In the some gasoline engines port fuel injection systems are used. This technique has achieved a high development point. As these engines operate with stoichiometric mixture, fuel economy and emissions of these engines cannot be improved further. However, GDI engines have been popular since these engines have potential for reduction of toxic, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption to comply with stringent environmental protection standards. To attain this potential, it is required that use of the GDI engines with supercharging and/or turbo charging.
The primary drawback of direct injection engines is theirs cost. Direct injection systems are more expensive because their components must be well-made. In these engines, high-pressure fuel injection system and exhaust gas treatment components are required. The cost of the GDI engines is high at the present day, but GDI engines with turbocharger that have more fuel economy are expected to be cheaper than diesel or hybrid engines in future.
In GDI engine, as the spark plugs operate under high temperature, the fouling of them can cause the misfiring. To increase the life-time of the spark plug and engine efficiency, the system such as laser-induced ignition can be applied. Thus, engine efficiency can be more increased. The GDI engines are very suitable for the operating with alternative fuel. The studies on GDI engine with alternative fuel such as natural gas, ethanol, and LPG have continually increasing at present day. If GDI engines with turbo charger use spray guided combustion process which has piezoelectric injector and high energy ignition system, the use of these engines are expected to increase more in short term.