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Mechanical Engineering

Chetan Pundlik Patil

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About Chetan Pundlik Patil

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    Second Year Mechanical Engineering
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    DKTE,Ichalkaranji

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  1. The V8 with a crossplane crankshaft (see below) is a common configuration for large automobileengines. V8 engines are rarely less than 3.0 L (183 cu in) in displacement and in automobile use have exceeded 8.2 L (500 cu in) in production vehicles, such as the American Cadillac Eldorado for instance. In some applications, e.g. industrial and marine V8 engines, displacement can be even larger. In automobiles V8 engines are used in a wide variety of cars, mostly they are utilized in more powerful segments and types of vehicles, such as for example the American muscle cars, and also in sports cars, luxury cars, pickup trucks, and sport utility vehicles. Many car manufacturers offer a V8 as an option in vehicles which have a V6 or straight-6 as standard engine. Hence V8-engined cars in many countries are a symbol of exclusivity and prestige, as they are only found in upscale, high-performance premium/luxuy vehicles. In some cases, V6 engines were derived from V8 designs by removing two cylinders while maintaining the same V-angle so they can be built on the same assembly lines as the V8s and installed in the same engine compartments with few modifications. Some of these employed offset crankpins driving connecting rod pairs, enabling a regular firing sequence. The traditional 90° big-bore V8 engine, as found on many American makes, is generally too wide and too long to fit in vehicles with a transverse engine front-wheel drive layout, so its applications are limited to rear-wheel drive sports cars, muscle cars, pony cars, luxury cars and light trucks. The shorter and occasionally narrower V6 engine is easier to fit in small engine compartments, but a few compact V8 engines are used in transverse FWD and transverse AWD engine configurations in larger cars, such as Cadillacs and Volvos. These engines often have tighter cylinder bore spacings, narrower cylinder bank angles, and other modifications to reduce their space requirements.[4] In motorsports V8s are common and have been a popular engine choice in purpose-designed engines for race-cars in many different types and classes of automotive racing, with use for example in the Formula-1 or the American NASCAR-racing league. They usually have flat-plane crankshafts, since a crossplane crankshaft results in uneven firing into the exhaust manifoldswhich interferes with engine tuning, and the crossplane's heavy crankshaft counterweights prevent the engine from accelerating rapidly. They are a common engine configuration in the highest echelons of motorsport, especially in the U.S. where it is required in IRL, ChampCar andNASCAR. V8 engines are also used in Australian motorsport, most notably in the V8 Supercars.Formula One began the 2006 season using naturally aspirated 2.4 L (146 cu in) V8 engines, which replaced the 3.0 L (183 cu in) V10 in a move to reduce costs and power. Medium-weight trucks tend to use the straight-6 configuration since it is simpler and easier to maintain, and because the straight-6 is an inherently balanced layout which can be scaled up to any size necessary. Large V8s are found in the larger truck and industrial equipment lines. Although it was the early choice for aircraft engines, the V8 engine is seldom used in modern aircraft engine as the typically heavy crankshaft counterweights are a liability. Modern light planes commonly use the flat-8 configuration instead as it is lighter and easier to air cool. In addition it can be manufactured in modular designs sharing components with flat-4 and flat-6 engines. One of the few V8 engines used for aircraft propulsion in the World War II years was the German inverted V8 configuration, air-cooled Argus As 10 powerplant. History[edit] 1909 Antoinette VII aircraft withAntoinette V8 engine V8 Vulcan engine, about 1919 Marc Birkigt's Hispano-Suiza 8A aviation V8 engine of World War IIn 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light but quite powerful gasoline injected V8 engine. He called it the 'Antoinette' after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of competition speedboats and early aircraft. The aviation pioneerAlberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte d'Azur and decided to try it on his 14-bisaircraft. Its early 24 hp (18 kW) at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg (121 lb) of weight was interesting, but proved to be underpowered. Santos-Dumont ordered a larger and more powerful version from Levavasseur. He changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp (37 kW) with 86 kg (190 lb) of weight, including cooling water. Its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years.[5] Levavasseur eventually produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII. Hubert Lathampiloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel.[6][7] However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the same engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet.[8] Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines, also, notably the one first flown successfully by Henry Farman in 1908. The V8 engine configuration became popular in France from 1904 onward, and was used in a number of aircraft engines introduced by Renault, and Buchet among others. Some of these engines found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a special car to beat the world speed record. They came up with two racing car engines built on a common crankcase and camshaft. The result was monstrous engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in (25,416 cc), good for 200 bhp (150 kW). Victor Hemery fixed that record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph (176.46 km/h). This car still exists. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc (216 cu in) V8 car from 1905 to 1906, but only 3 copies were made and Rolls-Royce reverted to a straight-6 design. In 1907 The Hewitt Motor Company built a large 5 passenger Touring Car. It was equipped with a hefty V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 inches and a stroke of 4 1/2 inches. The Hewitt was the first American Automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine.[9] De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc (474 cu in) automobile V8 in 1910 and displayed it in New York in 1912. It was produced only in small quantities, but inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit.[10] One of the first production automobile V8s was introduced in the United States in 1914 byCadillac, a division of General Motors which sold 13,000 of the 5.4 L (330 cu in) L-head engines in its first year of production. Cadillac has been primarily a V8 company ever since. Oldsmobile, another division of General Motors, introduced its own 4 L (244 cu in) V8 engine in 1916. Chevrolet introduced a 288 cu in (4.7 L) V8 engine in 1917 and installed in the Chevrolet Series D. In February 1915, Swiss automotive engineer Marc Birkigt designed the first example of the famous Hispano-Suiza V8 single overhead cam aviation engines, in differing displacements, using dual ignition systems and in power levels from 150 horsepower to some 300 horsepower, in both direct-drive and geared output shaft versions. Almost 50,000 "Hisso" V8 powerplants in total, as the engines became nicknamed, were built in Spain, France, the United Kingdom, Italy and even by Wright Aeronautical in the United States during World War I, and from their almost-exclusive use to power the important French SPAD S.VII (about 6,000 produced) and SPAD S.XIII (nearly 8,500 produced) fighter aircraft, and theRoyal Air Force's Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5 fighters (some 5,200 built) and Sopwith Dolphin (nearly 2,100 built) fighters, the H.S. 8-series overhead cam valvetrain vee-eight aviation engines are said to have powered roughly half of all Allied aircraft of the WW I era. By 1932, Henry Ford introduced one of his last great personal engineering triumphs: his "en block", or one piece, V8 engine. The production was the largest commercially available V8 to the masses. Offered as an option to an improved 4-cylinder Model "B" engine in a low priced car, this compact V8 power plant, with its down draft carburettor, enabled 1932 Ford to outperform all other popular competitors and was conceived as years ahead of its time. The Ford flathead V8 is still heralded today as one of the first pioneers in 'hot rod' engines.
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