Classification of Automobiles.
(A) According to Use
3.Car and Jeep.
4.Buses and Trucks.
(B) According to capacity
1.Heavy transport vehicle e.g. Trucks and buses.
2.Light transport vehicle e.g. Car,Jeep
(C) According to fuel used
1.Petrol vehicle e.g. scooter,BIke
2.Diesel vehicle e.g. Car,Truck,Buses
3.Gas vehicle e.g. Auto rikshaw
4.Solar vehicle e.g. Car.
(D) According to Wheels
1.Two wheelers e.g Bike,Scotty
2.Three Wheelers e.g. Auto Rikshaw
3.Four Wheelers e.g. Car,Jeep
4.Six and More Wheel e.g. buses and Heavy Truck
(E) According to drive
(i) According to sitting
1.Left hand drive e.g American vehicle
2.Right hand drive e.g Indian vehicle
(ii) Accoring to power
1.Front wheel drive
2.Rear wheel drive
3.All wheel drive
(F) According to transmission
1.Conventional type e.g. Gear box
(G) According to suspension system
1.Conventional : Leaf spring
2.Independent : Hydraulic shock absorber
(H) According to engine fitting
3.Transverse under floor engine e.g Bus engine
(I) According to body construction
1.Closed car. e.g Alto 800,Swift
2.Open car e.g Racing car
3.Special Car e.g Lemborgini
1.The condition that causes vapour locking in a brake system is
A. overheating of the fluid due to frequent brake application
B. overcooling of the brakes during high speed driving
C. keeping the vehicle without use for an extended period
D. an excessively high engine speed on a downhill road
2. The portion of a crankshaft which rests on cylinder block is called main journal.
3. A baffle plate is fitted inside the oil pan to prevent the oil from splashing when it is subjected to vibration and other movement during vehicle operation.
4. The motion of the cam is transferred to the valves through
B. rocker arms
C. camshaft pulley
D. valve stems
5. Which of the following symptom is caused as a result of brake disc run out ?
A. Ineffectiveness of the brakes
B. Judder during braking
C. Localized wearing of the brake pads
D. Rapid wearing of the brake pads
6. If the engine coolant leaks into the engine oil, then engine oil
A. appears milky
B. becomes foamy
C. turns black
D. none of these
7. The function of an alternator in an automobile is to
A. supply electric power
B. convert mechanical energy into electrical energy
C. continually recharge the battery
D. partly convert engine power into electric power
8. A clutch is usually designed to transmit maximum torque which is
A. equal to the maximum engine torque
B. 80 per cent of the maximum engine torque
C. 150 per cent of the maximum engine torque
D. none of these
9. What type of bearing is used for main bearings and connecting rod bearings ?
B. Plain bearings
C. Needle roller bearing
D. Taper roller bearing
10. It is necessary to maintain the valve clearances as they
A. reduce the resistance to sliding that occurs between the cam and the tappet
B. allow for lengthening of the valves owing to the heat of combustion
C. increase the speed at which the valves move up and down
D. make the crankshaft turn smoothly
11. Incorrect steering axis inclination (S.A.I.) causes
A. tendency to assume toe-out orientation
B. generation of a braking effect at tight corners
C. poor recovery of the steering wheel after making a turn
D. the vehicle to pull to the side of lesser inclination
12. In a unit type body (frameless body) design, the sheet metal parts are welded together, forming a frame work to which outer skin is attached.
13. The torque available at the contact between driving wheels and road is known as
A. brake effort
B. tractive effort
C. clutch effort
D. none of these
14. A traction control system (TCS) in automobiles controls the
A. vibrations on the steering wheel
B. engine power during acceleration
C. torque that is transmitted by the tyres to the road surface
D. stopping distance in case of emergency
15. In radial tyres
A. one ply layer runs diagonally one way and another layer runs diagonally the other way
B. all plies run parallel to one another and vertical to tyre bead
C. inner tubes are always used
D. none of these
16. The oil pump is driven by the
B. alternator shaft
C. crankshaft via drive belt
D. crankshaft directly
17. In a spark plug, when the temperature of the central electrode exceeds a certain temperature, any carbon that has adhered will be burnt off, and the temperature at which this burning off carbon starts is referred to as the self cleaning temperature.
18. The flywheel and the pressure plate bind the clutch disc between them so that the engine and the transmission can be engaged.
19. The vehicle ride will be comfortable if
A. unsprung mass is kept minimum
B. sprang mass is kept minimum
C. vehicle mass is kept minimum
D. all of these
20. The main function of intake manifold is that it
A. promotes the mixture of air and fuel
B. reduces intake noise
C. cools the intake air to a suitable temperature
D. distributes intake air equally to the cylinders
21. Positive camber is used to compensate for wheels tilting inward due to the weight of the vehicle.
22. In automobiles G.V.W. refers to
A. gross vehicle width
B. gross vehicle weight
C. gross vehicle wheel base
D. gross vehicle wheel track
23. The firing order for an in-line four cylinder I.C. engine is
A. 1-2-3-4 B. 1-3-4-2
C. 1-2-4-3 D. 1-3-2-4
24. In a ventilated disc brake,
A. a duct directs air towards the caliper for cooling while the vehicle is moving
B. caliper is covered with cooling fins
C. disc contains many small holes for optimum cooling performance
D. disc contains radial vanes between its rubbing surfaces for optimum cooling performance
25. The effect of having excess camber is
A. excessive steering alignment torque
B. hard steering
C. too much traction
D. uneven tyre wear
The answers for the above questions is available in the link given below and you will get even more interesting technical questions related to automobile engg...
In an automobile, the engineproduces power and this power is carry to the wheels by use of power train. The first element of this train isclutch. The main function of the clutch is to engage and disengages the engine to the wheel when the driver need or when shifting the gears. Basically clutch may be classified as follow.
Types of Clutches:
These may classified as follow:
According to the method of transmitting torque:
1. Positive clutch (Dog clutch):
In the positive clutch, grooves are cut either into the driving member or into the driven member and some extracted parts are situated into both driving and driven member. When the driver releases clutch pedal then these extracted parts insert into grooves and both driving and driven shaft revolve together. When he push the clutch pedal these extracted parts come out from grooves and the engine shaft revolve itself without revolving transmission shaft.
2. Friction clutch:
In this types of clutches, friction force is used to engage and disengage the clutch. A friction plate is inserted between the driving member and the driven member of clutch. When the driver releases the clutch pedal, the driven member and driving member of clutch, comes in contact with each other. A friction force works between these two parts. So when the driving member revolves, it makes revolve the driven member of clutch and the clutch is in engage position.
This type of clutch is subdivided into four types according to the design of the clutch.
A.) Cone clutch:
It is a friction type of clutch. As the name, this type of clutch consist a cone mounted on the driven member and the shape of the sides of the flywheel is also shaped as the conical. The surfaces of contact are lined with the friction lining. The cone can be engage and disengage form flywheel by the clutch pedal.
B.) Single plate clutch:
In the single plate clutch a flywheel is fixed to the engine shaft and a pressure plate is attached to the gear box shaft. This pressure plate is free to move on the spindle of the shaft. A friction plate is situated between the flywheel and pressure plate. Some springs are inserted into compressed position between these plates. When the clutch pedal releases then the pressure plate exerts a force on the friction plate due to spring action. So clutch is in engage position. When the driver pushes the clutch pedal it due to mechanism it serves as the disengagement of clutch.
C.) Multi-plate clutch:
Multi-plate clutch is same as the single plate clutch but there is two or more clutch plates are inserted between the flywheel and pressure plate. This clutch is compact then single plate clutch for same transmission of torque.
D.) Diaphragm clutch:
This clutch is similar to the single plate clutch except diaphragm spring is used instead of coil springs for exert pressure on the pressure plate . In the coil springs, one big problem occur that these springs do not distribute the spring force uniformly. To eliminate this problem, diaphragm springs are used into clutches. This clutch is known as diaphragm clutch.
3. Hydraulic clutch:
This clutch uses hydraulic fluid to transmit the torque. According to their design, this clutch is subdivided into two types.
A.) Fluid coupling:
It is a hydraulic unit that replaces a clutch in a semi or fully automatic clutch. In this type of clutch there is no mechanical connection between driving member and driven member. A pump impeller is blotted on a driving member and a turbine runner is bolted on the driven member. Both the above unit is enclosed into single housing filled with a liquid. This liquid serve as the torque transmitter form the impeller to the turbine. When the driving member starts rotating then the impeller also rotates and through the liquid outward by centrifugal action. This liquid then enters the turbine runner and exerts a force on the runner blade. This make the runner as well as the driven member rotate. The liquid from the runner then flows back into the pump impeller, thus complete the circuit. It is not possible to disconnect to the driving member to the driven member when the engine is running. So the fluid coupling is not suitable for ordinary gear box. It is used with automatic or semi-automatic gear box.
B.) Hydraulic torque converter:
Hydraulic torque converter is same as the electric transformer. The main purpose of the torque converter is to engage the driving member to driven member and increase the torque of driven member. In the torque converter, an impeller is bolted on the driving member, a turbine is bolted on the driven member and a stationary guide vanes are placed between these two members. This all parts are enclosed into single housing which filled with hydraulic liquid. The impeller rotates with the driven member and it through the liquid outward by centrifugal action. This liquid flowing from the impeller to turbine runner exerts a torque on the stationary guide vanes which change the direction of liquid, thereby making possible the transformation of torque and speed. The difference of torque between impeller and turbine depends upon these stationary guide vanes. The hydraulic torque converter is serve the function of clutch as well as the automatic gear box.
According to the method of engaging force:
1. Spring types clutch:
In this types of clutches, helical or diaphragm springs are used to exert a pressure force on the pressure plate to engage the clutch. These springs are situated between pressure plate and the cover. These springs are inserted into compact position into the clutch. So when it is free to move between these two members, it tends to expand. So it exert a pressure force on the pressure plate thus it brings the clutch in engage position.
2. Centrifugal clutch:
As the name in the centrifugal clutch, centrifugal force is used to engage the clutch. This type of clutch does not require any clutch pedal for operating the clutch. The clutch is operated automatically depending upon engine speed. It consist a weight pivoted on the fix member of clutch. When the engine speed increase the weight fly of due to the centrifugal force, operating the bell crank lever, which press the pressure plate. This makes the clutch engage.
3. Semi-centrifugal clutch:
One big problem occur in centrifugal clutch is that they work sufficient enough at higher speeds but at lower speed they don’t do their work sufficiently. So the need of another type of clutch occurs, which can work at higher speed as well as at lower speed. This type of clutch is known as semi-centrifugal clutch. This type of clutch uses centrifugal force as well as spring force for keeping it in engaged position. The springs are designed to transmit the torque at normal speed, while the centrifugal force assists in torque transmission at higher speeds.
4. Electro-magnetic clutch:
In the electromagnetic clutch electro-magnate is used to exert a pressure force on pressure plate to make the clutch engage. In this type of clutch, the driving plate or the driven plate is attached to the electric coil. When the electricity is provide into these coils then the plate work as the magnate and it attract another plate. So both plates join when the electricity provides and the clutch is in engage position. When the driver cut the electricity, this attraction force disappear, and the clutch is in disengage position.
According to the method of control:
1. Manual clutch:
In this type, clutch is operate manually by the driven when he need or when shifting the gear. This type of clutch uses some mechanical, hydraulical or electrical mechanism to operate the clutch. All friction clutches are include in it.
2. Automatic clutch:
This type of clutch used in modern vehicle. This clutch has self operated mechanism which control the clutch when the vehicle need. Centrifugal clutch, hydraulic torque converter and fluid coupling includes in it. This type of clutch is always used with the automatic transmission box.
Selection of material is an important aspect for manufacturing industries . The quality of product is highly depends upon its material properties. These properties are used to distinguish materials from each other. For Example: A harder material is used to make tools.A ductile material is used to draw wires. So the knowledge of mechanical properties of material is desirable for any mechanical student or for any person belongs to mechanical industries. This post brings top 18 mechanical properties.
Mechanical properties of material:
There are mainly two types of materials. First one is metal and other one is non metals. Metals are classified into two types : Ferrous metals and Non-ferrous metals.
Ferrous metals mainly consist iron with comparatively small addition of other materials. It includes iron and its alloy such as cast iron, steel, HSS etc. Ferrous metals are widely used in mechanical industries for its various advantages.
Nonferrous metals contain little or no iron. It includes aluminum, magnesium, copper, zinc etc.
Most Mechanical properties are associated with metals. These are
The ability of material to withstand load without failure is known as strength. If a material can bear more load, it means it has more strength. Strength of any material mainly depends on type of loading and deformation before fracture. According to loading types, strength can be classified into three types.
a. Tensile strength:
b. Compressive strength:
3. Shear strength:
According to the deformation before fracture, strength can be classified into three types.
a. Elastic strength:
b. Yield strength:
c. Ultimate strength:
If a material has same properties throughout its geometry, known as homogeneous material and the property is known as homogeneity. It is an ideal situation but practically no material is homogeneous.
A material which has same elastic properties along its all loading direction known as isotropic material.
A material which exhibits different elastic properties in different loading direction known as an-isotropic material.
If a material regain its original dimension after removal of load, it is known as elastic material and the property by virtue of which it regains its original shape is known as elasticity.
Every material possess some elasticity. It is measure as the ratio of stress to strain under elastic limit.
The ability of material to undergo some degree of permanent deformation without failure after removal of load is known as plasticity. This property is used for shaping material by metal working. It is mainly depends on temperature and elastic strength of material.
Ductility is a property by virtue of which metal can be drawn into wires. It can also define as a property which permits permanent deformation before fracture under tensile loading. The amount of permanent deformation (measure in percentage elongation) decides either the material is ductile or not.
Percentage elongation = (Final Gauge Length – Original Gauge Length )*100/ Original Gauge Length
If the percentage elongation is greater than 5% in a gauge length 50 mm, the material is ductile and if it less than 5% it is not.
Brittleness is a property by virtue of which, a material will fail under loading without significant change in dimension. Glass and cast iron are well known brittle materials.
The ability of material to resist elastic deformation or deflection during loading, known as stiffness. A material which offers small change in dimension during loading is more stiffer. For example steel is stiffer than aluminum.
The property of a material to resist penetration is known as hardness. It is an ability to resist scratching, abrasion or cutting.
It is also define as an ability to resist fracture under point loading.
Toughness is defined as an ability to withstand with plastic or elastic deformation without failure. It is defined as the amount of energy absorbed before actual fracture.
A property by virtue of which a metal can flatten into thin sheets, known as malleability. It is also define as a property which permits plastic deformation under compression loading.
A property by virtue of which a material can be cut easily.
The ability of metal to dissipate the energy of vibration or cyclic stress is called damping. Cast iron has good damping property, that’s why most of machines body made by cast iron.
The slow and progressive change in dimension of a material under influence of its safe working stress for long time is known as creep. Creep is mainly depend on time and temperature. The maximum amount of stress under which a material withstand during infinite time is known as creep strength.
The amount of energy absorb under elastic limit during loading is called resilience. The maximum amount of the energy absorb under elastic limit is called proof resilience.
#17. Fatigue Strength:
The failure of a work piece under cyclic load or repeated load below its ultimate limit is known as fatigue. The maximum amount of cyclic load which a work piece can bear for infinite number of cycle is called fatigue strength. Fatigue strength is also depend on work piece shape, geometry, surface finish etc.
The loss of ductility of a metal caused by physical or chemical changes, which make it brittle, is called embrittlement.
Extrusion is a metal forming process in which metal or work piece is forced to flow through a die to reduce its cross section or convert it into desire shape. This process is extensively used in pipes and steel rods manufacturing. The force used to extrude the work piece is compressive in nature. This process is similar to drawing process except drawing process uses tensile stress to extend the metal work piece. The compressive force allows large deformation compare to drawing in single pass. The most common material extruded are plastic and aluminum.
Extrusion is a simple compressive metal forming process. In this process, piston or plunger is used to apply compressive force at work piece. These process can be summarized as follow.
First billet or ingot (metal work piece of standard size) is produced.
This billet is heated in hot extrusion or remains at room temperature and placed into a extrusion press (Extrusion press is like a piston cylinder device in which metal is placed in cylinder and pushed by a piston. The upper portion of cylinder is fitted with die).
Now a compressive force is applied to this part by a plunger fitted into the press which pushes the billet towards die.
The die is small opening of required cross section. This high compressive force allow the work metal to flow through die and convert into desire shape.
Now the extruded part remove from press and is heat treated for better mechanical properties.
This is basic working of extrusion process.
Types of Extrusion:
Extrusion process can be classified into following types.
According to the direction of flow of metal
In this type of extrusion process, metal is forced to flow in the direction of feed of punch. The punch moves toward die during extrusion. This process required higher force due to higher friction between billet and container.
In this process, metal is flow toward opposite direction of plunger movement. The die is fitted at opposite side of punch movement. In this process, the metal is allowed to flow through annular space between punch and container.
This process uses fluid to apply pressure on billet. In this process, the friction is eliminated because the billet is neither contact with cylinder wall or plunger. There is a fluid between the billet and plunger. The plunger applies force on fluid which further applied on billet. Normally vegetable oils are used as fluid.This process accomplished by leakage problem and uncontrolled speed of extrusion.
According to the working temperature
If the extrusion process takes place above recrystallization temperature which is about 50-60% of its melting temperature, the process is known as hot extrusion.
Low force required compare to cold working.
Easy to work in hot form.
The product is free from stain hardening.
Low surface finish due to scale formation on extruded part.
Increase die wear.
High maintenance required.
If the extrusion process takes place below crystallization temperature or room temperature, the process is known as cold extrusion. Aluminum cans, cylinder, collapsible tubes etc. are example of this process.
High mechanical properties.
High surface finish
No oxidation at metal surface.
High force required.
Product is accomplished with strain hardening.
Extrusion is widely used in production of tubes and hollow pipes.
Aluminum extrusion is used in structure work in many industries.
This process is used to produce frames, doors, window etc. in automotive industries.
Extrusion is widely used to produce plastic objects.
Advantages and Disadvantages:
High extrusion ratio (It is the ratio of billet cross section area to extruded part cross section area).
It can easily create complex cross section.
This working can be done with both brittle and ductile materials.
High mechanical properties can achieved by cold extrusion.
High initial or setup cost.
High compressive force required.
Types of Nozzle in IC Engine : Pintle Nozzle, Single Hole Nozzle, Multihole Nozzle, Pintaux Nozzle
Nozzle is that part of an injector through which the liquid fuel is sprayed into the combustion chamber. It is used in Diesel engine in which fuel is drawn separately through injector at end of compression stroke and air is drawn into cylinder in suction stroke. The nozzle used in IC engine should follow following functions.
It should automizate fuel. This is a very important function since it is the first phase in obtaining proper mixing of the fuel and air in the combustion chamber.
Distribute the fuel in require area within the combustion chamber.
To prevent fuel from impinging directly on the walls of combustion chamber or piston. This is necessary because fuel striking the walls decomposes and produces carbon deposits. This causes smoky exhaust as well as increase in fuel consumption.
To mix the fuel with air in case of non-turbulent type of combustion chamber.
Types of Nozzle in IC Engine:
The design of nozzle must be such that the liquid fuel forced through the nozzle will broke up into fine droplets, or atomize, as it passes into the combustion chamber. This is the first phase in obtaining proper mixing of the fuel and air in the combustion chamber. Various types of nozzles are used in IC engines. These types are as follow.
The Pintle Nozzle:
In this type of nozzle the stem of nozzle valve is extended to from a pin or Pintle which protrudes through the mouth of the nozzle. The size and shape of the Pintle can be varied according to the requirement. It provides a spray operating at low injection pressures of 8-10MPa. The spray cone angle is generally 60 degree. The main advantage of this nozzle is that it avoids weak injection and dribbling. It prevents the carbon deposition on the nozzle hole.
The Single Hole Nozzle:
In this type of nozzle at the center of the body there is a single hole which is closed by the nozzle valve. The size of the hole is usually of the order of 0.2 mm. Injection pressure is of order of 8-10MPa and spray cone angle is about 15 degree. One of the major disadvantages of this nozzle is that they tends to drible. Besides, their spray angle it too narrow to facilitate good mixing unless higher velocities are used.
The Multi Hole Nozzle:
This nozzle consists of a number of holes bored in the tip of the nozzle. The number of holes varies from 4 to 18 and the size from 35 to 200 micro meters. The hole angle may be from 20 degree upwards. These nozzles operate at high injection pressure of the order of 18 MPa. Their advantage lies in the ability to distribute the fuel properly even with lower air motion available in open combustion chambers.
This type of nozzle is a type of Pintle nozzle which has an auxiliary hole drilled in the nozzle body. It injects a small amount of fuel through this additional hole which is called pilot injection in upstream direction slightly before the main injection. The needle valve does not lift fully at low speeds and most of the fuel is injected through the auxiliary hole. The main advantage of this nozzle is better cold starting performance. A major drawback of this nozzle is that its injection characteristics are poorer than the multihole nozzle.