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Mechanical Engineering

Hetal Patel

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  1. Welding Engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that deals with mechanical,Metallurgical and productions aspects of engineering. Of course it means joining of two material pieces into one piece by using pressure/temperature/ Friction/vibrations etc,. A welding engineer should have sound knowledge in Welding metallurgy(=Physical metallurgy+phase transformations especially solid state phase transformations), Weldment design,Non destructive testing, some electrical aspects, Distortions due to phase transformations, and Safety measures too. Nope, you will not be considered as welding Engineer if you know above things only. You should also posses a certification from AWS (American welding society) that you are a CWE (Certified Welding Engineer), in which they will conduct an exam. And Codes and Standards for welding, no matter how creative you are you need to fallow these standards to design a weld.
  2. Mechanical engineering is a conglomeration of various science disciplines. Some of these sub-disciplines are unique to mechanical engineering while others cross over with other areas of science. In either case, we will touch on five sub-domains of mechanical engineering quickly below: Robotics & Mechatronics: The science of mechatronics is the result of blending electronics and mechanics while robotics leverages mechatronics to create robots and automate manufacturing. Structural Analysis: The discipline of structural analysis focuses on how and why structural objects fail & their respective structural integrity. Mechanics: In its most basic form, mechanics is the study of forces and their effect upon matter. Mechanical engineers will frequently use mechanics to analyze and design various phases of engineering. Drafting & Design: Drafting is the mechanical engineers path to design and create a set of basic instructions for the manufacturing of a part, device, or assembly. Design is the ideation of a product or process that is followed by an illustration, drawing, or computer-generated example (often known as computer-aided design (CAD) or computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) processes). Thermodynamics: In its essence, thermodynamics is the study of energy. As applied to mechanical engineering, thermodynamics will often focus on the use of energy and transformation through a given system. What are Typical Qualities of Mechanical Engineers? - Listening skills: Mechanical engineers work on projects with other professionals, like computer scientists and architects, and must pay attention to details of a project and analyze diverse approaches from others in order to successfully finish the task at hand. - Creativity: Mechanical engineers design and build multi-faceted pieces of machinery and equipment. While some pieces of a project are already designed and vetted, new elements or assembling the entire project may take a great deal of creativity to complete on-time and on-budget. - Math skills: A mechanical engineer will frequently utilize principles of statistics, calculus, statistics, and other math-based disciplines during various stages of analysis, design, and troubleshooting. - Mechanical skills: Engineers will need to thoroughly understand basic engineering concepts and mechanical processes to help solve problems, design new systems, and properly deploy a new product. - Problem-solving skills: Lastly, a mechanical engineer will need to harness their knowledge to achieve a higher-order set of problem-solving skills in order to successfully master their respective trade. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations for Mechanical Engineers Although licensure is not needed for entry-level mechanical engineer positions, professional mechanical engineers will need to earn a PE license. A Professional Engineering (PE) license allows for advanced levels of independence and leadership for a mechanical engineer within an organization. Once a mechanical engineer obtains a PE license, he/she can supervise other engineers, endorse projects, and offer services to the public. State licensure will requires a mechanical engineer to: - Obtain an ABET-accredited engineering degree - Receive a passing score on the Fundamentals of Engineering examination - Obtain at least 4 years of relevant work experience in the field - Successfully pass the Professional Engineering (PE) exam Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations for Mechanical Engineers Although licensure is not needed for entry-level mechanical engineer positions, professional mechanical engineers will need to earn a PE license. A Professional Engineering (PE) license allows for advanced levels of independence and leadership for a mechanical engineer within an organization. Once a mechanical engineer obtains a PE license, he/she can supervise other engineers, endorse projects, and offer services to the public. State licensure will requires a mechanical engineer to: - Obtain an ABET-accredited engineering degree - Receive a passing score on the Fundamentals of Engineering examination - Obtain at least 4 years of relevant work experience in the field - Successfully pass the Professional Engineering (PE) exam
  3. List of Books for CAD/CAM- CAD/CAM : Theory and Practice: Special Indian Edition by McGraw Hill Education CAD/CAM by Pearson Education Here I shared with two books for you, see if you wanted to study about this subject practically then do attend all labs, then I am sure you will get best out of it. And this is one of the scoring subject in mechanical engineering, just you need to focus from beginning and of course start preparation from syllabus because different university having different plan.
  4. First of all, since you are a mechanical engineer, i assume that when you joined college, you did not want to join an IT company. But since most of placement happens in IT, you jumped on the bandwagon and accepted their offer for lure of money, independence and brand name of Infosys.(Correct me in the comments if i am wrong).Training(as a Mech Engineer) With that assumption, i state that your branch of engineering is mostly irrelevant when you join Infosys. Many mechanical engineers, civil engineers join the company as freshers. Heads Up, it would be nice if you join some course before hand incase you are completely out of touch with programming after 4 years in Mech. The training will be intense and multiple technologies will be introduced. The key thing in clearing the Training is LEARNABILITY. If you have the aptitude, it should not be a problem.Job: Infosys doesn't have a power/construction/Machinery subsidiary. So, your job FOR CERTAIN will be in front of a desktop completely. The nature of your project depends on where the company feels it needs to push in more employees at the moment. It could be Java, banking(Finacle), Mainframe, Mobilities etc. Far way from any kind of Mechanical project. Infosys has big clients like Harley toyota who have core business in mechanical but as an Infoscion your job will be handling, supporting, developing, integrating IT division of such companies, making sure these clients do not face any hassles in runnings their IT operations
  5. Autocad - Ideal for 2D drafting The basic software for any mechanical engineer, If you learn this it’ll definitely help you. And do learn how to read the drawings in a sheet? It is good for your professional life. Solidworks For solid modelling and Moulding design. It is user-friendly. So, easy to learn and anyone can become a pro in it. Some startups and small scale industries using it widely for its low cost. CATIA For designing the wide range of sheet metal products, volume or surface modelling, sheet processing, assembly drawings, tool making, piping design, cast, forging, hydraulic and pneumatic design. Most of the aerodynamic related products are designed using CATIA. It's a comprehensive tool for the generation of 3D parts of all kinds. Aircraft and Auto part companies are utilising it widely. ProE It's 3D CAD/CAM/CAE feature-based product. Design, Simulations analyses, engineering calculations and documentation can be done by this. Specific for surface design kinda work.
  6. US universities has a very good career fair and really good job opportunities. Doing an intern-ship or co-op during the masters will really help a lot in landing a good job for Mechanical Engineers. One tip to get hired is to get an appointment with university job - consultant services, they will help you find or even guide to opportunities that best fit your need. (Help you improve your current resume.) They will also help you discover your high skills and improve others you require. Networking is another key, try to get along with people and get in touch with their contacts. Social media profiles especially Linkdin should be updated regularly and right with your terms and goals. You could look to get recommendation from your professors and department heads and also ask them for opinion with best job opportunities which has wide scope, they are always happy to help and one of the best source to get information. Opportunities are many but its always how you grasp them makes the cut for a high paying job! You maybe investing a fortune for your degree so you should also look to make a fortune out of it. The average salary for a Mechanical Engineer is $78,479 per year in the United States. Salary estimates are based on 34,614 salaries submitted anonymously to Indeed by Mechanical Engineer employees, users, and collected from past and present job advertisements on Indeed in the past 36 months. The typical tenure for a Mechanical Engineer is less than 1 year.
  7. As it a mechanical related forums so I will advice mechanical related books You are in Pre-Final Semester that means you have less than 6 months to prepare for gate(Usually GATE exam occurs in March month).In my opinion, you should be at least very strong in basic common important subjects for GATE.Here I'll provide the subject with the books Author name.1. Thermodynamics(P.K. Nag)2. Machine Elemnts (V.B. Bhandari) 3. Fluid Mechanics 4.Material Science(O.P. Khanna)5. Automobile (Kripal Singh)6. Strength of Material (R.K. Rajput)7. Dynamics of Machine8.IC Engine (V. Ganeshan)9. Engineering Mathematics\10. Quatitative Apptitude(R.S. Aggrawal)
  8. A sandwich course is one which takes one more year than the usual course. In engineering, sandwich courses often have 5 years of course of study. The syllabus between the regular and the sandwich program differs basically in the added component-Industrial training. Sandwich students undergo 10 semesters of rigorous industrial training in an industry mostly which is part of the college, if not an outside one. Morning sessions will start by around 9:30 AM at the industry which is till lunch. Usual classes start only in the afternoon, say after 2:30 PM and will go on till late dusk. Mechanical sandwich is the course which deals with the industrial-mechanical concept based learnings. These, for instance, include the basic outline to an industry's working, introduction to the components being manufactured in the industry, the manufacturing processes, the testing and QC facilities and so on. Students also get exposed to the industry well before joining one, thus making them ready for the engineering world outside. The best aspect about the sandwich program is the compulsory internship which is their 7th semester, which usually is for 3 months. This sets them apart because not all regular students go for internships, but even if they do, the learning will not be the same in all cases due to less industrial exposure. Despite all these differences, everything else like college participation, placements, co curricular activities etc., is the same. Still, I've heard our greatest HOD of all time mention about how sandwich students waste their time in the name of industrial learning daily in the mornings. I have nothing to add to that! P.S : Everything said above is with reference to PSG Tech's program. Since I just graduated with a Bachelor's in Mechanical Engineering(regular), I was able to give my views from my perspective. Hope this helps.
  9. The broadly there are two type of engines viz. petrol engine (SI Spark Ignition) and diesel engine (CI Compression Ignition).Petrol has higher ignition temperature and diesel has lower. Hence petrol uses Spark plug and diesel doesn't. Technically, to increase the thermal efficiency and volumetric efficiency, turbo charger is used. The turbo charger include two main parts, compressor and turbine. It is fitted before before the intake manifold. Atmospheric air enters into the compressor. It's temperature and pressure increases and then it enters into intake manifold and then combustion chamber.The turbocharger is powered either by kinetic energy of exhaust gases or by electric motor. The image shows the power stroke and exhaust stroke.
  10. Deformations Soft materials will deform when under pressure. This also increased the resistance to motion. For example, when you stand on a rug, you sink in slightly, which causes resistance when you try to drag your feet along the rug's surface. Another example is how rubber tires flatten out at the area on contact with the road. When materials deform, you must "plow" through to move, thus creating a resistive force. When the deformation becomes large, such that one object sinks into the other, streamlining can affect the friction, similar to what happens in fluid friction
  11. Lean Manufacturing is a term that has been around now for many years, originally spawned within the MIT study that led to the book “The Machine That Changed the World ” by Womack and Jones in 1990. However if you search through the many publications and web sites looking for a lean manufacturing definition you will find a myriad of differing definitions for Lean, partly because lean is a continuously developing philosophy and because it’s application is different for each and every company. Lean has had a number of names over the years, developed primarily from the Toyota Production System (TPS) it has been called World Class Manufacturing (WCM), Continuous Flow Manufacturing, and Stock-less production to name a few. Today you will even here Lean Sigma and Agile Manufacturing. Although developed mainly within manufacturing, Lean is equally applicable within your office based administrative functions or within service industries such as healthcare where it is seeing a huge amount of attention. The term Lean in my mind is an unfortunate one, in many people it brings to mind not a fit capable organization but a thin, anorexic one that will break when pressure is applied. A fear that has been well founded when piecemeal and ill planned applications of Lean have failed. Benefits of lean manufacturing – short/long term benefits and challenges explained Before investing in any major project, you need to compare the potential benefits to the costs. Lean manufacturing is no different. You need to consider whether or not the benefits of lean will outweigh the costs incurred to implement. And understanding these differences will help you determine whether or not lean is right for your company.
  12. the purpose of all the firing order used in different engine is same that is smooth engine operation, with less vibration and high power output. The firing order of 2, 3, 4 and 6 cylinder in tabular form are given below: S.no Number of cylinder Firing Order 1. 2 1-2 2. 3 1-2-3, 1-3-2 3. 4 1-3-4-2 1-2-4-3 1-3-2-4 1-4-3-2 4. 6 1-5-3-6-2-4 1-4-3-6-2-5 1-6-5-4-3-2 1-2-3-4-5-6 1-4-2-5-3-6 1-4-5-2-3-6 1-6-3-2-5-4 1-6-2-4-3-5 1-6-2-5-3-4 1-4-2-6-3-5
  13. Reverse engineering is basically a hack. In the essence of it, one simply tries to decipher the engineering that went into making a visible product/entity. This practice is quite prominent in today’s industries. It is a top to bottom approach where you try to figure out the sequence of bottom to top. For example, if I am Samsung, and I want to figure out how did Appleincorporate a finger print sensor in their latest iPhone, then I could figure it out all by myself OR buy an iphone, dissect it, and then by observation, introduce this placement of sensor and the design on my latest flagship.
  14. You can do many things after your Mechanical Engineering graduation. But the path you need to choose depends on you. You can have many opportunities as compared to other branches after completion of graduation. You can apply for job in any company or apply as a trainee. You can go for GATE coaching to get job in PSUs or post graduation. You can do MBA You can do any courses such as HVAC, QC etc You can also do MS in foreign countries You can go try UPSC exams As a Mechanical Engineer you can even work on IT companies. From my experience if you are determined you can easily find a job after completion of the graduation. For the first few years,it will be really difficult for us. But experience matters a lot. Try to get into a small company and learn all the basic things which a mechanical engineer should know. If you have experience and good knowledge you don’t need to look back.
  15. Types of allowances: Shrinkage Allowance Machining Allowance Draft Allowance Shake Allowance Distortion Allowance The explanation of above types of allowances are as follows.. 1.Shrinkage Allowance: During cooling of the material in Casting process,in all the Three stages,the material is getting shrinking(reducing its dimensions or volume).But ,shrinkage allowance taking place in 1st two stages is called as Liquid Shrinkage. Shrinkage in 3rd -stage is called as Solid shrinkage. Liquid shrinkages are always compensated by providing a riser in casting process. Liquid shrinkages are always specified as “% by Volume”. Out of different metals casted in the industry, “Aluminum(Al) ” is having highest liquid shrinkage which is about 6%. Solid shrinkage is specified as (Percentage/Dimensions). Solid shrinkage is influenced by four factors. 2.Machining Allowance: The extra dimension provided on the casting and it will be removed by machining after the casting has been completed is called as Machining Allowance. Detailed explanation of Machining allowance is as follows. 3.Draft Allowance: Making the vertical surfaces of the pattern into inclined surfaces is called as Draft Allowance. 4.Shake Allowance: To maintain the required size of the casting,the original size of the pattern has to be reduced by an amount called as Shake Allowance. 5.Distortion Allowance: To get the vertical legs of U shaped[Distortion Allowance complete].the original pattern has to be bend inverse so that during solidification,the legs are bending outwards and becoming vertical legs.The amount by which the legs are bending Inverse is called as Distortion or Bending allowance.
  16. Concept of heating is just simple with respect to welding. Majorly Pre or post heating in welding is to relieve stresses which are used to developed during welding. Pre heating: Power saving - by pre heating, heat gradient can be reduced and so to control heat generation, low heat input can be given and so process characteristics can be reduced accordingly Reduction in internal residual stresses - the stresses will are already inside the material can reduce the strength of the weld, to avoid that, pre treatment can be used Post heating: Post heating or annealing or normalizing is done mainly to reduce the thermal stresses developed during welding To relieve Hydrogen embrittlement in which Hydrogen has entrapped during welding from moisture or the filler material
  17. In product companies, design engineers are generally the owners of the parts or assemblies they design. So it is mandatory for designers to know each and everything related to that part or assembly. From how it's manufactured To how that part contributes to the performance of the final product . So if a designer is tasked with say the Cooling system of the engine in a vehicle. They should know the thermodynamics ( heat transfer), fluid mechanics concerned with design and also know to make drawings, working and structural assemblies knowing the manufacturable processes and how each and every detail affects the life and performance of the cooling system. Keeping in mind the interface ( how it interacts with peripheral systems) so that there no issues. Design engineers are the knowledge banks in the organization. Hence they need to be on top of their game to command respect and create first time right design. You choose your bearing based on your engineering calculation. Unless of course, you are working in SKF, NTN or other bearing manufacturers.
  18. When fuel is injected into combustion chamber, the droplets of fuel takes heat from surrounding air and vaporizes. Then it's temperature goes on increasing till it reaches to auto ignition temperature and then combustion starts. This whole process requires some time (fraction of second) and it is known as IGNITION DELAY OR DELAY PERIOD. Ideally, as injrction starts, ignition should take place simultaneously. That is , ignition delay should be as small as possible. Suppose auto ignition temperature of fuel is more then there will be more ignition delay period. This means that after injection start, the fuel will droplets will accumulate in combustion chamber. And after auto ignition temperature reaches, this accumulated fuel burns promptly. In fact it explodes. This is cause of knocking in CI Engine. There are several factors which affects knocking such as A/F ratio, compression ratio, auto ignition temperature, engine speed, inlet temperature, intake pressure etc. It is very difficult to differentiate between normal engine running and knocking in case of CI Engine.
  19. What does a production engineer do? It’s all about products and processes! Production engineers are responsible for devising exactly how something is going to be made, what machines are going to make it and how it can be made as efficiently and as safely as possible. These products can be anything from newspapers and plastic bottles to tin cans and iPods. Alternatively, you could even be working to facilitate the transfer of hydrocarbons from oil into the production process. As long as there’s a production line and a process, you’re likely to find a production engineer close by. If these guys all packed up and went home for a day, we’d struggle to eat or do any work. It all seems so simple – how bananas end up in the local supermarket, or how a laptop ends up in a computer store – but it really isn’t. Behind each product is a complex production line. Dreaming up a design and sending it throughout the land to various shops is one thing, but actually producing something is the tricky bit that falls on the desk of the production engineer. Production engineering from beginning to end The job itself takes much the same form as most other engineering professions. The problem is identified and the research begins. If the request, for instance, is to make the production of bottle tops quicker and cheaper, various options are considered, tested and reviewed until a solution is reached. It’s then all about making a big leap and scaling it up to the real thing. Some products, such as the Coca Cola bottle, will be produced in their millions and millions each year, so the production equipment better be darn good and incredibly efficient! Not only that, if production stops for even an hour, that’s a large amount of bottles that you’re not producing. The pressure can build up easily! How do I get into production engineering? Apprenticeship schemes are very common in this area of engineering, where a salary and work-based training can help you get on the ladder to becoming a production engineer. The most common route, however, is via an engineering degree. Either way, you’ll need a whole lot of training to become a production engineer, especially given the complexities of what you will be working on. Where do production engineers work? Well, it all depends on the type of production you’re involved with really. If oil or gas is your thing, then you’ll be working for one of the big energy companies, helping them to improve their processes and making things even more cost-efficient. If you’re working in the exciting world of fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG), you could be on the production line in a factory, working for one of the major supermarkets. You’ll be advising the company on how this piece of machinery can package three more apples in that box or save £50 a shipment. Essentially, your job will be to answer the question: “how can this be produced in a better way?” If you think you can come up with the goods, and your head’s a conveyor belt bringing one innovative idea after another, there may well be a role in production engineering for you.
  20. Autocad - Ideal for 2D drafting[1] The basic software for any mechanical engineer, If you learn this it’ll definitely help you. And do learn how to read the drawings in a sheet? It is good for your professional life. Solidworks For solid modelling and Moulding design. It is user-friendly. So, easy to learn and anyone can become a pro in it. Some startups and small scale industries using it widely for its low cost. CATIA For designing the wide range of sheet metal products, volume or surface modelling, sheet processing, assembly drawings, tool making, piping design, cast, forging, hydraulic and pneumatic design. Most of the aerodynamic related products are designed using CATIA. It's a comprehensive tool for the generation of 3D parts of all kinds. Aircraft and Auto part companies are utilising it widely. ProE It's 3D CAD/CAM/CAE feature-based product. Design, Simulations analyses, engineering calculations and documentation can be done by this. Specific for surface design kinda work. There are many software's which are widely used in industry for different purpose :- Siemens NX CATIA SOLIDWORKS CREO INVENTOR AUTOCAD (Generally used for 2D) Alias,maya(these are used for concept designing & surface design) Alias is used world wide used for concept designing even Ferrari uses it. Now coming to design engineer. Every design engineer uses all these software. Coming to automobile & aerospace industry Every OEM'S uses these 2 high-end software like NX & CATIA. NX has its speciality in Mould designing because its mold wizard module has more option that you can easily design any component Mould with some of the click. CATIA has more option in surface module so every aerospace industry uses it. According to my experience I recommend you to learn NX ,CATIA. You will get many job on these two software but learning these software won't help because company expect more from candidate. So apart from learning these software clear your basic concept about engineering drawing, learn GD&T , DFM etc.
  21. Diesel engines don't require any spark plug because the required heat to ignite the fuel is generated due to compression of air. ... It is used in petrol enginebecause the SI engine intakes a mixture of both fuel and air during its suction stroke.
  22. Diesels are generally more fuel efficient than gasoline spark ignition engines in large part because they have a higher compression/expansion ratio extracting moreof the heat energy from the burned gases before wasting the rest to the exhaust. Considering fuel , The diesel fuel is denser than petrol fuel ie for one liter of Diesel weighs more than one liter of petrol . So diesel will have higher energy density ( diesel =36.9 MJ/liter petrol = 33.7 MJ/liter ). So diesel almost has 20 % more energy than petrol in a liter of fuel. Diesel engine work at lower RPM hence the frictional losses will be minimum.
  23. The generator/motor is one of three key elements in a flywheel energy storage(FES) system, The objective of the flywheel system is the store and supply power in spacecraft applications and vehicles. Where a high speed brushless DC motor is chose. In high speed motor, the iron loss increases along with the alternant frequency of the magnetic field in the iron. A calculation model of iron losses of rotational permanentmotor is proposed, considering the influence of the rotation. The 2D time step finite element has been used for calculating a 20,000 r/min high speed permanent brushless DC motor, the loss density of deferent positions is proposed. Finally, the experimental measured value is compared with the computered one. The results prove the model is valid, which is the base of deeply optimization design forminishing the loss.
  24. Scooters do have gears but unlike in bikes, we cant change the gear ratios (like we do in motorcycles). As we can’t change the Gear Ratios we cant increase the torque, we must simply bear with the torque which the engine provides. ie, in a scooter, we are always running at maximum torque. Unlike in motorcycles, scooter gearbox consists of a x’mas tree like gyro set. There will be automatic gear shift when we throttle up the scooter. That is, there will be a CVT. (Continously Variable Transmission) where the clutch engages and disengages automatically.
  25. First of all, we use first angle and third angle projection because it is assumed that the Horizontal plane is rotated CLOCKWISE to bring them in the same plane (for drawing purpose) and if we use second or fourth angle projection , then the Horizontal and vertical views will overlap , creating confusions in their ... Firstly,you understand the concept behind the angle projection system. Imagine you have VP and HP(perpendicular to each other),now we have 4 quadrants. For 1st angle projection system, we place object in 1st quadrant, for 2nd angle projection system, we place object in 2nd quadrant and so on. The observation is done from right as indicated in Figure.Once the F.V.(front view) and T.V. (top view) are obtained, to draw it in 2d we have to bring F.V. and T.V. into V.P. plane. The rule for this is we move the view in H.P. in clockwise direction. Now answer to your question. In 2nd angle projection system, object is in 2nd quadrant.The plane is in between object and observer. F.V. is in V.P. and T.V. is in H.P. towards 2nd quadrant.Then we rotate the view in H.P. clockwise and observe it from right. The F.V. and T.V. will overlap.So it is not wise to use it. Same will be the case for 4th angle projection system, you try it the same way you will get that views will overlap.
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