Rishabh Pandey

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About Rishabh Pandey

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  1. I want to know the main difference between CATIA and SOLIDWORKS to decide which one to learn.
  2. Boilers: Introduction and Classification

    The boiler system comprises a feed-water system, steam system, and fuel system. The feed-water system supplies treated water to the boiler and regulate it automatically to meet the steam demand. Various valves and controls are provided to access for maintenance and monitoring. The steam system heats and vaporizes the feed water and controls steam produced in the boiler. Steam is directed through a piping system to the application. Throughout the system, steam pressure is regulated using valves and monitored with steam pressure gauges. The fuel system consists of all equipment used to supply of fuel to generate the necessary heat. The equipment required in the fuel system depends on the type of fuel used in the system. Boilers Classification: There are a large number of boiler designs, but boilers can be classified according to the following criteria: 1. According to Relative Passage of water and hot gases: Water Tube Boiler: A boiler in which the water flows through some small tubes which are surrounded by hot combustion gases, e.g., Babcock and Wilcox, Stirling, Benson boilers, etc. Fire-tube Boiler: The hot combustion gases pass through the boiler tubes, which are surrounded by water, e.g., Lancashire, Cochran, locomotive boilers, etc. 2. According to Water Circulation Arrangement: Natural Circulation: Water circulates in the boiler due to density difference of hot and water, e.g., Babcock and Wilcox boilers, Lancashire boilers, Cochran, locomotive boilers, etc. Forced Circulation: A water pump forces the water along its path, therefore, the steam generation rate increases, Eg: Benson, La Mont, Velox boilers, etc. 3. According to the Use: Stationary Boiler: These boilers are used for power plants or processes steam in plants. Portable Boiler: These are small units of mobile and are used for temporary uses at the sites. Locomotive: These are specially designed boilers. They produce steam to drive railway engines. Marine Boiler: These are used on ships. 4. According to Position of the Boilers: Horizontal, inclined or vertical boilers 5. According to the Position of Furnace Internally fired: The furnace is located inside the shell, e.g., Cochran, Lancashire boilers, etc. Externally fired: The furnace is located outside the boiler shell, e.g., Babcock and Wilcox, Stirling boilers, etc. 6. According to Pressure of steam generated Low-pressure boiler: a boiler which produces steam at a pressure of 15-20 bar is called a low-pressure boiler. This steam is used for process heating. Medium-pressure boiler: It has a working pressure of steam from 20 bars to 80 bars and is used for power generation or combined use of power generation and process heating. High-pressure boiler: It produces steam at a pressure of more than 80 bars. Sub-critical boiler: If a boiler produces steam at a pressure which is less than the critical pressure, it is called as a subcritical boiler. Supercritical boiler: These boilers provide steam at a pressure greater than the critical pressure. These boilers do not have an evaporator and the water directly flashes into steam, and thus they are called once through boilers. 7. According to charge in the furnace. Pulverized fuel, Supercharged fuel and Fluidized bed combustion boilers.
  3. Manometer Types

  4. U Tube Manometer

    From the album Manometer Types

    A manometer is a device used for measure the pressure of a fluid by balancing it with against a column of a liquid. U-Tube Manometer: It consist a U – shaped bend whose one end is attached to the gauge point ‘A’ and other end is open to the atmosphere. It can measure both positive and negative (suction) pressures. It contains liquid of specific gravity greater than that of a liquid of which the pressure is to be measured. where ‘γ’ is Specific weight, ‘P’ is Pressure at A. Pressure at A isP = γ2h2 – γ1h1
  5. Micro Manometer

    From the album Manometer Types

    Micro Manometer is is the modified form of a simple manometer whose one limb is made of larger cross sectional area. It measures very small pressure differences with high precision. Let ‘a’ = area of the tube, A = area of the reservoir, h3 = Falling liquid level reservoir, h2 = Rise of the liquid in the tube, By conversation of mass we get A*h3 = a*h2 Equating pressure heads at datum we get P1 = (ρm – ρ1)*gh3 + ρm*gh2 – ρ1*gh1
  6. Inverted u tube manometer

    From the album Manometer Types

    Inverted U-Tube manometer consists of an inverted U – Tube containing a light liquid. This is used to measure the differences of low pressures between two points where where better accuracy is required. It generally consists of an air cock at top of manometric fluid type. Pressure difference can be calculated from equation P1 – ρ1*g*H1 – ρm*g(H2– H1) = P2 – ρ2*gH2
  7. Inclined tube manometer

    From the album Manometer Types

    Inclined manometer is used for the measurement of small pressures and is to measure more accurately than the vertical tube type manometer. Due to inclination the distance moved by the fluid in manometer is more.
  8. Differential U tube manometer

    From the album Manometer Types

    A manometer is a device used for measure the pressure of a fluid by balancing it with against a column of a liquid. A U-Tube manometric liquid heavier than the liquid for which the pressure difference is to be measured and is not immiscible with it. Pressure difference between A and B is given by equation PA – PB = γ2h2 + γ3h3 – γ1h1
  9. Simple open cycle gas turbine plant

    From the album Engineering images 10

    A simple open cycle gas turbine consists of a compressor, combustion chamber and a turbine as shown in the below figure. The compressor takes in ambient fresh air and raises its pressure. Heat is added to the air in the combustion chamber by burning the fuel and raises its temperature. The heated gases coming out of the combustion chamber are then passed to the turbine where it expands doing mechanical work. Some part of the power developed by the turbine is utilized in driving the compressor and other accessories and remaining is used for power generation. Fresh air enters into the compressor and gases coming out of the turbine are exhausted into the atmosphere, the working medium need to be replaced continuously. This type of cycle is known as open cycle gas turbine plant and is mainly used in majority of gas turbine power plants as it has many inherent advantages. Advantages: Warm-up time: Once the turbine is brought up to the rated speed by the starting motor and the fuel is ignited, the gas turbine will be accelerated from cold start to full load without warm-up time. Low weight and size: The weight in kg per kW developed is less. Fuels: Almost any hydrocarbon fuel from high-octane gasoline to heavy diesel oils can be used in the combustion chamber. Open cycle plants occupies less space compared to close cycle plants. The stipulation of a quick start and take-up of load frequently are the points in favor of open cycle plant when the plant is used as peak load plant. Component or auxiliary refinements can usually be varied in open cycle gas turbine plant to improve the thermal efficiency and can give the most economical overall cost for the plant load factors and other operating conditions envisaged. Open cycle gas turbine power plant, except those having an intercooler, does not need cooling water. Therefore, the plant is independent of cooling medium and becomes self-contained. Disadvantages: The part load efficiency of the open cycle gas turbine plant decreases rapidly as the considerable percentage of power developed by the turbine is used for driving the compressor. The system is sensitive to the component efficiency; particularly that of compressor. The open cycle gas turbine plant is sensitive to changes in the atmospheric air temperature, pressure and humidity. The open cycle plant has high air rate compared to the closed cycle plants, therefore, it results in increased loss of heat in the exhaust gases and large diameter duct work is needed. It is essential that the dust should be prevented from entering into the compressor to decrease erosion and depositions on the blades and passages of the compressor and turbine. So damages their profile. The deposition of the carbon and ash content on the turbine blades is not at all desirable as it reduces the overall efficiency of the open cycle gas turbine plant.
  10. Gas cooled reactor plant

    From the album Engineering images 10

    The first gas-cooled reactors with carbon dioxide (CO2) gas as coolant at a pressure of 16 bar and graphite as moderator were developed in Britain. The fuel used is natural uranium, clad with an alloy of magnesium called Magnox. Several types of gas-cooled reactors have been designed and built, with England developing an advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) system. The AGR uses UO2 as the fuel clad in stainless steel tubes with CO2 gas a coolant and graphite as moderator. The graphite moderated helium-cooled HTGR (High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor) is designed to use U-233 as the fissile material and Thorium as fertile material. Initially, the system would have to be fueled with U-235, until sufficient U-233 is available for makeup fuel. Because of the very high melting point of graphite, these fuel elements can operate at very high temperatures and it is possible to generate steam at conditions equivalent to those in modern coal-fired power plant. The basic fuel forms are small spheres of fissile and fertile and fertile material as carbides, UC2 or ThC2. The fissile spheres are 0.035 to 0.050 cm in diameter and the fertile spheres are 0.06 to 0.07 cm in diameter. Each sphere is coated with two or three layers of carbon and silicon carbide to prevent fission products from escaping from the particles. Helium is suitable coolant in the sense that it is chemically inert, has good heat transfer characteristics and low neutron absorption. Being a monoatomic gas, it can produce more power for given temperatures in the Brayton cycle with higher thermal efficiency.
  11. Magneto ignition system

    From the album Engineering images 10

    Magneto ignition system is a special type of ignition system with its own electric generator to provide the required necessary energy for the vehicle (automobile) system. It is mounted on the engine and replaces all components of the coil ignition system except the spark plug. A magneto when rotated by the engine is capable of producing a very high voltage and doesn’t need a battery as source of external energy. A schematic diagram of a high tension magneto ignition system is shown in the figure 1 under. The high tension magneto ignition system incorporates the windings to generate the primary voltage as well as to set up the voltage and thus does not require to operate the spark plug. Magneto ignition system can be either rotating armature type or rotating magneto type. In the first type, the armature consisting of the primary and secondary windings all rotate between the poles of a stationary magnet. In the second type the magnet revolves and windings are kept stationary. A third type of magneto called the polar inductor type in use. In the polar inductor type magneto both the magnet and the windings remain stationary but the voltage is generated by reversing the flux field with the help of soft iron polar projections, called inductors. The working principle of the magnetic ignition system is same as that of the coil ignition system. With the help of a cam, the primary circuit flux is changed and a high voltage is produced in the secondary circuit.
  12. Battery ignition system

    From the album Engineering images 10

    Most of the modern spark-ignition engines use battery ignition system. The essential components of battery ignition system are a battery, ignition switch, ballast resistor, ignition coil, breaker points, condenser, capacitor distributor and spark plugs. The breaker points, condenser, distributor rotor and the spark advance mechanisms are usually housed in the ignition distribution. The breaker points are actuated by a shaft driven at half engine speed for a four stroke cycle engine. The distributor rotor is directly connected to the same shaft. The system has a primary circuit of low-voltage current and a secondary circuit for the high-voltage circuit. The primary circuit consists of the battery, ammeter, ignition switch, primary coil winding and breaker points. The primary coil winding usually has approximately 240 turns of relatively heavy copper wire wound around the soft iron core of ignition coil. The secondary circuit contains the secondary coil windings, distributor, spark plug leads and the spark plug. The secondary windings consists of about 21000 turns of small, well insulate copper wire. When the ignition switch and the breaker points are closed a low-voltage current flows from the battery through the primary circuit and builts up a magnetic field around the soft iron core of the ignition coil. When the breaker points are opened by the action of the cam on the distributor shaft, the primary circuit is broken and the magnetic field begins to collapse, an induced current from the collapsing magnetic field flows in the same direction in the primary circuit as the battery current and charges the condenser which acts as a reservoir for the flowing current due to a rapidly collapsing magnetic field, high voltage is induced in the primary (it might be as high as 250 volts) and even higher in the secondary (10,000 to 20,000 volts). The high voltage in the secondary passes through the distributor rotor to one of the spark plug leads and into the spark plug. As soon as sufficient voltage is built up in the secondary to overcome the resistance of a spark plug, the spark arcs across the gap and the ignition of the combustible charge in the cylinder takes place. The induced current in the primary to overcome the resistance of a spark across the gap and the ignition of the combustible charge in the cylinder takes place. The induced current is the primary, as it was pointed out above flows in the same direction as it did before the breaker points opened up and charges the condenser. The increasing potential of the condenser retards and finally stops the flow of current in the primary circuit and the rapidly ‘backfires’ or discharges again through the primary, but in the direction opposite to the original flow of current. This rapid discharge of condense produces directional oscillation in the current flow in the primary circuit. This oscillation is weekend with every succeeding reversal in the current flow until the original potentials and the direction of current flow the primary circuit are established. The discharge of condenser by itself does not produce the spark, but only hastens the collapse of the magnetic field around the soft iron core. The condenser, which has a capacitance range from 0.15 to 0.24 mf in the automotive system, not only assists in the collapse f the magnetic field, but also prevents arcing at the breaker points by providing a place for the induced current to flow in the primary circuit. If the condenser is too small or too large, the breaker points will lead to excessive pitting will result the breaker points and the distributor must be carefully synchronized with the crankshaft of the engine to give the proper timing of the spark in each of the cylinders. The breaker is often refereed to as the timer, since the time or point in the cycle that the spark occurs depends upon the time of opening of the breaker points. The spark plug leads are called the ignition harness. Since the lead carry a very high potential, a special insulation is required to prevent a short circuit. Even with the special insulation, these leads are subjected to breakdowns which result in high-tension short circuits and to leakage that lower the voltage available at the work plug. Also, the leads should be shielded to aid in the prevention of radio interference.
  13. Dynamometer: Introduction and Types

  14. Dynamometer

    From the album Dynamometer: Introduction and Types

    A dynamometer is a device used for measuring the torque and brake power required to operate a driven machine. Dynamometers can be broadly classified into two types. They are: Power Absorption Dynamometers: Power Absorption dynamometers measure and absorb the power output of the engine to which they are coupled. The power absorbed is usualy dissipated as heat by some means. Examples of power absorption dynamometers are Prony brake dynamometer, Rope brake dynamometer, Eddy current dynamometer, Hydraulic dynamometer, etc. Power Transmission Dynamometers: In power transmission dynamometers the power is transmitted to the load coupled to the engine after it is indicated on some type of scale. These are also called torque meters.
  15. Transmission dynamometer

    From the album Dynamometer: Introduction and Types

    Transmission dynamometers are also called torquemeters. They mostly consist of a set of strain-gauges fixed on the rotating shaft and the torque is measured by the angular deformation of the shaft which is indicated as strain of the strain gauge. A four arm bridge is used to reduce the effect of temperature and the gauges are arranged in pairs such that the effect of axial or transverse load on the strain gauges is avoided. Above figure shows the transmission dynamometer which employs beams and strain-gauges for a sensing torque. Transmission dynamometers measures brake power very accurately and are used where continuous transmission of load is necessary. These are mainly used in automatic units.