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Rishabh Pandey

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About Rishabh Pandey

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  • Birthday 07/26/1995

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    Bhiwadi, alwar
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  • Present Company
    Aerostar helmets and accessories
  • Designation / Job Title
    Quality control engineer
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  • Engineering Qualification
    Mechanical engineer
  • Year of completition
  • Name of Institute
    Sktc engineering college jaipur

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    Autocad certified

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  1. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), it is a dark thermoplastic and amorphous polymer. It is a terpolymer (copolymer comprising of three unmistakable monomers) of Acrylonitrile, Butadiene, and Styrene. Together they make an item that is adaptable and light in weight that can be shaped into numerous things that we use in our regular day to day existences. The benefit of ABS is that an assortment of changes can be had to enhance impact protection, sturdiness, and heat protection. Molding at a high temperature enhances the gleam and heat protection of the item while molding at a low temperature is where the highest impact resistance and strength are obtained. Polyethylene Polyethylene is a thermoplastic polymer with variable crystalline structure and a huge scope of uses relying upon the type. It is a standout amongst the most adaptable and most famous plastics on the planet since the 1950s when it was produced by German and Italian researchers. The two most regular kinds of this plastic are high-thickness polyethylene (HDPE) and low-thickness polyethylene (LDPE). The upsides of polyethylene are abnormal amounts of pliability, rigidity, impact protection, protection from dampness, and recyclability. The higher the thickness of the polyethylene material utilized the more grounded, more unbending, and more heat safe the plastic is. The essential employments of polyethylene are plastic sacks, plastic films, compartments including bottles, and geomembranes. Polyamide (Nylon) Nylon material is utilized as a part of a vast scope of various applications in view of its electrical properties, sturdiness, wear protection and chemical protection being very noteworthy. Nylon has an abnormal state of strength and is impervious to numerous outer components like scratches, impact, and chemicals. This material produces plastic parts utilized as a part of numerous businesses, for example, Medicinal items Car items Games hardware Attire and footwear Industrial components High Impact Polystyrene High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) is a prevalent and intense plastic that is in the Polystyrene family. Polystyrene is weak and can be more impact safe if joined with different materials. It is made from modifying crystal styrene with rubber which helps to give it many levels of impact resistance. It is low cost, has good dimensional stability and rigidity. There are FDA grades available since it is non-toxic and used as containers for many food goods. It is exceptionally flammable, yet there are fire resistant and polished evaluations that are generally utilized for injection molding. Polypropylene This is an extremely regular plastic that is known for its adaptability. PP (polypropylene) is an exceptionally unique plastic and has been intensified for an extensive variety of properties. A few attributes of this plastic are its high liquefying point, high protection toward stress and splitting, magnificent impact quality, and does not break down from responses with water, acids, and cleansers. PP is ok for use as food holders since it doesn’t filter chemicals into nourishment items. It can be generally found in family unit merchandise, for example, utensils, athletic clothing, area rugs, and car parts, for example, auto batteries.
  2. A brake which uses air as a working fluid is known as pneumatic brake. The system actuated to apply this phenomenon is know as pneumatic brake system. An pneumatic brake system or a compressed air brake system is a type of friction brake for vehicles in which compressed air pressing on a piston is used to apply the pressure to the brake pad needed to stop the vehicle. Construction of pneumatic braking system The simplest air brake system consists of An air compressor A brake valve series of brake chambers at the wheels unloader valve A pressure gauge and a safety valve and an air reservoir. These are all connected by tubes. Some air braking systems may have additional components such as stop light switch low pressure indicator An air supply valve to supply air for tyre inflation A quick release air quickly from the front brake chambers when the brake pedal is released A limiting valve for limiting the maximum pressure in the front brake chambers and a relay valve to help in quick admission and release of air from the rear brake chambers. Working of pneumatic braking system The air compressor operated by the engine forces air at a pressure of 9-10 kscm (kilo standard cubic meters) through the water and oil separator to the air reservoir. The air pressure in the reservoir is indicated by a pressure gauge. The reservoir contains enough compressed air for several braking operations. From the reservoir the air is supplied to the brake valve. As long as brake pedal is not depressed, brake valves stop the passage of air to brake chambers and there is no braking effect. When the brake pedal is depressed, the brake valves varies its position and compressed air is admitted into the wheel brake chambers. In the chambers the air acts upon flexible diaphragms, moves them the pushes out the rods connected with the levers of the brake gear cams. The cams turn and separate the shoes thus braking the wheels. When the brake pedal is released, the supply of compressed air is cut off from the brake chambers and they are connected to the atmosphere. The pressure in the chambers drops, the brake shoes are returned to their initial position and the wheels run free. The brake valve is equipped with a servo mechanism which ensures that the braking force on the shoes is proportional to the force applied to the pedal. Besides the valve imparts a relative reaction to the movement of the pedal so that the driver can sense the degree of brake application. IMAGE SOURCE :- google
  3. Rishabh Pandey

    pressure gauge.jpg

    Thank you so much for your review. I will take care of it next time
  4. Any device which can convert heat energy of fuel into mechanical energy is known as engine or heat engine. Engine is widely used in automobile industries or we can say that engine is the heart of an automobile. Basically engine may be classified into two types. 1. External combustion (E.C.) Engine 2. Internal Combustion (I.C.) Engine Types of Engine: 1. External combustion (E.C.) Engine It is an engine in which combustion of fuel take place outside of the engine. In this type of engine heat, which is generated by burning of fuel is use to convert the water or other low boiling temperature fluid into steam. This high pressure steam used to rotate a turbine. In this engine we can use all solid, liquid and gases fuel. These engines are generally used in driving locomotive, ships, generation of electric power etc. Advantages of E.C. engine- In these engines starting torque is generally high. Because of external combustion we can use cheaper fuels as well as solid fuel. They are more flexible compare to internal combustion engines. 2. Internal Combustion (I.C.) Engine It is an engine in which combustion of fuel take place inside the engine. When the fuel burns inside the engine cylinder, it generates a high temperature and pressure. This high pressure force is exerted on the piston (A device which free to moves inside the cylinder and transmit the pressure force to crank by use of connecting rod), which used to rotate the wheels of vehicle. In these engines we can use only gases and high volatile fuel like petrol, diesel. These engines are generally used in automobile industries, generation of electric power etc. Advantages of I.C. engine- It has overall high efficiency over E.C. engine. These engines are compact and required less space. Initial cost of I.C. engine is lower than E.C. engine. This engine easily starts in cold because of it uses high volatile fuel. Types of I.C. Engine I.C. engine is widely used in automobile industries so it is also known as automobile engine. An automobile engine may be classified in many manners. Today I am going to tell you some important classification of an automobile engine. According to number of stroke: 1. Two Stroke Engine In a two stroke engine a piston moves one time up and down inside the cylinder and complete one crankshaft revolution during single time of fuel burn. This type of engine has high torque compare to four stroke engine. These are generally used in scooters, pumping sets etc. 2 Four Stroke Engine . In a four stroke engine piston moves two times up and down inside the cylinder and complete two crankshaft revolutions during single time of fuel burn. This type of engines has high average compare to two stroke engine. These are generally used in bikes, cars, truck etc. According to design of engine: 1. Reciprocating engine (piston engine) In reciprocating engine the pressure force generate by combustion of fuel exerted on the piston (A device which free to move in reciprocation inside the cylinder). So the piston starts reciprocating motion (too and fro motion). This reciprocating motion converts into rotary motion by use of crank shaft. So the crank shaft starts to rotate and rotate the wheels of vehicle. These are generally used in all automobile. 2. Rotary engine (Wankel engine) In rotary engine there is a rotor which frees to rotate. The pressure force generate by burning of fuel is exerted on this rotor so the rotor rotate and starts to rotate the wheels of vehicle. This engine is developed by Wankel in 1957. This engine is not used in automobile in present days. According to fuel used: 1. Diesel engine These engines use diesel as the fuel. These are used in trucks, buses, cars etc. 2. Petrol engine These engines use petrol as the fuel. These are used in bikes, sport cars, luxury cars etc. 3. Gas engine These engines use CNG and LPG as the fuel. These are used in some light motor vehicles. 4. Electric engine It is eco-friendly engine. It doesn’t use any fuel to burn. It uses electric energy to rotate wheel. According to method of ignition: 1. Compression ignition engine In these types of engines, there is no extra equipment to burn the fuel. In these engines burning of fuel starts due to temperature rise during compression of air. So it is known as compression ignition engine. 2. Spark ignition engine In these types of engines, ignition of fuel start by the spark, generate inside the cylinder by some extra equipment. So it is known as spark ignition engine. According to number of cylinder: 1. Single cylinder engine In this type of engines have only one cylinder and one piston connected to the crank shaft. 2. Multi-cylinder engine In this type of engines have more than one cylinder and piston connected to the crank shaft. According to arrangement of cylinder: 1. In-line engine In this type of engines, cylinders are positioned in a straight line one behind the other along the length of the crankshaft. 2. V-type engine An engine with two cylinder banks inclined at an angle to each other and with one crankshaft known as V-type engine. 3. Opposed cylinder engine An engine with two cylinders banks opposite to each other on a single crankshaft (V-type engine with 180o angle between banks). 4. W-type engine An engine same as V-type engine except with three banks of cylinders on the same crankshaft known as W-type engine. 5. Opposite piston engine In this type of engine there are two pistons in each cylinder with the combustion chamber in the center between the pistons. In this engine a single combustion process causes two power strokes, at the same time. 6. Radial engine It is an engine with pistons positioned in circular plane around the central crankshaft. The connecting rods of pistons are connected to a master rod which, in turn, connected to the crankshaft. According to air intake process: 1. Naturally aspirated In this types of engine intake of air into cylinder occur by the atmospheric pressure. 2. Supercharged engine In this type of engine air intake pressure is increased by the compressor driven by the engine crankshaft. 3. Turbocharged engine In this type of engine intake air pressure is increase by use of turbine compressor driven by the exhaust gases of burning fuel.
  5. I want to know the main difference between CATIA and SOLIDWORKS to decide which one to learn.
  6. The boiler system comprises a feed-water system, steam system, and fuel system. The feed-water system supplies treated water to the boiler and regulate it automatically to meet the steam demand. Various valves and controls are provided to access for maintenance and monitoring. The steam system heats and vaporizes the feed water and controls steam produced in the boiler. Steam is directed through a piping system to the application. Throughout the system, steam pressure is regulated using valves and monitored with steam pressure gauges. The fuel system consists of all equipment used to supply of fuel to generate the necessary heat. The equipment required in the fuel system depends on the type of fuel used in the system. Boilers Classification: There are a large number of boiler designs, but boilers can be classified according to the following criteria: 1. According to Relative Passage of water and hot gases: Water Tube Boiler: A boiler in which the water flows through some small tubes which are surrounded by hot combustion gases, e.g., Babcock and Wilcox, Stirling, Benson boilers, etc. Fire-tube Boiler: The hot combustion gases pass through the boiler tubes, which are surrounded by water, e.g., Lancashire, Cochran, locomotive boilers, etc. 2. According to Water Circulation Arrangement: Natural Circulation: Water circulates in the boiler due to density difference of hot and water, e.g., Babcock and Wilcox boilers, Lancashire boilers, Cochran, locomotive boilers, etc. Forced Circulation: A water pump forces the water along its path, therefore, the steam generation rate increases, Eg: Benson, La Mont, Velox boilers, etc. 3. According to the Use: Stationary Boiler: These boilers are used for power plants or processes steam in plants. Portable Boiler: These are small units of mobile and are used for temporary uses at the sites. Locomotive: These are specially designed boilers. They produce steam to drive railway engines. Marine Boiler: These are used on ships. 4. According to Position of the Boilers: Horizontal, inclined or vertical boilers 5. According to the Position of Furnace Internally fired: The furnace is located inside the shell, e.g., Cochran, Lancashire boilers, etc. Externally fired: The furnace is located outside the boiler shell, e.g., Babcock and Wilcox, Stirling boilers, etc. 6. According to Pressure of steam generated Low-pressure boiler: a boiler which produces steam at a pressure of 15-20 bar is called a low-pressure boiler. This steam is used for process heating. Medium-pressure boiler: It has a working pressure of steam from 20 bars to 80 bars and is used for power generation or combined use of power generation and process heating. High-pressure boiler: It produces steam at a pressure of more than 80 bars. Sub-critical boiler: If a boiler produces steam at a pressure which is less than the critical pressure, it is called as a subcritical boiler. Supercritical boiler: These boilers provide steam at a pressure greater than the critical pressure. These boilers do not have an evaporator and the water directly flashes into steam, and thus they are called once through boilers. 7. According to charge in the furnace. Pulverized fuel, Supercharged fuel and Fluidized bed combustion boilers.
  7. From the album: Engineering images 10

    A simple open cycle gas turbine consists of a compressor, combustion chamber and a turbine as shown in the below figure. The compressor takes in ambient fresh air and raises its pressure. Heat is added to the air in the combustion chamber by burning the fuel and raises its temperature. The heated gases coming out of the combustion chamber are then passed to the turbine where it expands doing mechanical work. Some part of the power developed by the turbine is utilized in driving the compressor and other accessories and remaining is used for power generation. Fresh air enters into the compressor and gases coming out of the turbine are exhausted into the atmosphere, the working medium need to be replaced continuously. This type of cycle is known as open cycle gas turbine plant and is mainly used in majority of gas turbine power plants as it has many inherent advantages. Advantages: Warm-up time: Once the turbine is brought up to the rated speed by the starting motor and the fuel is ignited, the gas turbine will be accelerated from cold start to full load without warm-up time. Low weight and size: The weight in kg per kW developed is less. Fuels: Almost any hydrocarbon fuel from high-octane gasoline to heavy diesel oils can be used in the combustion chamber. Open cycle plants occupies less space compared to close cycle plants. The stipulation of a quick start and take-up of load frequently are the points in favor of open cycle plant when the plant is used as peak load plant. Component or auxiliary refinements can usually be varied in open cycle gas turbine plant to improve the thermal efficiency and can give the most economical overall cost for the plant load factors and other operating conditions envisaged. Open cycle gas turbine power plant, except those having an intercooler, does not need cooling water. Therefore, the plant is independent of cooling medium and becomes self-contained. Disadvantages: The part load efficiency of the open cycle gas turbine plant decreases rapidly as the considerable percentage of power developed by the turbine is used for driving the compressor. The system is sensitive to the component efficiency; particularly that of compressor. The open cycle gas turbine plant is sensitive to changes in the atmospheric air temperature, pressure and humidity. The open cycle plant has high air rate compared to the closed cycle plants, therefore, it results in increased loss of heat in the exhaust gases and large diameter duct work is needed. It is essential that the dust should be prevented from entering into the compressor to decrease erosion and depositions on the blades and passages of the compressor and turbine. So damages their profile. The deposition of the carbon and ash content on the turbine blades is not at all desirable as it reduces the overall efficiency of the open cycle gas turbine plant.
  8. From the album: Engineering images 10

    The first gas-cooled reactors with carbon dioxide (CO2) gas as coolant at a pressure of 16 bar and graphite as moderator were developed in Britain. The fuel used is natural uranium, clad with an alloy of magnesium called Magnox. Several types of gas-cooled reactors have been designed and built, with England developing an advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) system. The AGR uses UO2 as the fuel clad in stainless steel tubes with CO2 gas a coolant and graphite as moderator. The graphite moderated helium-cooled HTGR (High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor) is designed to use U-233 as the fissile material and Thorium as fertile material. Initially, the system would have to be fueled with U-235, until sufficient U-233 is available for makeup fuel. Because of the very high melting point of graphite, these fuel elements can operate at very high temperatures and it is possible to generate steam at conditions equivalent to those in modern coal-fired power plant. The basic fuel forms are small spheres of fissile and fertile and fertile material as carbides, UC2 or ThC2. The fissile spheres are 0.035 to 0.050 cm in diameter and the fertile spheres are 0.06 to 0.07 cm in diameter. Each sphere is coated with two or three layers of carbon and silicon carbide to prevent fission products from escaping from the particles. Helium is suitable coolant in the sense that it is chemically inert, has good heat transfer characteristics and low neutron absorption. Being a monoatomic gas, it can produce more power for given temperatures in the Brayton cycle with higher thermal efficiency.
  9. From the album: Engineering images 10

    Magneto ignition system is a special type of ignition system with its own electric generator to provide the required necessary energy for the vehicle (automobile) system. It is mounted on the engine and replaces all components of the coil ignition system except the spark plug. A magneto when rotated by the engine is capable of producing a very high voltage and doesn’t need a battery as source of external energy. A schematic diagram of a high tension magneto ignition system is shown in the figure 1 under. The high tension magneto ignition system incorporates the windings to generate the primary voltage as well as to set up the voltage and thus does not require to operate the spark plug. Magneto ignition system can be either rotating armature type or rotating magneto type. In the first type, the armature consisting of the primary and secondary windings all rotate between the poles of a stationary magnet. In the second type the magnet revolves and windings are kept stationary. A third type of magneto called the polar inductor type in use. In the polar inductor type magneto both the magnet and the windings remain stationary but the voltage is generated by reversing the flux field with the help of soft iron polar projections, called inductors. The working principle of the magnetic ignition system is same as that of the coil ignition system. With the help of a cam, the primary circuit flux is changed and a high voltage is produced in the secondary circuit.
  10. From the album: Engineering images 10

    Most of the modern spark-ignition engines use battery ignition system. The essential components of battery ignition system are a battery, ignition switch, ballast resistor, ignition coil, breaker points, condenser, capacitor distributor and spark plugs. The breaker points, condenser, distributor rotor and the spark advance mechanisms are usually housed in the ignition distribution. The breaker points are actuated by a shaft driven at half engine speed for a four stroke cycle engine. The distributor rotor is directly connected to the same shaft. The system has a primary circuit of low-voltage current and a secondary circuit for the high-voltage circuit. The primary circuit consists of the battery, ammeter, ignition switch, primary coil winding and breaker points. The primary coil winding usually has approximately 240 turns of relatively heavy copper wire wound around the soft iron core of ignition coil. The secondary circuit contains the secondary coil windings, distributor, spark plug leads and the spark plug. The secondary windings consists of about 21000 turns of small, well insulate copper wire. When the ignition switch and the breaker points are closed a low-voltage current flows from the battery through the primary circuit and builts up a magnetic field around the soft iron core of the ignition coil. When the breaker points are opened by the action of the cam on the distributor shaft, the primary circuit is broken and the magnetic field begins to collapse, an induced current from the collapsing magnetic field flows in the same direction in the primary circuit as the battery current and charges the condenser which acts as a reservoir for the flowing current due to a rapidly collapsing magnetic field, high voltage is induced in the primary (it might be as high as 250 volts) and even higher in the secondary (10,000 to 20,000 volts). The high voltage in the secondary passes through the distributor rotor to one of the spark plug leads and into the spark plug. As soon as sufficient voltage is built up in the secondary to overcome the resistance of a spark plug, the spark arcs across the gap and the ignition of the combustible charge in the cylinder takes place. The induced current in the primary to overcome the resistance of a spark across the gap and the ignition of the combustible charge in the cylinder takes place. The induced current is the primary, as it was pointed out above flows in the same direction as it did before the breaker points opened up and charges the condenser. The increasing potential of the condenser retards and finally stops the flow of current in the primary circuit and the rapidly ‘backfires’ or discharges again through the primary, but in the direction opposite to the original flow of current. This rapid discharge of condense produces directional oscillation in the current flow in the primary circuit. This oscillation is weekend with every succeeding reversal in the current flow until the original potentials and the direction of current flow the primary circuit are established. The discharge of condenser by itself does not produce the spark, but only hastens the collapse of the magnetic field around the soft iron core. The condenser, which has a capacitance range from 0.15 to 0.24 mf in the automotive system, not only assists in the collapse f the magnetic field, but also prevents arcing at the breaker points by providing a place for the induced current to flow in the primary circuit. If the condenser is too small or too large, the breaker points will lead to excessive pitting will result the breaker points and the distributor must be carefully synchronized with the crankshaft of the engine to give the proper timing of the spark in each of the cylinders. The breaker is often refereed to as the timer, since the time or point in the cycle that the spark occurs depends upon the time of opening of the breaker points. The spark plug leads are called the ignition harness. Since the lead carry a very high potential, a special insulation is required to prevent a short circuit. Even with the special insulation, these leads are subjected to breakdowns which result in high-tension short circuits and to leakage that lower the voltage available at the work plug. Also, the leads should be shielded to aid in the prevention of radio interference.
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