain limit.
  44. 1 point
    because in cylinders there is no sharp corners or edges like rectangular or other shaped container that's why there is no stress concentration.
  45. 1 point
    Dear sourabh, very good job. Please promote this website as a good source of knowledge in the field of mechanical engineering. Some times the questions make us to think about the topics which are not present in any book. Also I want to suggest you that please implement this website with spelling suggestions and correction during typing. we all type fast and this increase chance of mistakes during typing. So it should be better to have a right spelling suggestion while typing. Regards...
  46. 1 point
    Welcome to the forums Felland Arthur :)
  47. 1 point
    soldering is limited to joint which require less strength thats why we use low melting temperature metal to fuse into preferably lead and tin and temperature is less than 45o c in case of brazing a metal with high melting point is used to braze, temperature can be as high as 3000 c
  48. 1 point
    hello everyone here are some of the topics i have collected throughout my engineering hope it will help some one. * Advances In Capillary Fluid Modelling * Hybrid Motorcycles* * Machine Vision * Crew Exploration Vechicles * ACC-Plus(Adaptive Crusie Control+) System * Micro/Meso-scale Manufacturing * Turbines in silicon * Self-Healing Polymer Technology * Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) * Launching Space Vechicles from Moon * Pseudoelasticity and Shape Memory in Metal Nanowires * Quantum Chromo Dynamics * MEMS In Industrial Automation * Fluid Energy Milling * Snake Well Drill * Infrared Thermography * Shock Waves & Shock Diamonds * Camless engine with elctromechanical valve actuator * Aircraft Egress * Molecular Engineering * Cordless Tools * Free Form Modelling Based on N-Sided Surfaces * Functional Nanocrystalline Ceramics * Frictionless Compressor Technology * Kalina cycle * Programmable keyless entry * Micromanipulating Micromachine * Infrared Curing And Convection Curing * Ball Piston machines * Autonomous Submarines * Automated Highways * Pint Sized Power Plants * Abrasive Blast Cleaning * Air Powered Cars * Magnetic Nanocoposites * Electrochemical Machining (ECM) & EBM~ * Space Robotics * Rijke Tube * Electromagnetic Bomb * Cell Integration Into A Manufacturing System~ * Plasma Arc welding * Trends in welding * Hydrogen Vehicle~ * New Rolling Techniques * Valvetronic Engine Technology * FMS (Flexible Manufacturing Systems) * Latest in hitech petrol fuel injection --GDI (Gasoline direct Injection) * Underwater wind mill * Microfluidics * Aircraft Propeller~ * Micromixers * Nono Fluidics * Electronic Road Pricing System~ * Micro Heat Exchangers * Low inertia dics clutches * Electronbeam Machining~ * nanobatteries * Micro hydraulics * Virtual Reality~ * Touch trigger probes * Solid carbide end mills * Ocean Thermal Energy(12) * DARK ROOM machining * Green Manufacturing * Modeling and simulation * Lean Burn Spark Ignition Engine(13) * Logistics and supply chain management * Machine tools vibration, Noise & condition monitoring * Ergonomics * Safety Systems Nuclear Power Potential as Major Energy Source Energy Conversion and Management Active Electrically Controlled Suspension Special materials for high temperature applications Camless engine with elctromechanical valve actuator Perpetual Motion Machines Recent Trends in Quality Management New trends in Automobile Design Advanced Cooling Systems Fuels from Plastic Wastes Composite materials Geo-Thermal Energy Engineering Applications of Nylon 66 Intelligent manufacturing Variable Valve Timing In I.C. Engines Agile manufacturing * Responsive manufacturing Air Cushion Vehicles Human Artificial organs Advances in cutting tool technology Electric Automobiles High speed Railway coaches Hydraulic railway recovery systems Drive-By Wire Systems Pendolina system for railway passenger comfort Safety features of railway rolling stock Hyperplane Fuel Cell Airplane Selective Catalytic Reduction Skid Steer Loader And Multiterrain Loader Control Of Point Of Operation Hazards Air Powered Cars CVT Pneumatics Control Systems Computer Aided Process Planning (Capp) Green Engine Sensotronic Brake Control Space Robotics F1 Track Design And Safety Thermal Barrier Coatings Biomechatronic Hand Total Productive Maintenance Design, Analysis, Fabrication And Testing Of A Composite Leaf Spring HANS Cryogenic Grinding Hydro Drive Explosive Welding Frictionless Compressor Technology PS: If you want any information on any of above topics please don't contact me as i don't have it but you can always google it . so happy "GOOGLING" :D
  49. 0 points
    what is the difference between refrigeration and air conditioning? A major difference between refrigeration and air conditioning is the point of supply for the gases. Refrigeration systems have gas installed in a series of tubes. In old refrigerators, this gas was chloro-flouro-carbon, or CFC, but this has harmful effects on people, so refrigerators not contain HFC-134a. HFC-134a is the sole gas used as a coolant in refrigeration systems. Air conditioning systems use built-in chemicals, but also air from the room or rooms being heated. Gases built into air conditioning units cool air that circulates through the unit; the unit then redistributes the cooled air through the room. Air conditioners have circulation systems designed to project cool air away from the units while refrigeration units have circulation systems designed to retain coolant in a confined space. Refrigeration systems circulate cool liquids and gases through a series of tubes and vents. Cool air from within a refrigerator is sucked into a compressor that recycles the gas through the tubes. Air conditioners, while also employing tubes in the coolant system, have fans for the dispersal of air. Unlike refrigeration systems, which keep gases contained to a pre-determined space, air conditioning systems disperse cool air throughout areas of unknown volume. Refrigeration refers to processes that take thermal energy away from a place and gives off that energy to a place with a higher temperature. Naturally, thermal energy flows from a place with a higher temperature to a place with a lower temperature. Therefore, refrigeration runs against the natural heat flow and so it requires work to be done.Refrigerator is a name that we use for devices that are used to keep food at low temperatures. A refrigerator consists of a fluid called refrigerantwhich gets expanded and compressed in a cycle:
  50. 0 points
    Normally spur gear are the replaced by other gears like helical, double helical gears,bevel gears etc. Spur gear is normally used in lower speed due its its ability of generating zero axial thrust. Now in order to maintain constant gear ratio or speed ratio, their centre of pitch circle must be from fixed and the pitch circle of two mating gears should meet at a point and the line of action should meet at pitctch point in order to satisfy the law of gearing.

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