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    ANSYS offers engineering simulation solution sets in engineering simulation that a design process requires. Companies in a wide variety of industries use ANSYS software. The tools put a virtual product through a rigorous testing procedure (such as crashing a car into a brick wall, or running for several years on a tarmac road) before it becomes a physical object. This pdf gives good start to understand and learn ANSYS
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    1. What is the difference between scavenging and supercharging ? Ans: Scavenging is process of flushing out burnt gases from engine cylinder by introducing fresh air in the cylinder before exhaust stroke ends. Supercharging is the process of supplying higher mass of air by compressing the atmospheric air. 2. What are the names given to constant temperature, constant pressure, constant volume, constant internal energy, constant enthalpy, and constant entropy processes.Ans: Isothermal, isochroic, isobaric, free expression, throttling and adiabatic processes respectively. 3. In a Rankine cycle if maximum steam pressure is increased keeping steam temperature and condenser pressure same, what will happen to dryness fraction of steam after expansion ?Ans: It will decrease. 4. Why entropy change for a reversible adiabatic process is zero ? Ans: Because there is no heat transfer in this process. 5. What are two essential conditions of perfect gas ? Ans: It satisfies equation of state and its specific heats are constant. 6. Enthalpy and entropy are functions of one single parameter. Which is that ? Ans: Temperature. 7. Why rate of condensation is higher on a polished surface compared to rusty surface ? Ans: Polished surface promotes drop wise condensation and does not wet the surface. 8. How much resistance is offered to heat flow by drop wise condensation ? Ans: Nil How are these questions - please do add comments and if you like them please do share this post on facebook, linkedin, twitter and google plus. 9. What is the relationship between COP of heating and cooling ? Ans: COP of heating is one(unity) more than COP of cooling. 10. How much is the work done in isochoric process ? Ans: Zero. 11. When maximum discharge is obtained in nozzle ? Ans: At the critical pressure ratio. 1. Under what condition the work done in reciprocating compressor will be least ? Ans: It is least when compression process approaches isothermal. For this purpose, attempts are made to cool the air during compression. 13. What is the difference between stalling and surging in rotary compressions ? Ans: Stalling is a local phenomenon and it occurs when How breaks away from the blades. Surging causes complete breakdown of flow and as such it affects the whole machine. 14. Why the electric motor of a fan with backward curved blades is never got overloaded under any condition ? Ans: The maximum power is consumed at about 70% of maximum flow in case'of fan with backward blades. For higher flow, power consumption gets lower. 15. Why the work per kg of air flow in axial flow compressor is less compared to centrifugal compressor for same pressure ratio ? Ans: Isentropic efficiency of axial flow compressor is higher. 16. What is the name given to portion of thermal energy to be necessarily rejected to environment ? Ans: Anergy. 17. What is pitting ? How it is caused ? Ans: Non uniform corrosion over the entire metal surface, but occuring only in small pits is called pitting. It is caused by lack of uniformity in metal. 18. What is caustic embrittlement ? Ans: It is the actual physical change in metal that makes it extremely brittle and filled with minute cracks. It occurs particularly in the seams of rivetted joints and around the rivet holes. 19. Which impurities form hard scale and which impurities soft scale ? Ans: Sulphates and chlorides of lime and magnesium form hard scale, and carbonates of lime and magnesium form soft scale. 20. What is the difference between hard water and soft water ? Ans: Hard water contains excess of scale forming impurities and soft water contains very little or no scale forming substances. 21. Which two elements in feed water can cause corrosion of tubes and plates in boiler ? ' Ans: Acid and oxygen in feed water lead to corrosion. 22. What should be done to prevent a safety valve to stick to its seat ? Ans: Safety valve should be blown off periodically so that no corrosion can take place on valve and valve seat. 23. Why large boilers are water tube type ? Ans: Water tube boilers raise steam fast because of large heat transfer area and positive water circulation. Thus they respond faster to fluctuations in demand. Further single tube failure does not lead to catastrophy. 24. What type of boiler does not need a steam drum ? Ans: Super-critical pressure boiler. 25. Why manholes in vessels are usually elliptical in shape ? Ans: Elliptical shape has minimum area of opening and thus plate is weakened the least. Further it is very convenient to insert and take out the cover plate from elliptical opening. 26. Low water in boiler drum is unsafe because it may result in overheating of water tubes in furnace. Why it is unsafe to have high water condition in boiler drum ? Ans: High drum level does not allow steam separation to be effective and some water can be carried over with steam which is not desirable for steam turbine. 27. Why boiler is purged everytime before starting firing of fuel ? Ans: Purging ensures that any unburnt fuel in furnace is removed, otherwise it may lead to explosion. 28. What is the principle of mechanical refrigeration ? Axis. A volatile liquid will boil under the proper conditions and in so doing will absorb heat from surrounding objects. 29. Why high latent heat of vaporisation is desirable in a refrigerant ? Ans: A high latent heat of vaporisation of refrigerant results in small amount of refrigerant and thus lesser circulation system of refrigerant for same tonnage. 30. What is the critical temperature of a refrigerant ? Ans: Critical temperature is the maximum temperature of a refrigerantrat which it can be condensed into liquid and beyond this it remains gas irrespective of pressure applied. 31. Maximum combustion temperature in gas turbines is of the order of 1100 to 10°C whereas same is around 00°C in I.C. engine ? Why ? Ans: High temperature in I.C. engine can be tolerated because it lasts for a fraction of second but gas turbines have to face it continuously which metals can't withstand. 32. Why efficiency of gas turbines is lower compared to I.C. engines ? Ans: In gas turbines, 70% of the output of gas turbine is consumed by compressor. I.C. engines have much lower auxiliary consumption. Further combustion temperature of I.C. engines is much higher compared to gas turbine. 33. What do you understand by timed cylinder lubrication ? Ans: For effective lubrication, lub oil needs to be injected between two piston rings when piston is at bottom of stroke so that piston rides in oi during upward movement. This way lot of lub oil can be saved and used properly. 34. What is IIUCR in relation to petrol engine ? Ans: HUCR is highest useful compression ratio at which the fuel can be used in a specific test engine, under specified operating conditions, without knocking. 35. In some engines glycerine is used in place of water for cooling of engine. Why ? Ans: Glycerine has boiling point of 90°C which increases its heat carrying capacity. Thus weight of coolant gets reduced and smaller riadiator can be used. 36. Why consumption of lubricating oil is more in two-stroke cycle petrol engine than four-stroke cycle petrol engine ? Ans: In two-stroke engine lub oil is mixed with petrol and thus some lub oil is blown out through the exhaust valves by scavenging and charging air. There is no such wastage in four stroke petrol engine. 37. As compression ratio increases, thermal n increases. How is thermal n affected by weak and rich mixture strength ? Ans: Thermal n is high for weak mixture and it decreases as mixture strength becomes rich. 38. How engine design needs to be changed to burn lean mixture ? Ans: Engine to burn lean mixture uses high compression ratio and the highly turbulent move¬ment of the charge is produced by the geometry of the combustion chamber. 39. Horse power of I.C. engines can be expressed as RAC rating, SAE rating, or DIN rating. To which countries these standards belong ? Ans: U.K., USA and Germany respectively. 40. What is the use of flash chamber in a vapour compression refrigeration cycle to improve the COP of refrigeration cycle ? Ans: When liquid refrigerant as obtained from condenser is throttled, there are some vapours. These vapours if carried through the evaporator will not contribute to refrigerating effect. Using a flash chamber at some intermediate pressure, the flash vapour at this pressure can be bled off and fed back to the compression process. The throttling process is then carried out in stages. Similarly compression process is also done in two separate compressor stages. 41. Why pistons are usually dished at top ? Ans: Pistons are usually hollowed at top to (i) provide greater spa'e for combustion, (ii) increase surface for flue gases to act upon, and (iii) better distribution of stresses. 42. What is the function of thermostat in cooling system of an engine ? Ans: Thermostat ensures optimum cooling because excessive cooling decreases the overall efficiency. It allows cooling water to go to radiator beyond a predetermined temperature. 43. What are the causes of failure of boiler tubes ? Ans: Boiler tubes, usually are made from carbon steel and are subject to (a) high rates of heat transfer,( b ). bending stresses due to uneven heating, especially at expanded or welded joints into headers or drums, © external erosion from burners and flue gas, (d) possible corrosion on the boiler side, and (e) occasional manufacturing defects. Failure may occur due to following reasons : (a) High thermal ratings may lead to rapid failure if the internal fluid flow is reduced for any reason. The resultant overheating leads to a failure by creep, characterised by the bulging of the tube with the eventual development of a longitudinal split. (b ) Fatigue cracking due to bending stresses occur. These are associated with change of section and/or weld undercut, where tubes are expanded or welded into headers. © Failure may arise due to overstressing of a reduced section of metal. (d) Sudden failure of the boiler tube due to corrosion arises from embrittlement of the carbon steel due to interaction between atomic hydrogen from the corrosion process and the iron carbide present in the steel. (e) Defects in tube manufacture, although far from being a regular occurrence, can be a cause of serious trouble. Lamination in boiler tubes or score marks arising from the cold drawing of tubes, give rise to premature failure and may promote corrosion at these regions. 44. What are the causes of failure of superheater tubes ? Ans: Superheater tubes are subjected to the most severe combination of stress, temperature and corrosive environment. In addition to high-temperature strength, resistance to corrosion is also important. For example, low-alloy ferritic steel such as -1/% Cr, 1% Mo would not be used at metal temperatures above 580°C because of inadequate resistance to corrosion and oxidation over a full service life of 100,000/150,000 hr. Failures in superheater tubes may arise from : (a) Prior fabrication history (b ) Faulty heat treatment © Consequences of welding (d) Overheating of the tube metal (e) Gas-side corrosion (f) Stress corrosion (austenitic steels). 45. Why supercritical boilers use less amount of steel compared to non-supercritical boilers ? Ans: Supercritical boilers do not head heavy drum for separation of steam from mixture of water and steam. 46. Out of electric heater and heat pump, which is economical in operation ? Ans: Heat pump. 47. Which furnace burns low-ash fusion coal and retains most of the coal ash in the slag? Ans: Cyclone furnace. 48. How the thickness of thermal boundary layer and thickness of hydrodynamic boundary layer related ? Ans: Ratio of their thickness = (Prandtl number)-1/3. 49. What is the effect of friction on flow of steam through a nozzle ? Ans: To decrease both mass flow rate and wetness of steam. 50. Why gas turbine power plant needs efficient compressor ? Ans: Because a large portion of turbine work is eaten away by compressor and its inefficiency will affect net power output and cost of generation. 51. Why rockets using liquid hydrogen have higher specific impulse compared to liquid hydrocarbon ? Ans: Liquid hydrogen has higher burning velocity. 52. Why axial flow compressor is preferred for gas turbines for aeroplanes ? Ans: Because it has low frontal area. 53. What is the effect of inter cooling in gas turbines ? Ans: It decreases thermal efficiency but increases net output. 54. Why iso-octane is chosen as reference fuel for S.I. engines and allotted 100 value for its octane number ? Ans: Iso-octane permits highest compression without causing knocking. 55. Why thermal efficiency of I.C. engines is more than that of gas turbine plant ? Ans: In I.C. engine maximum temperature attained is higher than in gas turbine. 56. Which are the reference fuels for knock rating of S.I. engines ? Ans: n-heptane and ISO-octane. 57. When effect of variations in specific heats is considered then how do maximum temperature and pressure vary compared to air standard cycle ? Ans: Temperature increases and pressure decreases. 58. Quantities like pressure, temperature, density, viscosity, etc. are independent of mass. What are these called ? Ans: Intensive properties. 59. The amount of radiation emitted per scm per sec is called .... ? Ans: Emissive power. 60. In convection heat transfer, if heat flux intensity is doubled then temperature difference between solid surface and fluid will ? Ans: Get doubled. 61. How you can define coal ? Ans: Coal is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon that consists of the fossilised remains of buried plant debris that have undergone progressive physical and chemical alteration, called coalification, in the course of geologic time. 62. Which pollutant is major greenhouse gas and what is its effect ? Ans: CO is major greenhouse gas and it traps the radiation of heat from the sun within earth's atmosphere. 63. In order to increase efficiency and reduce CO emissions and other emissions, clear coal technologies are receiving major attention. What are these ? Ans: (i) Advanced pulverised and pressurised pulverised fuel combustion. (ii) Atmospheric fluidised bed combustion and pressurised fluidised bed combustion. (iii) Supercritical boilers. (iv) Integrated gasification combined cycle systems. (v) Advanced integrated gasification, including fuel cell systems. (vi) Magneto hydrodynamic electricity generation. 64. What are the important operational performance parameters in design of fuel firing equipment ? Ans: Fuel flexibility, electrical load following capability, reliability, availability, and maintenance ease. 65. What is the differenc between total moisture and inherent moisture in coal ? Ans: The moisture content of the bulk as sampled is referred to as total moisture, and that of the air dried sample is called inherent moisture. 66. Proximity analysis of coal provides data for a first, general assessment of a coal's quality and type. What elements it reports ? Ans: Moisture, volatile matter, ash and fixed carbon. 67. Ultimate analysis of coal is elementary analysis. What it is concerned with ? Ans: Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulphur in coal on a weight percentage basis. 68. Explain the difference between AFBC, BFBC, PFBC and PCFB in regard to fluidised bed technologies. Ans: AFBC (Atmospheric fluidised bed combustion) process consists of forming a bed of inert materials like finely sized ash or ash mixed with sand, limestone (for sulphur removal), and solid fuel particles in a combustor and fluidising it by forcing combustion air up through the bed mixture. The gas flows thorugh bed without disturbing particles significantly but gas velocity is high enough to support the total weight of bed (fluidisation). At slightly higher velocity excess gas passes through the bed as bubbles (fluidised bed) and gives the bed the appearance of a boiling liquid. Bubbling fluidised bed combustion (BFBC) has a defined height of bed material and operates at or near atmospheric pressure in the furnace. Pressurised fluidised bed combustion (PFBC) system operates the bed at elevated pressure. Exhaust gases have sufficient energy to power a gas turbine, of course, gases need to be cleaned. In fluidised combustion, as ash is removed some unburned carbon is also removed resulting in lower efficiency. In circulating fluidised bed combustion (CFBC) system, bed is operated at higher pressure leading to high heat transfer, higher combustion efficiency, and better fuel feed. Circulating fluidised beds operate with relatively high gas velocities and fine particle sizes. The maintenance of steady state conditions in a fast fluidised bed requires the continuous recycle of particles removed by the gas stream (circulating bed). The term circulating bed is often used to include fluidised bed sys¬tems containing multiple conventional bubbling beds between which bed material is exchanged. 69. What for Schmidt plot for is used in heat transfer problems ? Ans: Schmidt plot is a graphical method for determining the temperature at any point in a body at a specified time during the transient heating or cooling period. 70. In which reactor the coolant and moderator are the same ? Ans: Pressurised water reactor. 71. Which reactor has no moderator ? Ans: Fast breeder reactor. 72. What are thermal neutrons ? Ans: Thermal neutrons are slow neutrons (having energy below 1 eV) which are in thermal equilibrium with their surroundings. 73. What is big advantage of fast breeder reactor ? Ans: It has rapid self breeding of fissile fuel during the operation of the reactor, and thus, it offers about sixty times the output with same natural uranium resources through ordinary non-breeder nuclear reactor. 74. What is the purpose of biological shield in nuclear plants ? Ans: Biological shield of heavy concrete prevents exposure to neutrons, beta rays and gamma rays which kill living things. 75. Which two elements have same percentage in proximate and ultimate analysis of coal? Ans: Moisture and ash. 76. On which analysis is based the Dulong's formula for the heating value of fuel ? Ans: On ultimate analysis. 77. Which element causes difference in higher and lower heating values of fuel ? Ans: Hydrogen. 78. Which heating value is indicated by a calorimeter and why ? Ans: Gross heating value because steam is condensed and heat of vapour formed is recovered. 79. State the difference between ultimate and proximate analysis of coal ? Ans: In ultimate analysis, chemical determination of following elements is made by weight: Fixed and combined carbon, H, O, N, S, water and ash. Heating value is due to C, H and S. In proximate analysis following constituents are mechanically determined by weight. Moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash. Heating value is due to fixed carbon and volatile matter. 80. What is fuel ratio ? Ans: Fuel ratio is the ratio of its % age of fixed carbon to volatile matter. 81. How the analyses and calorific values of fuels can be reported ? Ans: It may be reported as (a) as received or fired (wet) basis (b ) dry or moisture free basis © combustible or ash and moisture free basis 82. What is the difference between nuclear fission and fission chain reaction. Ans: The process of splitting of nucleus into two almost equal fragments accompanied by re¬lease of heat is nuclear fission. Self sustained, continuing, sequence of fission reactions in a con¬trolled manner is fission chain reaction. 83. Explain difference between fissile and fertile materials. Ans: The materials which can give nuclear fission e.g. U 35, Pu 39, U 33 are fissile materi¬als. Fertile material itself is not fissionable, but it can be converted to a fissionable material by irradiation of neutrons in a nuclear reactor. 84. What do you understand by fuel cycle in nuclear plants ? Ans: Fuel cycle a series of sequential steps involved in supplying fuel to a nuclear power reactor. The steps include : Mining, refining uranium, fabrication of fuel elements, their use in nuclear reactor, chemical processing to recover remaining fissionable material, re-enrichment of fuel from recovered material, refabrication of new fuel elements, waste storage etc. 85. What is heavy water and what is its use in nuclear plants ? Ans: Water containing heavy isotopes of hydrogen (Deuterium) is known as heavy water. Heavy water is used as a moderator. Heavy water has low cross section for absorption of neutrons than ordinary water. Heavy water slows down the fast neutrons and thus moderates the chain reaction. 86. What is a converter reactor ? Ans: A reactor plant which is designed to produce more fuel than it consumes. The breeding is obtained by converting fertile material to fissile material. 87. Explain nuclear reactor in brief. Ans: A plant which initiates, sustains, controls and maintains nuclear fission chain reaction and provides shielding against radioactive radiation is nuclear reactor. 88. What is the difference between conversion and enrichment ? Ans: The process of converting the non fissile U 38 to fissile U-35 is also called "Conversion". The material like U 38 which can be converted to a fissile material by the neutron flux is called "fertile material". The conversion is obtained within the nuclear reactor during the chain reaction. Enrichment is the process by which the proportion of fissile uranium isotope (U-35) is increased above 0.7% (original % in natural uranium). The concentration of U-35 in the uranium hexafluoride is increased from the 0.7% in natural uranium to to 4%. This is called enrichment and is accomplished in an enrichment plant. 89. Disposal of radioactive waste materials and spent fuel is a major and important technology. How the waste radioactive material is disposed off ? Ans: Nonusable fission products are radioactive and take short/medium/long time for radioactive decay to reach safe level of radioactivity. Accordingly three methods of disposal are : (a) Zero or low radioactivity material is dispersed or stored without elaborate shielding. (b ) Medium radioactivity material is stored for short duration of about 5 years to allow decay of radioactivity. © High radioactive material. They are stored in water for several months to permit radioactive decay to an accepetable low level. 90. Which nuclear reactor uses water as a coolant, moderator and reflector ? Ans: Pressurised water reactor. 91. Which reactor produces more fissionable material than it consumes ? Ans: Breeder reactor. 92. Which reactor uses natural uranium as fuel ? Ans: Gas cooled reacator. 93. Which reactor uses heavy water as moderator ? Ans: CANDU. 94. Which reactor requires no moderator ? Ans: Breeder reactor. 95. Which reactor uses primary coolant as fluoride salts of lithium, beryllium, thorium and uranium ? Ans: Molten salt breeder reactor. 96. Why an increase in area is required to produce an increase of velocity in case of supersonic flow ? Ans: Increase in area for increase in velocity for supersonic flow is required because the density decreases faster than velocity increases at supersonic speeds and to maintain continuity of mass, area must increase. 97. Under what circumstances would there be an increase in pressure in a diver¬gent nozzle ? Ans: For subsonic flow at inlet section of a diffuser a lower velocity and higher pressure will exist at the exit section. For supersonic isentropic flow at the inlet section a higher velocity and lower pressure will exist at the exit but if a shock wave occurs in the diffuser then a higher pressure will exist at the exit. 98. Why water can't be used as refrigerant for small refrigerating equipment ? Ans: The refrigerant should be such that vapour volume is low so that pumping work will be low. Water vapour volume is around 4000 times compared to R- for a given mass. 99. Which parameter remains constant in a throttling process ? Ans: Enthalpy. 100. What is the difference between isentropic process and throttlinglprocess ? Ans: In isentropic process, heat transfer takes place and in throttling process, enthalpy before and after the process is same.
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    From the album Engineering images

    An air conditioner works as a heat exchanger. It takes in warm air in your room and passes it over a set of cooling coil and then blows it back to the room as cold air. The cooling cycle of your air conditioner involves two basic processes: condensation and evaporation (you must have learned about them in school). There are 4 important components in your AC that control the cooling cycle: Compressor Condenser coils Evaporator Coils Freon- Cooling agent Compression and condensation cycle The coolant (mixed with lubricating oil*) enters the compressor as a cold low pressure gas where it is compressed. This compression increases the temperature and pressure of the coolant which converts it into a hot high pressure gas. This hot high pressure gas passes through a series of thin coil called condenser coil where it gets converted into a high pressure liquid. Whenever gas is converted into liquid heat is released. So the heat released during condensation of coolant is dissipated outside with the help of a condenser fan (located next to condenser coils). Expansion and evaporation cycle This hot high pressure liquid then passes through an other set of thin coils called evaporator coils, where it gets evaporated into a low pressure gas. As the liquid changes to gas and evaporates, it extracts heat from the surrounding warm air of your room. So the air coming in contact with these coils get cooled and is blown back to the room with the help of an evaporator fan. By the time the working fluid leaves the evaporator, it is a cool, low pressure gas. It then returns to the compressor to begin its trip all over again.
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    Basically a Pump is used for liquid or fluid to transform it to a much high pressure head while a Compressor is used for gases to transform from low to a much high pressure. From Mechanical Engineering point of view liquid is incompressible so Compressor cannot be used for liquid substances. Posted by AbdulQadir Abba Sheriff on linkedin
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    While both devices provide a form of forced induction for internal combustion engines The primary difference lies in how the devices are powered. Turbochargers are powered by exhaust gasses. Superchargers are powered by a belt, chain link, or gears, directly to the engine (the crankshaft in most cases). Turbochargers perform better at higher rpm's do to more exhaust gases spinning the turbine which then in turn causes the compressor to draw in more air. This has a downside due to lag time which can be referred to as spooling up. Superchargers work better at low RPM's due to the direct link to the engine and lack of lag time however they are limited to rotating at a max speed matching that which the crankshaft can turn the mechanical linkage to the supercharger itself. One system not mentioned in this article is the twin charger system. This combines the benefits of both the supercharger and a turbocharger in creating a zero gap power band. The supercharger takes care of the lower RPMs while the turbo kicks in during the higher rpm's. The applications of this are mostly seen on engines with smaller displacement and a wide rpm range.
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    Mechanical Engineering Interview Questions and answers for freshers on design, safety and maintenance. 1) What is an accident ? An accident is a unexpected and unforeseen event which may or may not injury to a person or a machine tool. 2) What are the standard sizes of drawing board as per Indian Standards? As per Indian Standards :1250×900,900×650,650×500,500×350,350×250 sizes are available. 3) What are the functions of a scale ? (a) To measure distance accurately. (b) For making drawing to scale either in full size, reduced size or enlarged size. 4) What is a sketching ? This is freehand expression of the graphic language. 5) What do you mean by First Aid ? First Aid is immediate and temporary care given to a person who affected accidental injury or a sudden illness before the arrival of doctor. 6) What is a Drawing ? It is a graphical representation of a real thing to define and specify the shape and size of a particular object by means of lines. 7) What is Engineering Drawing ? A drawing which is worked out an engineer for the engineering purpose is known as Engineering Drawing. 8) What are the methods of extinguishing fire ? 1) Starvation. Separating or removing the burning material from the neighbour hood of the fire. 2) Blanketing. Preventing the air flow to the fire. 3) Cooling. Lowering the heat created by burning materials. 9) What are the precautions to be taken to avoid fire ? 1) The buckets along with sand should be placed inside the workshop. 2) Switches and other electrical parts must be made of fireproof material. 3) Carbon dioxide gas should be place at required points in special containers. 4) Fire extinguishers of suitable type should be placed at accessible places.\ 10) What safety precautions should be observed while working in the workshop ? 1) Keep shop floor clean, free from oil and other slippery materials. 2) Wear proper dress and avoid loose clothing and loose hair. 3) Wear shoes and avoid chapels. 4) Avoid playing, loose talk and funning inside the shop floor. 5) Keep good housekeeping and put all unnecessary items and rejected items in scrap box. 6) Learn everything about the machine before starting and clear all the doubts. 7) Keep a safe distance from rotating and sliding parts. 8) Never store inflammable materials inside or around the shop. 9) Never play with electricity, fire, parts with sharp edge etc. 10) Keep fire buckets and extinguishers ready for use.
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    Version 1.1.0

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    A COMPLETE INSTRUCTOR AND STUDENT SUPPLEMENT PACKAGE - Continued These ppts are set of instructor and student supplements. . A FOCUS ON DIAGNOSIS AND PROBLEM SOLVING The primary focus of these ppts is to satisfy the need for problem diagnosis. Time and again, the author has heard that technicians need more training in diagnostic procedures and skill development. To meet this need and to help illustrate how real problems are solved, diagnostic stories are included throughout. Each new topic covers the parts involved as well as their purpose, function, and operation, and how to test and diagnose each system.
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    Posted by Mohammed sulieman in linkedin • abdulQadir i think ur answer is right and 2 make it more simple and easy 2 understand allow me 2 do this: pump: 1- used 4 incompressible fluid 2 transfer them from 1 place (low pressure) 2 another (high pressure) normally. 2- No change in fluids temp or volume when it s passed through pump. compressor: 1- use 4 compressible fluid whether 2 increase the fluid pressure or even 2 transform them from gas 2 liquid 2- there ll be a change in fluids temp, volume n pressure. in addition, da comprssor can be used along with a storage which means da output of da compressor can be stored and then used anytime unlike da pump. and there are more difference between pump and compressor if we compare them in term of applications.
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    What is the difference between pump and compressor ? When we use pump and When we use compressor? You can answer this questionYou can like the best answerYou can share the question.....You can get updates of new questions on Facebook linkedin twitter & google plus
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    DrD

    How To Become An Expert

    Mechanics Corner A Journal of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics by DrD © Machinery Dynamics Research, 2016 How To Become An Expert Introduction This is going to be another of those personal experience/opinion pieces, so if these bore you, be warned! This may be the time to click on something else. A reader recently wrote to me asking how to become an expert. I have to tell you, I don't spend much time thinking about being an expert, but I suppose on some reflection, the shoe probably fits. (Most of the time, I see myself as simply a tired old man, still enjoying the things I have done almost all my working life.) In the discussion below, I will describe a few events and observations that seem to relate to the question at hand. Find Your Place Nobody can hope to be an expert on everything, there is simply too much to know. You have to find the area that excites you, the area that really makes you want to dig in more. If you do not really enjoy it, you will never be an expert! I was very fortunate in this regard. When I was in High School, I was rather good in Mathematics, and my school advisers all told me, "You should become an engineer." Sadly, I really had no idea what that meant, and neither did they. The town where I grew up had rather little industry, and no one in my family knew an engineer of any sort. I did a little bit of research on engineering (this was thousands of years before the Internet), and it sounded interesting in a very vague way; there seemed to be little specific information available to me. But I went off to college, intending to study mechanical engineering, whatever that was. In my first semester of college, I took a Physics course in classical mechanics, and I really enjoyed it. This was exactly what I wanted to do, I just did not know the right name for it. I thought Newton's Second Law was the greatest thing ever discovered, and when implemented with Calculus, it was really fun. I was astounded at the power of it all, the questions that could be answered. If I could just get a job doing mechanics problems, I was sure I would be happy. HowToBecomeAnExpert.pdf
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    There is no single answer that applies in all situations. At one point in my career, I was involved in pipeline vibrations work for natural gas transmission pipelines. These pipelines use very large reciprocating compressors to move the natural gas several thousand miles. The discharge from a reciprocating compressor has highly variable pressure as the valves open, the flow moves through the valve, and then the valve closes for the next stroke. These pressure variations, referred to as "pipeline acoustics," cause the entire assembly to shake and can do much fatigue damage to the piping. Fatigue in turn leads to cracks and cracks allow leaks. This is one strong reason for pipeline leaks. DrD
  12. 8 likes
    To draw a projection of any object first we need to place this object in any quardrant then fit a source of light in front, above or any angle you want. A shadow will occur in the opposite side of the light source which will represent the projection of that object. Now after drawing this projection, the horizontal plane is to be rotated 90 degree clockwise. in second and fourth angle projection due to this process horizontal and vertical plane will overlap with each other. That's why we can't draw second and fourth angle projection.
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    This is one important point missing in the two previous answers. The "cc rating" of an engine is a volume measure, as previously stated, but it is not the actual cylinder volume. Rather, it is the swept volume of the cylinder, also called the "displacement" of the cylinder. The actual cylinder volume is always somewhat greater than this value because the piston at TDC does not leave zero cylinder volume. The small volume remaining at TDC is called the "clearance volume," the volume available for the early stage of combustion. DrD
  14. 7 likes
    MECHANICAL ENGG. IS THE BRANCH OF ENGINEERING INVOLVING FORCES IN EQUIPMENT WITH ABILITY TO BALANCE WHICH FINALLY ALSO TEACHES THE FORCES WHICH ARE APLLIED IN THE LIFE AND ALSO BALANCE THE FORCES N MUCH ETHICAL AND EFFICIENT WAY.
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    1. What are the differences between true stress, engineering stress, proof stress. 2. What do you men by factor of safety and what is its significance 3. What do you mean by Young’s modulus, modulus of rigidity and bulk modulus. 4. What do you mean by resilience. 5. What is pure torsion and what do you mean by flexural igidity. 6. What is the difference between endurance limit stree and endurance strength. 7. What do you understand by efficiency of riveted joint. 8. What is caulking and fullering in riveted joint. 9. What do you mean by stress conc. Factor and what are the methods to reduce stress conc. 10. Why stress conc. Is more serious in brittle materials. 11. What do you mean by fatigue . 12. Springs are subjected to which type of streses. 13. What are the difference between through bolt, tap bolt and stud. 14. What is check nut and what is the function of washer. 15. Cotter and knuckle joints take which type of load and where they are used. 16. What are the difference types of couplings and what is their function. 17. What is the function of key and which type of stress they are subjected to? 18. Generally shafts are subjected to which type of stress. 19. What are the difference types of mechanical drives and which is the best for different situations. 20. What is the function of a bush why it is phosphor bronze. 21. What are difference types of threads and which threads are used for power transmission and why. 22. Why the pulley arms are elliptical in cross section and it is made up of cast iron. 23. Why it is required to change the all V belt if one of them is broken. 24. Why V belts transmit more power than flat belts. 25. What is the meaning of 6*37 or 6*7 in a rope drive. 26. What do you mean by pinion sprocket and wheel sprocket and which one is used for driving shaft. 27. What is the function of flywheel and why its material is cast iron. 28. Why the leaf springs are laminated as reducing length. 29. What is the function of clutch and is the difference between uniform wear and uniform pressure. 30. Now a days which type of clutches are used in automobiles. 31. Why disc brake is more efficient than mechanical brake. 32. What is the function of bearings and what are the different types. 33. What is bearing characteristics number and bearing modulus. 34. What is the significance of the digits of a rolling contact bearing number 6304? 35. Which type of gear drive is used for perpendicular transmission of power? 36. Why helical gears transmit more power than spur gears. 37. What do you mean by different terms like back lash, pressure angle, circular pitch in a gear drive. 38. Why involute tooth profile is better than cycloid tooth profile? 39. What is interference in gear drive and how to avoid it? 40. What do you mean by law of gearing
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    The Internal-Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice Volume I : Thermodynamics, Fluid Flow, Performance Second Edition, Revised by Charles Fayette Taylor Professor of Automotive Engineering, Emeritus Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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    In second angle, both top and front view are drawn above the x-line whereas in fourth angle its vice versa. In second and fourth angle method, top view and front view overlaps. hence we never use those methods. In first angle method, front view lies above the x-line and top view lies below. vice versa for third angle. As both the views lies on either side of x-line in first & third angle, we make use of these methods.
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    Dear Folks, Enjoy with useful Engineers pocket guide
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    Source Ashish K Darpe Department of Mechanical Engineering IIT Delhi Thanks to Mr. Ashish K Darpe Regards Saurabh Jain
  20. 6 likes
    You know that diesel engine is the most appropriate choice of the engineers when it comes to drive heavy automobile like trucks, aircraft, ships etc. But what makes it so torque, is it the engine design, working cycle or something else. Please share your deep analysis to answer this questions
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    What is the difference between first angle method and third angle method in engineering drawing? Why is first angle method preferred over third angle in most of the countries?
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    In DTSi, instead of 1 we are using 2 spark plugs. Flame front formed is able to consume more air-fuel mixture as compared with 1 spark plug, thus more complete burning and more efficiency. in DTS-Si, with addition of 2nd spark plug, what they are doing is relocating valves position. With proper designing of inlet and outlet valves you can induce extra swirl for inoming air fuel mixture. Due to turbulence, extra efforts are provided for proper mixing of air and fuel. (We can not allow petrol to go in liquid droplet form, it should be finely atomized). With well atomized air fuel mixture, efficiency increases.
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    From the album Engineering Images

    A flywheel is a rotating mechanical device that is used to store rotational energy. Flywheels have an inertia called the moment of inertia and thus resist changes in rotational speed. The amount of energy stored in a flywheel is proportional to the square of its rotational speed....
  24. 5 likes
    saurabhjain

    Six stroke engine

    From the album Engines

  25. 5 likes
    Following are the reasonable points that conclude the high torque and efficiency of diesel engine. Diesel engine uses simple mechanism for combustion unlike in gasoline engine. Removal of ignition system not only makes the mechanism simpler but also reduces the risk of improper combustion due to damage in ignition system. In short burning of the fuel is easy and always accessible. This results in higher efficiency diesel engine. Diesel fuel is a heavier hydrocarbon in which carbon and hydrogen are strongly bonded with each other. And when energy is supplied in form of heat it gets explode releasing much higher energy then gasoline. In short diesel fuel has higher energy density then gasoline which results in huge explosion. One more factor for higher efficiency in diesel engine is its property of lubrication. Although all fuel has property of lubrication but diesel fuel has much higher lubrication then gasoline fuel. The compression ratio is much higher in diesel as compared to gasoline because in diesel engine air is alone compressed inside the cylinder and it’s a known fact that gas easily compresses then liquid. This is not so in gasoline engine because air-fuel mixture is compressed inside the cylinder. This higher compression gives higher heat and simultaneously higher torque. We can’t use Carnot cycle to get 100% efficiency but can use its principle to attain maximize efficiency. In diesel engine heat is added at constant pressure which results in higher utilization of heat energy to get maximize work output. These were the advantageous features of diesel engine but it has some demerits as well like it releases highly toxic gases, noisy, higher maintenance cost and starting problem (now starting problem is eliminated by using a bulb nearby to the cylinder) to heat the engine before ignition. And it is costlierthan gasoline engine but with optimum operation and good maintenance resolve all these problems.
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  27. 5 likes

    From the album Engines

    How the cam and follower system in an internal combustion engine work is shown in the animation of the four stroke cycle above. If you like it - do share it
  28. 5 likes
    Hello, interesting article. I think you mixed the examples for high and mixed head turbines. Acc. to my knowledge (I'm not an expert in hydroenergy) Pelton turbines are use for high heads. I have seen such turbines in northern Italy or on the island of Madeira, where they get high heads due to the mountains. I'm invested in a power plant with Francis turbines (unfortunately only a small one), where the height seems to be about 10m, perhaps 15m between max. height and outlet at the end of the suction tube. Regards, Alban
  29. 5 likes
    Tania, I am very pleased to see someone else writing in this area. Welcome to the club! You have some very nicely done figures, and are to be congratulated for them. In your presentation of "Lower Pairs," you seem to be following the classical approach used by Releaux (I'm not at all sure about that spelling!). After teaching Theory of Machines for many years, I can honestly say I have never found these classifications to be useful at all. The problem, as I see it, is that you associate "degrees of freedom" with a pair, where as I would associate "degrees of freedom" with the number of independent coordinates required to locate a body. By the way, your cam with the pointed follower is absolutely worthless. A pointed follower will rapidly wear and soon no longer be a pointed follower. Real cams almost always use either flat-faced followers or roller followers (as per your man seated at the table with the cam below). I look forward to your future contributions. DrD
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    Rankine cycle: transition from isobar to adiabatic process. Carnot cycle: transition from isothermal to adiabatic process.
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    Hardness: Hardness is the resistance of a material to localized deformation. The term can apply to deformation from indentation, scratching, cutting or bending. hardness commonly refers to a material's ability to penetrate softer materials. An object made of a hard material will scratch an object made of a softer material.In metals, ceramics and most polymers, the deformation considered is plastic deformation of the surface. For elastomers and some polymers, hardness is defined at the resistance to elastic deformation of the surface. The lack of a fundamental definition indicates that hardness is not be a basic property of a material, but rather a composite one with contributions from the yield strength, work hardening, true tensile strength, modulus, and others factors. Hardness measurements are widely used for the quality control of materials because they are quick and considered to be nondestructive tests when the marks or indentations produced by the test are in low stress areas. Toughness: The quality known as toughness describes the way a material reacts under sudden impacts. toughness is the resistance to fracture of a material when stressed. It is defined as the amount of energy that a material can absorb before rupturing, and can be found by finding the area (i.e., by taking the integral) underneath the stress-strain curve. It can be defined as the work required to deform one cubic inch of metal until it fractures. Toughness, often expressed as the Modulus of Toughness, is measured in units of joules per cubic meter (J/m3) in the SI system and pound-force per square inch (sometimes expressed as in-lb/in3) in US customary units. Toughness is measured by the Charpy test or the Izod test. Both of these tests use a notched sample. The location and shape of the notch are standard. The points of support of the sample, as well as the impact of the hammer, must bear a constant relationship to the location of the notch. Difference: The hardness of a metal limits the ease with which it can be machined, since toughness decreases as hardness increases Toughness is a combination of high strength and medium ductility. It is the ability of a material or metal to resist fracture, plus the ability to resist failure after the damage has begun. A tough metal, such as cold chisel, is one that can withstand considerable stress, slowly or suddenly applied, and which will deform before failure. Toughness is the ability of a material to resist the start of permanent distortion plus the ability to resist shock or absorb energy
  33. 5 likes
    Shaft is a mechanical element that transmit power and torque moment. Usually shafts are the elements with gears and pulleys attach on them (power transmission). The axle on the other hand is a mechanical element that does not transmit power. It can rotate or it can stand still. It is only loaded with bending moments. In vehicles, the terminology is same. The shafts that transmit power to the wheels are called drive shafts. The driven wheels have axles. Some people like to call the drive shafts axles (or half axles), from where the confusion can occur. The right term is drive shafts.
  34. 5 likes
    The original question was, "Why is first angle method preferred over third angle?" I think in the long run, it all comes down to local custom and tradition. Both convery the same information, so neither it truly superior to the other. That said, there is one basis for a good selection that might tilt in favor of one or the other. It is desireable to minimize the number of hidden lines in a drawing, so if one method results in more hidden lines than the other, the second option is preferable. Again though, I think it is a matter of familiarity, what we are all agreed upon, all of which is known as convention.
  35. 5 likes
    The Temperature required for combustion is higher for diesel and the spark plug is not enough to produce the temperature. Even, if it is used, it causes pre-ignition and knocking, which is not preferable. That's why it has higher compression ratio of 14-22, which is pretty much compared to petrol engines of compression ratio 5-8. Thus, there is no point of using spark plugs in not only diesel engines but also in CI engines,which may use biodiesel, kerosene, etc.
  36. 5 likes
    in MIG welding, the electrode is used sacrificially and supplies not only the welding current, but also the filler material. this results in the use of a "drum" of welding wire being fed through the handpiece. In TIG welding, a facilitive Tungsten electrode is used to generate the arc, but a filler rod is still required. The arc is generated and shielded in the same way for both.
  37. 5 likes
    Diesel Engine have injectors and fuel injection pump for fuel supply. Petrol engine have carburetor through which piston sucks the air fuel mixture. Diesel Engine have higher compression ratio as compared to petrol engine. Petrol Engine require spark for ignition but diesel doesn’t require. Petrol Engine works on Otto cycle thus heat is added at constant volume while in diesel cycle heat is added at constant pressure. In petrol engine mixing of air and fuel takes place in carburator while in diesel engine it takes place in cylinder. Diesel engine have more vibrations as compared to petrol Engine. Further we can give number or differences..................
  38. 4 likes
    Mechanics Corner A Journal of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics by DrD © Machinery Dynamics Research, 2017 Last Post Time to Hang It Up This will be the final post of Mechanics Corner here on Mechanical Engineering Forums. It has run almost exactly two years, and there have been ups and downs along the way. In this final post, I want to reflect a bit on my original goals for the blog, and also on what has actually happened. When our host first proposed to me that I might write a blog for ME Forums, I was excited about it. About half of my career had been spent in engineering education, and I always loved working with students. It seemed like a way to get back to something that I had long enjoyed, and so I accepted his suggestion. A long time ago, back when I was about 14 or 15 years old, in Junior High School, my shop teacher mentioned, in an off-hand way in class, that various curves could be described mathematically. I’d never heard that before, but I thought immediately, “This has interesting possibilities.” Moving ahead a few years, I discovered that I wanted to study and build my career around was the area known as Applied Mechanics, although it was a time before I first heard that term. In my freshman physics class, I discovered the laws of motion, and thought to myself, “This is great stuff! I can use math to describe how things move!” All of that happened back in the 1950s, and I’m still doing the same thing today (some might say I am in a rut!). As a teacher, I taught mostly undergraduate engineering courses, although I taught my share of graduate courses as well. It was the undergraduate courses that I liked most, because I firmly believe that the economy of a nation is strongly dependent on the quality of the baccalaureate level engineers produced in that nation. Engineers with graduate degrees are valuable as well, but the vast majority of the national engineering workload falls to BS level engineers. Thus, I envisioned Mechanics Corner as a sort of continuation of the several undergraduate courses I most enjoyed teaching — kinematics, dynamics of machines, vibrations, and mechanics of materials. For the most part, I have stuck to the plan, so that most of the technical posts I have made have dealt with problems that I considered suitable for undergraduate engineering students, say perhaps, junior level. I have posted a few topics from my industrial experience, but those have been situations that baccalaureate level engineers would be expected to handle. Now I knew it would not be exactly like continuing to teach my classes. In particular, you would not have any homework or tests, and I would not have any grading to do – a win-win, or so I thought. I did hope, that even with no assigned homework, readers would take an interest in the problems discussed, even to the point of working through the details for themselves (I was terribly naive, apparently!). I knew from my own experience that the only way I ever really learned a new idea was to get in and work with it, work some problems, make some numbers, plot some curves, until I really understood what it was all about. I’ll venture to say that nobody ever learned any technical material simply by reading only. In actual fact, in the early days, I had one or two folks say that they would in fact work through the problems, so I was encouraged. What I was not prepared for, however, was the fact that the vast majority never seemed to even read very carefully, much less work through the problems! The questions that have come, and there have been a few, have largely been about matters totally unrelated to the posts. The most common question has been, “Suggest a topic for my final project,” which relates to not a single post. Needless to say, that aspect of my vision was totally unfulfilled. But there is another side. I ventured to write a few “philosophical” articles, items dealing with academic integrity and cheating, with how to ask for help, with how to write a report or a paper, and various other matters. I really thought all of this would be considered obvious and trivial, so I was completely unprepared for the excitement that some of these articles generated. There were, in some cases, many, many comments, and people seemed to really be interested. I’m left to wonder: why? Are these ideas foreign to the culture of India and SE Asia? Are these things not all taught at home and in the public schools? I don’t know, but there was a lot of interest in these matters. But Mechanics Corner was intended to be primarily a technical blog, and there, it just did not excite the interest of the readership. As time passed, there was less and less interest. First, the comments dropped off to just about zero, and later, there were fewer and fewer who even bothered to “like” the articles. Finally, the number of reads has dropped to almost nothing (there may be no one left to read this final note). Well, there could hardly be any more clear indication that it is time to stop. I asked for opinions about this from some of the administrators, and was told that the blog was just over the heads of the readership. That makes me sad; that was never the intent. If it is true, I do not see how engineering has a very bright future among this readership. Even so, I wish all of you the best for your careers. I hope that you are able to find rewarding and beneficial work in which you will be happy and make a real contribution to your societies. To use an old cowboy metaphor perhaps familiar to many of you from Bollywood, “It is time to hang up the bridle and saddle, and say, ‘Adios’ (Adios is literally, “to God”).
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    Powerpoint Notes on Metal forming Topic includes— Hot &Cold working Forging Extrusion Rolling Drawing
  40. 4 likes
    This is wrong. A diesel engine utilizes the diesel cycle, whereas a petrol engine utilizes the otto cycle. The main difference between these two cycles, which are both non-ideal versions of the Carnot cycle, is their method of ignition. In the otto cycle, the combustion process is catalyzed by a spark. In the diesel cycle, the combustion process instantaneously begins when the air-fuel mixture temperature reaches the ignition temperature of the diesel fuel. A petrol engine cannot have a compression ratio as a large as a diesel engine. This is because it begins the combustion process pressure by sparking the petrol-air mixture to initiate ignition, rather than building up more pressure until ignition is initiated by reaching the ignition temperature of the petrol fuel. Thermal efficiency, which is a function of an engine's compression ratio, increases as the compression ratio increases. Though, when operating with the same compression ratio, a petrol engine is more efficient than a diesel engine, a diesel engine can have a higher efficiency than a petrol engine because it can utilize a much higher compression ratio that a petrol engine cannot possibly achieve. This is why, generally, diesel engines are more efficient than petrol engines.
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    Presentation on Design of- Clutch Brake Belts Chain Gears
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    Very nice art work and short, simple explanations. Well done! DrD
  44. 4 likes
    That was a very simple and informative explanation. As we have understood that this system transfers only the heat from inside the room to outside.But in a closed room, where two-three persons are breathing, CO2 level will increase with time if we don't let the mass transfer i.e. gases, to take place. So, do we have any machine which will perform both the operations.
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    Thank you so much Sir for your comment. Since you're an experienced person, I'll expect you to help me in editing all the blogs I write. It'll be helpful for me as well as others too. [ I made the classification just for the beginners like me, so that they get a basic idea.]
  46. 4 likes
    One of the most important components in any car is its transmission transmitting torque from the engine to the wheels. A key element of the transmission is differential, which is a mechanical device that transfers torque from a source (motor) of the two independent user (the wheels on the axle), in such a way that the angular velocities of rotation of the source and two user to be different from one relative to each other. This is achieved thanks to a so-called planetary mechanism. The differential is needed because when the vehicle is moving on the right track (without bumps), two wheel drive travel along the same path. In turn, however, the inner wheel (to turn) travels a shorter path to the outer wheel, resulting in angular speed of the inner wheel must be less than the external (in turn inner and outer wheel moving at different speeds). You pretty to write on this topic ... I hope you understand how it works.
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    Hi i start new Facebook page https://www.facebook.com/Inventor-Tips-Tricks-488295101343290/ Inventor Tips & Tricks. If you want join me, and posting interesting stuff about this software, please text me on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/michail.nowakowski
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    AUTOMOTIVE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM 1.Clutch 2.Gearbox 3.Propeller Shaft & Universal Joint 4.Rear Axle & Final Drive 5.Front Axle 6.Suspension System
  49. 4 likes
    Petrol get ignited with at low temp. But for diesel high temp is required for combustion. ..This sole purpose is not achieved by spark plugs so we go with compression ignition. ...thus we don't have spark plugs in diesel engine. ..
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    CRDI means Common Rail Direct Injection.. In crdi contains a small tube is called Common rail where the injectors are connected and contains fuel at a constant high pressure of 1,350 bars. The CRDI engine small amount of fuel into the engine before the actual charge and another one afterwords. the high pressure in common rail ensures that when it injected the fuel atomizes to a very high degree and mixes evenly with the air, thereby it making very clean exhaust gas. The engine pr. , timing of fuel injected is controlled ECU. The injectors have very precise dose of diesel into each cylinder .and ECU makes sure the fuel injected at optimum moment. "This ensures lower emissions, and allows better fuel economy.