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Mechanical Engineering

Osama Khayal

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About Osama Khayal

  • Rank
    Member
  • Birthday 01/01/1966

Profile Information

  • Gender
    Male
  • Location
    Atbara, Sudan
  • Interests
    Teaching subjects like thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, mechanics of materials, heat and mass transfer, thermal power plants, instrumentation, control engineering ...etc. in mechanical, civil and production departments
  • Present Company
    Nile Valley University
  • Designation / Job Title
    professor associate
  • Highest Qualification
    doctorate of mechanical engineering in mechanics of materials
  • Year of completition
    2017
  • Engineering Qualification
    master of engineering in mechanical engineering
  • Year of completition
    2003
  • Name of Institute
    Nile Valley University

More Information

  • Project Undertaken
    nonlinear analysis of rectangular laminated composite plates
  • Achievement /recognition/ Certifications
    Authored many research papers and books in international institutions

Recent Profile Visitors

150 profile views
  1. Wind is a form of renewable energy, which is always in a non-steady state due to the wide temporal and spatial variations of wind velocity depending on atmospheric pressures. Data concerning wind speed in different regions in Africa have been compiled, evaluated and presented in this article. In order to estimate the actual available wind power, wind observations over several decades from dense station networks or high resolution wind modeling would be required. Both are not available in Africa. Therefore, for this study the potential wind power energy has been estimated instead. It is based on re-analysis data provided by the European Centre of Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). This paper presents the background and ideas of the development of the concept as well as the main results, and experience gained during ongoing projects. In Africa, various designs of wind machines for different engineering applications have been developed and some designs are presently manufactured commercially. Results suggest that wind power would be more profitably used for local and small-scale applications especially for remote rural areas. It is concluded that Africa is blessed with abundant wind energy which needs to be exploited perfectly THE AVAILABILITY OF WIND ENERGY IN THE AFRICAN CONTINENT.pdf
  2. I hope that my topics will be beneficial for you

  3. Compared to the rest of the world, there is a general shortage of energy related information in Africa (on potential of energy resources, actual installed systems and current energy use). This lack of information is even more apparent for renewable energies. It is indeed difficult to compare the potentialities for the different energy options due to the scattered validated information. Nevertheless, available data sources are in agreement in describing a difficult situation as far as access to energy is concerned. The high share of rural population, coupled with the low ability and willingness to pay, the low per capita energy consumption and the high rate of non-electrified rural areas, has traditionally pushed rural communities to make use of locally available energy sources, mostly biomass from agriculture residues and forest ad savannah wood for their daily cooking and heating needs. Renewable energy resources are diffuse in the territory and mapping their physical availability can only be the first step in understanding their exploitation especially for people without modern forms of energy in Africa. A deep knowledge of the existing and feasible energy infrastructures is fundamental for moving towards the assessment of the economically utilizable renewable energy. Indeed, according to IEA data, 99.6% of the African population without electricity access is concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries, reflecting the great disparities in the different African regions caused also by the still unbalanced development of the energy production and transport infrastructures in the continent. In summary, if properly exploited, renewable energies are a big opportunity for improving the currently very poor access to energy for rural communities. INTRODUCTION TO RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AFRICA.pdf
  4. Sudan loss of its oil rich south in 2011 made it realize the significance of renewable energy. Present huge energy demands particularly from the residential and agricultural sectors are causing more pressure on Sudan already crippling economy. For a country like Sudan, solar energy according to the study acquires a huge potential in terms of contributing to the energy sector and development of the country altogether. However, the study also identifies how solar energy potential is being challenged by country lack of incentives and current policies. With present circumstances, off-grid solar energy systems (e.g. Stand-alone Photo-Voltaic systems), could play a large role in making a positive change to the country and its development. Many successful solar projects implemented in neighboring countries should be encouraging Sudan to follow the same path and work on the influencing factors standing against solar energy diffusion. With having supporting policies along with various mechanisms of securing financing under a transparent cooperative context between various stakeholders could serve as the roadmap in promoting such a valuable technology in which Sudan is in desperate need of. UTILIZATION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN SUDAN.pdf
  5. Utilization of renewable energy resources not only generates useful energy but also aids in climate change mitigation. Energy development in Sudan has always been slow and the current generation only covers less than half of the total demand. Although multiple renewable energy resources are available, but due to the low economy all the types of energy systems cannot be developed together. The government seems to be perplexed in choosing the best among the alternatives as all the alternatives seems to be important and feasible. It becomes very important to prioritize them based on the population needs, resource availability, technical capability and environmental friendliness. Furthermore, it is also crucial to identify all the influencing actors that have major impacts on the development of energy systems in Sudan. This research identifies the most important actors, factors for exploitation of solar energy which could be guidelines for the policy makers and researchers during the development of energy systems not only in Sudan but also applicable to other developing countries. Present huge energy demands particularly from the residential and agricultural sectors are causing more pressure on Sudan already crippling economy. For a country like Sudan, solar energy according to the study acquires a huge potential in terms of contributing to the energy sector and development of the country altogether. However, the study also identifies how solar energy potential is being challenged by country lack of incentives and current policies. With present circumstances, off-grid solar energy systems (e.g. Stand-alone Photo-Voltaic systems), could play a large role in making a positive change to the country and its development. Many successful solar projects implemented in neighboring countries should be encouraging Sudan to follow the same experience. With having supporting policies along with various mechanisms of securing financing under a transparent cooperative context between various stakeholders could serve as a roadmap in promoting such a valuable technology in which Sudan is in desperate need of it. THE AVAILABILITY OF USING SOLAR ENERGY IN SUDAN.pdf
  6. The production of biogas from anaerobic digestion (AD) is widely used by modern society for the treatment of livestock manure and slurries. The aim is to produce renewable energy and to improve their fertilizer quality. In countries with significant agricultural production, the strengthening of environmental legislation and regulation of manure and vegetable wastes recycling increased the interest for AD as a cheap and environmental friendly solution. Latest developments in Europe, USA and other parts of the world have shown increasing interest among farmers to cultivate energy crops, used as feedstock for biogas production. AD is today standard technology for stabilization of primary and secondary sewage sludge, for treatment of organic industrial waste from food- processing and fermentation industries as well as for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. A special application is biogas recovery from existing landfills. MAIN TYPES AND APPLICATIONS OF BIOGAS PLANTS.pdf
  7. The benefits and advantages of an evaporative cooler, also known as swamp cooler, air cooler, or desert cooler include inexpensive price and lower energy consumption, as well as easier and inexpensive installation and maintenance, when compared to traditional air conditioners; and suitability for use in dry and arid climates, especially during hot and dry weather conditions. On the other hand, the disadvantages of an evaporative cooler center primarily on the negative impacts of too much humidification. These disadvantages translate further to more specific limitations and drawbacks. For example, using an evaporative cooler for prolonged period of time or under a hot and humid weather increase health-related risks such as respiratory distress, as well as the susceptibility of wood-based, paper-based, and electronic products. Evaporative cooling has both advantages and disadvantages, and the choice rests with the individual homeowner. Therefore, the consumers should investigate all the alternatives and then make the right decision based on technical specifications, cost preference, lifestyle and individual priorities. USES , ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF EVAPORATIVE COOLERS.pdf
  8. Biogas systems turn the cost of waste management into a revenue opportunity for farms, dairies, and industries. Converting waste into electricity, heat, or vehicle fuel provides a renewable source of energy that can reduce dependence on foreign oil imports, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve environmental quality, and increase local jobs. Biogas systems also provide an opportunity to recycle nutrients in the food supply, reducing the need for both petrochemical and mined fertilizers. The present paper gives a complete idea on the prospective technology for the production of clean energy in the form of biogas. Biogas is green and a sustainable energy consisting of methane to a great extent along with other gases. Global warming and greenhouse effect are caused due to the harmful gases which are released into the atmosphere. Emission from automobiles and industries are one of the causes of global warming. Along with global warming the excessive use of fossil fuels shifts the balance of supply of fuels. So in order to save fossil fuels for our future generations alternative fuels play an important role in replacing the fossil fuels. The present paper gives an idea of the history of biogas and their advantages and disadvantages. ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF BIOGAS TECHNOLOGIES.pdf
  9. Fracture is a problem that society has faced for as long as there have been man-made structures. The problem may actually be worse today than in previous centuries, because more can go wrong in our complex technological society. Major airline crashes, for instance, would not be possible without modern aerospace technology. Fortunately, advances in the field of fracture mechanics have helped to offset some of the potential dangers posed by increasing technological complexity. Our understanding of how materials fail and our ability to prevent such failures have increased considerably since World War II. Much remains to be learned, however, and existing knowledge of fracture mechanics is not always applied when appropriate. While catastrophic failures provide income for attorneys and consulting engineers, such events are detrimental to the economy as a whole. An economic study [1] and [2] estimated the annual cost of fracture in the U.S. in 1978 at $119 billion which was about 4% of the gross national product. Furthermore, this study estimated that the annual cost could be reduced by $35 billion if current technology were applied, and that further fracture mechanics research could reduce this figure by an additional $28 billion. This research paper will introduce several important means of understanding and dealing with fracture in stressed materials. FUNDAMENTALS OF FRACTURE MECHANICS.pdf
  10. Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains. The complete theory began with the consideration of the behavior of one and two dimensional members of structures, whose states of stress can be approximated as two dimensional, and was then generalized to three dimensions to develop a more complete theory of the elastic and plastic behavior of materials. An important founding pioneer in mechanics of materials was Stephen Timoshenko. The study of strength of materials often refers to various methods of calculating the stresses and strains in structural members, such as beams, columns, and shafts. The methods employed to predict the response of a structure under loading and its susceptibility to various failure modes takes into account the properties of the materials such as its yield strength, ultimate strength, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio; in addition the mechanical element's macroscopic properties (geometric properties), such as its length, width, thickness, boundary constraints and abrupt changes in geometry such as holes are considered. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ON MECHANICS OF MATERIALS.pdf
  11. This research article introduces basic concepts of stiffness and strength underlying the mechanics of fiber reinforced advanced composite materials. This aspect of composite materials technology is sometimes termed as micromechanics, because it deals with the relations between macroscopic engineering properties and the microscopic distribution of the material constituents, namely the volume fraction of fiber. This research paper will deal primarily with unidirectional reinforced continuous fiber composites, and with properties measured along and transverse to the fiber direction. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES.pdf
  12. The method of dynamic relaxation in its early stages of development was perceived as a numerical finite difference technique. It was first used to analyze structures, then skeletal and cable structures, and plates. The method relies on a discretized continuum in which the mass of the structure is assumed to be concentrated at given points (i.e. nodes) on the surface. The system of concentrated masses oscillates about the equilibrium position under the influence of out of balance forces. With time, it comes to rest under the influence of damping. The iterative scheme reflects a process, in which static equilibrium of the system is achieved by simulating a pseudo dynamic process in time. In its original form, the method makes use of inertia term, damping term and time increment. The basics of this research paper stand on the ordinary and partial differential equations, which value the price of an option by using dynamic relaxation (DR) techniques. The study of partial differential equations in complete generality is a vast undertaking. As almost all of them are not possible to solve analytically we must rely on numerical methods, and the most popular ones are the finite differences methods coupled with dynamic relaxation techniques. With this research paper i do not intend to become an expert in few hours in order to solve differential equations numerically, but develop both intuition and technical strength required to survive when such a problem needs to be solved. UTILIZATION OF DYNAMIC RELAXATION METHOD IN SOLVING ORDINARY AND PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS.pdf
  13. The vehicle is one of the most common machines in use today, and it is no exaggeration to state that it is crucial to the economic success of all the developing and developed nations of the world and to the quality of life of their citizens. The vehicle itself consists of thousands of component parts, many of which rely on the interaction of their surfaces to function. There are many hundreds of tribological components, from bearings, pistons, transmissions, clutches, gears, to wiper blades, tires, and electrical contacts. The application of tribological principles is essential for the reliability of the vehicle, and mass production of the vehicle has led to enormous advances in the field of tribology. For example, many of the developments in lubrication and bearing surface technology have been driven by requirements for increased capacity and durability in the vehicle industry. For the purpose of classifying the tribological components, one can divide the motor vehicle into engine, transmission, drive line, and ancillaries such as tires, brakes, and windshield wipers. In the following sections, each automotive component is discussed in detail. Lubricants used with these automotive tribological components are described in the last section of this study. ESSENTIALS OF VEHICLE TRIBOLOGY.pdf
  14. This research study has been done in Aljabalein Power Plant at White Nile State. The objective of the study is to compare and differentiate between two types of fuel, light fuel oil (LFO) and crude oil (CRO) used in power plant situated in Aljabalein site. The comparison has been done on different viewpoints including the impact of exhaust gases on the surrounding environment, the performance of engines at different loads, and the operation and maintenance costs. It is found that CRO fuel oil is preferred to LFO fuel due to less operation costs. But it has many disadvantages such as high pollution rates and high consumption of spare parts. Technical and Environmental Study on Using Light Fuel Oil and Crude Oil in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE).pdf
  15. The article presents a brief outline of the history of Bajaj rickshaw vehicles industry. Vehicle design, the incorrect usage of petrol and lubricating oil mixture, safety risks in riding rickshaw, and environmental impact were integral activities. Almost all of the engine designers mentioned in the article also were automobile designers, and a few went on to become major manufacturers of automobiles. All of these inventors and more made notable improvements in the evolution of the Bajaj rickshaw vehicles. Literature Review on The History of Bajaj Rickshaw Vehicles.pdf
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