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Mechanical Engineering

Osama Khayal

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About Osama Khayal

  • Rank
  • Birthday 01/01/1966

Profile Information

  • Gender
  • Location
    Atbara, Sudan
  • Interests
    Teaching subjects like thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, mechanics of materials, heat and mass transfer, thermal power plants, instrumentation, control engineering ...etc. in mechanical, civil and production departments
  • Present Company
    Nile Valley University
  • Designation / Job Title
    professor associate
  • Highest Qualification
    doctorate of mechanical engineering in mechanics of materials
  • Year of completition
  • Engineering Qualification
    master of engineering in mechanical engineering
  • Year of completition
  • Name of Institute
    Nile Valley University

More Information

  • Project Undertaken
    nonlinear analysis of rectangular laminated composite plates
  • Achievement /recognition/ Certifications
    Authored many research papers and books in international institutions

Recent Profile Visitors

55 profile views
  1. The effect of several hot pressing parameters on the internal mat environment was investigated by using the mathematical model and the results were compared to data collected experimentally. The different pressing parameters included three initial mat moisture contents (5, 8.5, 12 %), three final panel densities (609, 641, 673 kg/m3 or 38, 40, 42 lb/ft3), two press platen temperatures (150, 200 °C), and three press closing times (40, 60, 80 s). The variation of temperature and total gas pressure during the press cycle at six points in the vertical mid-plane of a single layer, random mat structure was predicted with the heat and mass transfer model using the different pressing conditions. Twenty-four boards were manufactured according to the same specifications, and the temperature and internal gas pressure were measured with thermocouples and gas pressure probes at the same six locations. The model predicted data described the major trends during the hot-compression operation qualitatively. However, further work is needed to make quantitative predictions. A hot-compression model was developed based on fundamental engineering principles. The material physical and transport properties were the best available values from the literature or best estimates based on engineering judgment. A sensitivity study assessed the relative importance of the different transport properties during the hot-compression process. The response of selected variables of the hot-compression model for a perturbation of the parameter values was investigated. The sensitivity analysis of the model parameters revealed that the thermal conductivity and gas permeability of the mat have the greatest influence on model results. The assessment of these transport properties experimentally, as a function of mat structure, is highly desirable and can considerably improve the model predictions. EFFECT OF HOT PRESSING ON THE INTERNAL MAT ENVIRONMENT.pdf
  2. Very little investigation has been carried out to study the performance of flat heat pipes, though researchers recently turned their attention to the same. The results of the literature review on heat pipes indicate the necessity and scope for further theoretical and experimental studies on flat rectangular heat pipes. The present work is an attempt to study the steady state operation of the flat rectangular heat pipes, both theoretically and experimentally. It also aims at the study of the influence of the amount of working medium and wick porosity on the performance of heat pipes. Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Studies on Flat Heat Pipes.pdf
  3. This research study has been done in Aljabalein Power Plant at White Nile State. The objective of the study is to compare and differentiate between two types of fuel, light fuel oil (LFO) and crude oil (CRO) used in power plant situated in Aljabalein site. The comparison have been done on different viewpoints including the impact of exhaust gases on the surrounding environment, the performance of engines at different loads, and the operation and maintenance costs. It is found that CRO fuel oil is preferred to LFO fuel due to less operation costs. But it has many disadvantages such as high pollution rates and high consumption of spare parts. Technical and Environmental Study On Using Light Fuel Oil and Crude Oil in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE).pdf
  4. Chemical engineers are accustomed to software for designing processes and simulation. Simulation systems such as Matlab and Aspen Plus are commonly referenced in chemical engineering curricula as required courseware and study tools. Automation professionals are also becoming used to applying simulation to operator training, system testing, and commissioning of plant process control systems. Plant design simulation programs are substantially different from systems used for training and commissioning. Many of the most common plant design simulation programs are steady state, low-resolution simulations that are not usable for automation or plant life-cycle management. SIMULATION AND DESIGN SOFTWARE SYSTEMS FOR TESTING AND TRAINING PROCESS AUTOMATION PROJECTS.pdf
  5. Hydropower is important from an operational standpoint as it needs no "ramp-up" time, as many combustion technologies do. Hydropower can increase or decrease the amount of power it is supplying to the system almost instantly to meet shifting demand. With this important load-following capability, peaking capacity and voltage stability attributes, hydropower plays a significant part in ensuring reliable electricity service and in meeting customer needs in a market driven industry. In addition, hydroelectric pumped storage facilities are the only significant way currently available to store electricity. Water is one of our most valuable resources, and hydropower makes use of this renewable treasure. In managing hydropower, Reclamation is helping the Nation meet its present and future energy needs in a manner that protects the environment by improving hydropower projects and operating them more effectively. REVIEW AND TECHNICAL STUDY OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER GENERATION.pdf
  6. Composite materials have been utilized to solve technological problems for a long time but only in the 1960s did these materials start capturing the attention of industries with the introduction of polymeric-based composites. Since then, composite materials have become common engineering materials and are designed and manufactured for various applications including automotive components, sporting goods, aerospace parts, consumer goods, and in the marine and oil industries. The growth in composite usage also came about because of increased awareness regarding product performance and increased competition in the global market for lightweight components. Among all materials, composite materials have the potential to replace widely used steel and aluminum, and many times with better performance. Replacing steel components with composite components can save 60 to 80% in component weight, and 20 to 50% weight by replacing aluminum parts. MANUFACTURING AND PROCESSING OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS.pdf
  7. The article presents a brief outline of the history of Bajaj rickshaw vehicles industry. Vehicle design, the incorrect usage of petrol and lubricating oil mixture, safety risks in riding rickshaw, and environmental impact were integral activities. Almost all of the engine designers mentioned in the article also were automobile designers, and a few went on to become major manufacturers of automobiles. All of these inventors and more made notable improvements in the evolution of the Bajaj rickshaw vehicles. LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE HISTORY OF BAJAJ RICKSHAW VEHICLES.pdf
  8. Energy conversion engineering (or heat-power engineering, as it was called prior to the Second World War), has been one of the central themes in the development of the engineering profession. It is concerned with the transformation of energy from sources such as fossil and nuclear fuels and the sun into conveniently used forms such as electrical energy, rotational and propulsive energy, and heating and cooling. FUNDAMENTALS OF ENERGY CONVERSION ENGINEERING.pdf
  9. In the some gasoline engines port fuel injection systems are used. This technique has achieved a high development point. As these engines operate with stoichiometric mixture, fuel economy and emissions of these engines cannot be improved further. However, GDI engines have been popular since these engines have potential for reduction of toxic, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption to comply with stringent environmental protection standards. To attain this potential, it is required that use of the GDI engines with supercharging and/or turbo charging. The primary drawback of direct injection engines is theirs cost. Direct injection systems are more expensive because their components must be well-made. In these engines, high-pressure fuel injection system and exhaust gas treatment components are required. The cost of the GDI engines is high at the present day, but GDI engines with turbocharger that have more fuel economy are expected to be cheaper than diesel or hybrid engines in future. In GDI engine, as the spark plugs operate under high temperature, the fouling of them can cause the misfiring. To increase the life-time of the spark plug and engine efficiency, the system such as laser-induced ignition can be applied. Thus, engine efficiency can be more increased. The GDI engines are very suitable for the operating with alternative fuel. The studies on GDI engine with alternative fuel such as natural gas, ethanol, and LPG have continually increasing at present day. If GDI engines with turbo charger use spray guided combustion process which has piezoelectric injector and high energy ignition system, the use of these engines are expected to increase more in short term. GASOLINE DIRECT INJECTION SYSTEM AUTOMOBILES.pdf
  10. Ergonomics is the study of people while they use equipment in specific environments to perform certain tasks. Ergonomics seeks to minimize adverse effects of the environment upon people and thus to enable each person to maximize his or her contribution to a given job. This industry guide: Explains generally how measurements of human traits can be used to further workplace safety, health, comfort and productivity, discusses how to enhance worker safety by combining principles that govern the action of forces with knowledge of the human body, analyzes properties of illumination and explains how proper illumination makes for a safer workplace by reducing worker fatigue, shows how hand tools can be designed to reduce injuries to employees and to lessen trauma to their body members, illustrates ways to recognize proper sitting positions and to construct seating arrangements to minimize stress to the lumbar region, demonstrates how workspaces can be designed to decrease psychological stress and to increase employee motivation, directs attention to the benefits of proper selection and strategic arrangement of controls and displays for the machinery operation, offers general information about ways to reduce back injuries that result from manual lifting and offers more specialized guidelines for evaluating physical stresses imposed by lifting, refines the concept of the worker with a disability and suggests ways of meeting the special needs of people with disabilities, and stimulates new thinking about problems such as those from the sustained operation of computers) brought about by technological advancements. This industry guide demonstrates how benefits are derived from applying the principles of ergonomics to workplace safety and health. It gives the reader a solid starting point from which to seek new solutions to occupational safety and health problems. INDUSTRIAL GUIDE TO ERGONOMICS ENGINEERING.pdf
  11. In its triennial report, the International Ergonomics Association (IEA, 2000) defined ergonomics as the scientific discipline that deals with understanding the interaction between humans and other elements of a socio-technical system. In this definition, ergonomics is the profession that applies theory, principles, data and design methods to optimize human well-being and the overall performance of a system. It is in particular responsible for the design and evaluation of tasks, jobs, products, environments and systems to make them compatible with the abilities, needs and limitations of people. The word "Ergonomics" comes from the Greek "Ergon" meaning work and "Nomos" which means law. Therefore, etymologically, this is the science of work. The term has been used historically in the European tradition. In the American tradition one finds the term "Human Factor Engineering" to refer to the same issues, so both terms can be now considered as synonyms and are used interchangeably. The latter is evidenced by the fact that the "Human Factor Society”, founded in Tulsa (Oklahoma) in 1957, is now called the "Human Factor and Ergonomics Society” (HFES). Another term which is often used in the same context is “Engineering psychology” (Wickens & Hollands, 2000). The early precursors of the new discipline could be set around the time of the World War I. They had their background in the pioneering studies of Frederic Bartlett (1886-1969), Hugo Munsterberg (1863-1916) and Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856- 1915) on applied psychology and industrial management. The design of new machines (for example, the first cars or tanks) revealed the importance of taking into account the characteristics of people who should operate them. It was found that many people had difficulties to operate with more complex machines, especially with warplanes. This led the army to recruited psychologists who were assigned the task of developing and administering tests to select soldiers and to assign them to different tasks. These applied psychologists first human factors laboratories that continued their work after the war ended. But it was the World War II which provided the final impetus for the establishment of ergonomics as a discipline with industrial and academic recognition. Moreover, this war involved an enormous amount of people and artefacts, many of them newly created, such as radar, which made the idea of selecting a few special individuals to use previously designed artefacts unworkable. The idea that emerged and has had an enormous impact on the development of the discipline was that the devices should be designed by taking into account characteristics of human beings who will use them, and not adapted to people once they are designed. In Europe, the focus of ergonomics is to be found in industry and it has been linked to an interest in improving worker performance and satisfaction. The discipline began with an emphasis on the design of equipment and workplaces although in principle themes were related to biological, rather than to the psychological aspects. In this way, studies began on anthropometry, work medicine, architecture, lighting, etc. Back in the 1980s, the Europeans ergonomists began to worry largely about advanced psychological aspects and the "European Association of Cognitive Ergonomics" (EACE) emerged leading to a confluence of interests with human factors and cognitive science professionals in the other side of the Atlantic. The definition of ergonomics is extended today to all human activities in which artefacts are implemented. Ergonomists (with many applied psychologists among them) are in a permanent search for comprehensive approaches in which physical, cognitive, social and environmental aspects of human activities can be considered. Although ergonomists often work on different economic sectors or particular tasks, these application domains are constantly evolving, creating new ones and changing the perspective of the old ones. Accordingly, one can recognize today four main domains of expertise crucial for investigating interaction between humans and socio-technical systems. Human Factors and Ergonomics.pdf
  12. The various methods described below have been developed to reduce the resin content of the final product. As a rule of thumb, hand lay-up results in a product containing 60% resin and 40% fiber, whereas vacuum infusion gives a final product with 40% resin and 60% fiber content. The strength of the product is greatly dependent on this ratio. Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) are very popular due to their low cost and simple fabrication methods. Use of non-reinforced polymers as structure materials is limited by low level of their mechanical properties, namely strength, modulus, and impact resistance. Reinforcement of polymers by strong fibrous network permits fabrication of PMCs, which is characterized: high specific strength, high specific stiffness, high fracture resistance, good abrasion resistance, good impact resistance, good corrosion resistance, good fatigue resistance and Low cost. ADVANCEMENTS IN POLYMER COMPOSITE STRUCTURES.pdf
  13. One of the clearest ways to delineate a discipline is by its unique technology. At its recent workshop, the HFES Strategic Planning Task Force noted, as have others internationally, that the technology of human factors/ergonomics is human-system interface technology. Thus, the discipline of human factors can be defined as the development and application of human-system interface technology. Human-system interface technology deals with the interfaces between humans and the other system components, including hardware, software, environments, jobs, and organizational structures and processes. Like the technology of other design-related disciplines, it includes specifications, guidelines, methods, and tools. As noted by the Strategic Planning Task Force, we use our discipline’s technology for improving the quality of life, including health, safety, comfort, usability, and productivity. As a science we study human capabilities, limitations, and other characteristics for the purpose of developing human-system interface technology. As a practice, we apply human-system interface technology to the analysis, design, evaluation, standardization, and control of systems. It is this technology that clearly defines us as a unique, stand-alone discipline, that identifies who we are, what we do, and what we offer for the betterment of society. Although they may come from a variety of professional backgrounds, such as psychology, engineering, safety, the rehabilitation professions, or medicine, it is their professional education and training in human-system interface technology that qualifies persons as human factors/ergonomics professionals. Indeed, the discipline needs both the breadth and richness of these professional backgrounds as well as the education and training in the unique technology of human factors/ergonomics. Human factors/ergonomics professionals have long recognized the tremendous potential of our discipline for improving people’s health, safety, and comfort and both human and system productivity. Indeed, through the application of our unique human-system interface technology, we have the potential to truly make a difference in the quality of life for virtually all peoples on this globe. In fact, I know of no profession where so small a group of professionals has such tremendous potential for truly making a difference. In light of our potential, why is it, then, that more organizations, with their strong need to obtain employee commitment, reduce expenses, and increase productivity, are not banging down our doors for help, or creating human factors/ergonomics positions far beyond our capacity to fill them? Why is it that federal and state agencies are not pushing for legislation to ensure that human factors/ ergonomics factors are systematically considered in the design of products for human use and work environments for employees? Why is it that both industry associations and members of Congress sometimes view us as simply adding an additional expense burden and, thus, increasing the costs of production and thereby decreasing competitiveness? In response to these questions, from my experience, at least four contributing reasons immediately come to mind. First, some of these individuals and organizations have been exposed to bad ergonomics – or what, in a recent article on this topic, Ian Chong (1996) labels “voodoo ergonomics” – either in the form of products or work environments that are professed to be ergonomically designed but are not, or in which the so-called ergonomics was done by incompetent persons. This, indeed, is a concern, particularly when persons lacking professional training pass themselves off as ergonomists or human factors professionals or tout their services as a panacea for almost anything. It is one of the major reasons that both establishing educational standards for professional education in human factors/ergonomics and professional certification have become top priority issues for the International Ergonomics Association and, indeed, for many national human factors/ergonomics societies and governmental groups, such as the European Union. Another reason, well known to us, is that “everyone is an operator” (Mallett, 1995). Everyone “operates” systems on a daily basis, such as an automobile, computer, television, and telephone; thus, it is very easy to naively assume from our operator experience that human factors is nothing more than “common sense.” Most experienced ergonomists have their own personal list of “common sense” engineering design decisions that have resulted in serious accidents, fatalities, or just plain poor usability. Buy me a beer and I’ll be glad to tell you some of my personal ergonomics “war stories.” I also would refer you to Steve Casey’s book, Set Phasers on Stun (Santa Barbara, CA: Aegean; ISBN 0-9636178-7-7 hc). Third, I believe we sometimes expect organizational decision makers to proactively support human factors/ergonomics simply because it is the right thing to do. Like God, mother, and apple pie, it is hard to argue against doing anything that may better the human condition, and so that alone should be a compelling argument for actively supporting the use of our discipline. In reality, managers have to be able to justify any investment in terms of its concrete benefits to the organization – to the organization’s ability to be competitive and survive. That something “is the right thing to do” is, by itself, an excellent but decidedly insufficient reason for managers actually doing it. Finally, and perhaps most important, as a group, we have done a poor job of documenting and advertising the cost-benefits of good ergonomics – of getting the word out that most often, good ergonomics is good economics. In fact, that the ergonomics of economics is the economics of ergonomics. As one attempt to rectify this situation, I want to share with you a broad spectrum of ergonomics applications that my predecessor as HFES president, Tom Eggemeier, and I have collected from within the United States and elsewhere, in which the costs and economic benefits were documented. CORRELATION BETWEEN ERGONOMICS AND ECONOMICS.pdf
  14. Hydrodynamic machines may be classified according to the direction of energy transfer (energy added or extracted) or the type of action (rotodynamic or positive displacement machines). Rotodynamic machines (momentum transfer machines) have a rotating part (runner, impeller or rotor) that is able to rotate continuously and freely in the fluid. This motion allows an uninterrupted flow of fluid which promotes a steadier discharge than positive displacement machines. Positive displacement machines have a moving boundary (such as a piston or a diaphragm) whereby fluid is drawn or forced into a finite space. This motion causes an intermittent or fluctuating flow and the flow rate is governed by the magnitude of the finite space of the machine and the frequency with which it is filled and emptied. The term "pump" is used when the fluid is a liquid, however, when the fluid is a gas, terms such as compressors, or fans (or blowers) are used. A compressor is a machine whose primary objective is to increase the pressure of the gas, which is accompanied by an increase in the density of the gas. A fan or blower is a machine whose primary objective is to move the gas. Static pressures remain almost unchanged, and therefore the density of the gas is also not changed. MECHANICS OF FLUIDS.pdf
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