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Mechanical Engineering

Younis Alshaery

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  1. Basic Cycle The Rankine cycle is the fundamental operating cycle of all power plants where an operating fluid is continuously evaporated and condensed. The selection of operating fluid depends mainly on the available temperature range. 1-2-3 Isobaric Heat Transfer. High pressure liquid enters the boiler from the feed pump (1) and is heated to the saturation temperature (2). Further addition of energy causes evaporation of the liquid until it is fully converted to saturated steam (3). 3-4 Isentropic Expansion. The vapor is expanded in the turbine, thus producing work which may be converted to electricity. In practice, the expansion is limited by the temperature of the cooling medium and by the erosion of the turbine blades by liquid entrainment in the vapor stream as the process moves further into the two-phase region. Exit vapor qualities should be greater than 90%. 4-5 Isobaric Heat Rejection. The vapor-liquid mixture leaving the turbine (4) is condensed at low pressure, usually in a surface condenser using cooling water. In well designed and maintained condensers, the pressure of the vapor is well below atmospheric pressure, approaching the saturation pressure of the operating fluid at the cooling water temperature. 5-1 Isentropic Compression. The pressure of the condensate is raised in the feed pump. Because of the low specific volume of liquids, the pump work is relatively small and often neglected in thermodynamic calculations.
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