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Air cooled, eg a small motor cycle (typically under 150CC) or the original VW Beetle.

Oil cooled. eg the early (about 1996 to 2006) Suzuki GSF 600 Bandit motorcycle (I own one.)

Water cooled, most modern motor vehicles. Uses water, often with the addition of anti-corrosion chemical, and perhaps boiling point modifiers,

Modified water cooled, where the water based coolant is replaced with a synthetic (Silicone based?) fluid that is not water based. Eg my GW 250 Inazuma where the water based coolant has been replaced by myself with a well known waterless coolant.

Phase change cooling - see below.

Fuel cooled. Where the fuel is supplied to the engine cooling system at cryogenic temperatures, typically below -150 centigrade. This is for 2 purposes. Firstly to provide a very high degree of cooling to very hot engine parts, and secondly to convert the fuel to a gaseous state for combustion in the engine. EG the Rocketdyne F-1 rocket as used as the first stage on the Saturn V launch vehicles, in which liquid hydrogen and oxygen were used (in separate circuits) to cool the thrust chamber and nozzle extension, before being combined and ignited as fuel.

There have also been attempts to use cooling systems that boil the coolant (water or alcohol) in the engine, and then condense it in radiators, before returning the liquid coolant back to the engine.I believe this was attempted on early versions of the Spitfre Super Marine fighter aircraft (made famous during WW2) and/or the Merlin engine that it was fitted with, that were subsequently abandoned in favour of a conventional water based cooling system.

Modern jet engines often have hollow turbine blades that contain a (small) amount of metallic sodium. The sodium acts as coolant for the blade. Once the engine warms up the sodium melts and then evaporates and condensed within the turbine blade, transfering heat from the tip of the blade to the base (that’s oil cooled.)

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