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Mechanical Engineering

Osama Khayal

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About Osama Khayal

  • Rank
  • Birthday 01/01/1966

Profile Information

  • Gender
  • Location
    Atbara, Sudan
  • Interests
    Teaching subjects like thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, mechanics of materials, heat and mass transfer, thermal power plants, instrumentation, control engineering ...etc. in mechanical, civil and production departments
  • Present Company
    Nile Valley University
  • Designation / Job Title
    professor associate
  • Highest Qualification
    doctorate of mechanical engineering in mechanics of materials
  • Year of completition
  • Engineering Qualification
    master of engineering in mechanical engineering
  • Year of completition
  • Name of Institute
    Nile Valley University

More Information

  • Project Undertaken
    nonlinear analysis of rectangular laminated composite plates
  • Achievement /recognition/ Certifications
    Authored many research papers and books in international institutions

Recent Profile Visitors

111 profile views
  1. The production of biogas from anaerobic digestion (AD) is widely used by modern society for the treatment of livestock manure and slurries. The aim is to produce renewable energy and to improve their fertilizer quality. In countries with significant agricultural production, the strengthening of environmental legislation and regulation of manure and vegetable wastes recycling increased the interest for AD as a cheap and environmental friendly solution. Latest developments in Europe, USA and other parts of the world have shown increasing interest among farmers to cultivate energy crops, used as feedstock for biogas production. AD is today standard technology for stabilization of primary and secondary sewage sludge, for treatment of organic industrial waste from food- processing and fermentation industries as well as for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. A special application is biogas recovery from existing landfills. MAIN TYPES AND APPLICATIONS OF BIOGAS PLANTS.pdf
  2. The benefits and advantages of an evaporative cooler, also known as swamp cooler, air cooler, or desert cooler include inexpensive price and lower energy consumption, as well as easier and inexpensive installation and maintenance, when compared to traditional air conditioners; and suitability for use in dry and arid climates, especially during hot and dry weather conditions. On the other hand, the disadvantages of an evaporative cooler center primarily on the negative impacts of too much humidification. These disadvantages translate further to more specific limitations and drawbacks. For example, using an evaporative cooler for prolonged period of time or under a hot and humid weather increase health-related risks such as respiratory distress, as well as the susceptibility of wood-based, paper-based, and electronic products. Evaporative cooling has both advantages and disadvantages, and the choice rests with the individual homeowner. Therefore, the consumers should investigate all the alternatives and then make the right decision based on technical specifications, cost preference, lifestyle and individual priorities. USES , ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF EVAPORATIVE COOLERS.pdf
  3. Biogas systems turn the cost of waste management into a revenue opportunity for farms, dairies, and industries. Converting waste into electricity, heat, or vehicle fuel provides a renewable source of energy that can reduce dependence on foreign oil imports, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve environmental quality, and increase local jobs. Biogas systems also provide an opportunity to recycle nutrients in the food supply, reducing the need for both petrochemical and mined fertilizers. The present paper gives a complete idea on the prospective technology for the production of clean energy in the form of biogas. Biogas is green and a sustainable energy consisting of methane to a great extent along with other gases. Global warming and greenhouse effect are caused due to the harmful gases which are released into the atmosphere. Emission from automobiles and industries are one of the causes of global warming. Along with global warming the excessive use of fossil fuels shifts the balance of supply of fuels. So in order to save fossil fuels for our future generations alternative fuels play an important role in replacing the fossil fuels. The present paper gives an idea of the history of biogas and their advantages and disadvantages. ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF BIOGAS TECHNOLOGIES.pdf
  4. Fracture is a problem that society has faced for as long as there have been man-made structures. The problem may actually be worse today than in previous centuries, because more can go wrong in our complex technological society. Major airline crashes, for instance, would not be possible without modern aerospace technology. Fortunately, advances in the field of fracture mechanics have helped to offset some of the potential dangers posed by increasing technological complexity. Our understanding of how materials fail and our ability to prevent such failures have increased considerably since World War II. Much remains to be learned, however, and existing knowledge of fracture mechanics is not always applied when appropriate. While catastrophic failures provide income for attorneys and consulting engineers, such events are detrimental to the economy as a whole. An economic study [1] and [2] estimated the annual cost of fracture in the U.S. in 1978 at $119 billion which was about 4% of the gross national product. Furthermore, this study estimated that the annual cost could be reduced by $35 billion if current technology were applied, and that further fracture mechanics research could reduce this figure by an additional $28 billion. This research paper will introduce several important means of understanding and dealing with fracture in stressed materials. FUNDAMENTALS OF FRACTURE MECHANICS.pdf
  5. Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains. The complete theory began with the consideration of the behavior of one and two dimensional members of structures, whose states of stress can be approximated as two dimensional, and was then generalized to three dimensions to develop a more complete theory of the elastic and plastic behavior of materials. An important founding pioneer in mechanics of materials was Stephen Timoshenko. The study of strength of materials often refers to various methods of calculating the stresses and strains in structural members, such as beams, columns, and shafts. The methods employed to predict the response of a structure under loading and its susceptibility to various failure modes takes into account the properties of the materials such as its yield strength, ultimate strength, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio; in addition the mechanical element's macroscopic properties (geometric properties), such as its length, width, thickness, boundary constraints and abrupt changes in geometry such as holes are considered. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ON MECHANICS OF MATERIALS.pdf
  6. This research article introduces basic concepts of stiffness and strength underlying the mechanics of fiber reinforced advanced composite materials. This aspect of composite materials technology is sometimes termed as micromechanics, because it deals with the relations between macroscopic engineering properties and the microscopic distribution of the material constituents, namely the volume fraction of fiber. This research paper will deal primarily with unidirectional reinforced continuous fiber composites, and with properties measured along and transverse to the fiber direction. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES.pdf
  7. The method of dynamic relaxation in its early stages of development was perceived as a numerical finite difference technique. It was first used to analyze structures, then skeletal and cable structures, and plates. The method relies on a discretized continuum in which the mass of the structure is assumed to be concentrated at given points (i.e. nodes) on the surface. The system of concentrated masses oscillates about the equilibrium position under the influence of out of balance forces. With time, it comes to rest under the influence of damping. The iterative scheme reflects a process, in which static equilibrium of the system is achieved by simulating a pseudo dynamic process in time. In its original form, the method makes use of inertia term, damping term and time increment. The basics of this research paper stand on the ordinary and partial differential equations, which value the price of an option by using dynamic relaxation (DR) techniques. The study of partial differential equations in complete generality is a vast undertaking. As almost all of them are not possible to solve analytically we must rely on numerical methods, and the most popular ones are the finite differences methods coupled with dynamic relaxation techniques. With this research paper i do not intend to become an expert in few hours in order to solve differential equations numerically, but develop both intuition and technical strength required to survive when such a problem needs to be solved. UTILIZATION OF DYNAMIC RELAXATION METHOD IN SOLVING ORDINARY AND PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.pdf
  8. The vehicle is one of the most common machines in use today, and it is no exaggeration to state that it is crucial to the economic success of all the developing and developed nations of the world and to the quality of life of their citizens. The vehicle itself consists of thousands of component parts, many of which rely on the interaction of their surfaces to function. There are many hundreds of tribological components, from bearings, pistons, transmissions, clutches, gears, to wiper blades, tires, and electrical contacts. The application of tribological principles is essential for the reliability of the vehicle, and mass production of the vehicle has led to enormous advances in the field of tribology. For example, many of the developments in lubrication and bearing surface technology have been driven by requirements for increased capacity and durability in the vehicle industry. For the purpose of classifying the tribological components, one can divide the motor vehicle into engine, transmission, drive line, and ancillaries such as tires, brakes, and windshield wipers. In the following sections, each automotive component is discussed in detail. Lubricants used with these automotive tribological components are described in the last section of this study. ESSENTIALS OF VEHICLE TRIBOLOGY.pdf
  9. This research study has been done in Aljabalein Power Plant at White Nile State. The objective of the study is to compare and differentiate between two types of fuel, light fuel oil (LFO) and crude oil (CRO) used in power plant situated in Aljabalein site. The comparison has been done on different viewpoints including the impact of exhaust gases on the surrounding environment, the performance of engines at different loads, and the operation and maintenance costs. It is found that CRO fuel oil is preferred to LFO fuel due to less operation costs. But it has many disadvantages such as high pollution rates and high consumption of spare parts. Technical and Environmental Study on Using Light Fuel Oil and Crude Oil in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE).pdf
  10. The article presents a brief outline of the history of Bajaj rickshaw vehicles industry. Vehicle design, the incorrect usage of petrol and lubricating oil mixture, safety risks in riding rickshaw, and environmental impact were integral activities. Almost all of the engine designers mentioned in the article also were automobile designers, and a few went on to become major manufacturers of automobiles. All of these inventors and more made notable improvements in the evolution of the Bajaj rickshaw vehicles. Literature Review on The History of Bajaj Rickshaw Vehicles.pdf
  11. The article presents a brief outline of the history of Bajaj rickshaw vehicles industry. Vehicle design, the incorrect usage of petrol and lubricating oil mixture, safety risks in riding rickshaw, and environmental impact were integral activities. Almost all of the engine designers mentioned in the article also were automobile designers, and a few went on to become major manufacturers of automobiles. All of these inventors and more made notable improvements in the evolution of the Bajaj rickshaw vehicles. Literature Review on The History of Bajaj Rickshaw Vehicles.pdf
  12. In recent years sugar cane industry had been faced with challenges that are mainly manifested in utilization of its by-products such as bagasse and molasses, and the growing concern for the environment that makes the governments to orient its policies and efforts towards the product of fuel that is chemically extracted through fermentation and distillation. The research paper is directed to serve the economy through feasibility study to establish ethanol fuel plant to improve the profits of the sugar industry and alleviate the environmental problems resulting from the use of fossil fuels. The study revealed that a capital of $26,201,660 can be invested in plant that produces 200,000 liter/day of ethanol fuel; the annual gross revenue without considering taxes is estimated to be $11,133,000 with payback period of 3.67 years. The economic indicators are feasible showing that internal rate of return is 22.55%. technical and economic feasibility study of establishing ethanol fuel plant in Kenana sugar company.pdf
  13. Curriculum Vitae of doctor engineer Osama Mohammed Elmardi Suleiman Khayal

    C.V. of Dr. Osama Mohammed Elmardi.pdf

  14. The sand mold tooling development comprises; determining the parting line, designing and making the patterns, cores, and cores prints, gating system, feeding system, and the flask. This paper is pertinent to the creation of a program called Sand Casting Mold Design (SCMD) which represents part of an expert system used for sand casting mold tooling development. Sand Casting Mold Design (SCMD) Program IJOAEM.docx
  15. The three major steps in developing a new casting product include product design, tooling development and foundry experimentation trials. The sand mold tooling development comprises: determining the parting line; designing and making the patterns, cores, and cores prints, which with proving accounts take nearly 70% of the new casting developing lead-time [1]. This study concerns the creation of an expert system for selection of parting line, design of patterns, cores, and cores prints using AutoCAD 2004 programming language [2] – [13]. An Expert System for Designing Mold Tooling for Sand Casting IJOAEM journal.docx
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